JAC Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 Challenges to Democracy
Haryana State Board HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 Challenges to Democracy Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Haryana Board 10th Class Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 Challenges to Democracy
Cartoon based Question (Page 103)
Each of these cartoons represents a challenge to democracy. Please describe what that challenge is. Also place it in one of the three categories mentioned in the first section.
1. Mubarak Re-elected: This represents the influence of the rich and powerful people in the election, the basic procedure of democracy.
Challenge – Foundational challenge.
2. Waiting for Democracy: This represents the existence of non-democratic regimes in the world. It tries to show that democracy does not come by the use of bullet.
Challenge- Foundational challenge.
3. Liberal Gender Equality: This represents that in principle we talk about gender equality, but in practice male dominance is observed in democracy.
Challenge – Challenge of expansion.
4. Campaign Money : This represents how money is used to influence decision¬making in a democracy by the rich and powerful people.
Challenge- Strengthening of democracy.
Table-based Questions (Pages 104, 105)
Complete the table given below:
|Case and context||Your description of the challenged for democracy in that situation|
|Mexico : Second free election after the defeat of PRI in 2000; defeated candidate alleges rigging.||Holding free and fair elections.|
|China: Communist party adopts economic reforms but maintains monopoly over political power. Introduction of democratic values,||Introduction of democratic values, decentralisation of power, democratisation of government bodies.|
|Pakistan : General Musharraf holds referendum, allegations of fraud in voter’s list.||Holding free and fair elections.|
|Iraq :Widespread sectarian violence, as the new government fails to establish its authority.||Negotiation between ethnic groups, holding multi-party free and fair elections.|
|South Africa: Mandela retires from active politics, pressure on his successor Mbeki to withdraw some concessions given to White minority.||Negotiation between ethnic parties, negotiations between majority and minority groups.|
|US, Guantanamo Bay : UN Secretary General calls this a violation of international law, US refused to respond.||Negotiations with the US, compensation for the victims.|
|Saudi Arabia: Women not allowed to take part in public activities, no freedom of religion for minorities.||Creating awareness among the people about democratic values, creating awareness for equality of citizens.|
|Yugoslavia : Ethnic tension between Serbs and Albanians on the rise in the province of Kosovo. Yugoslavia disintergrated.||Negotiations with ethnic groups, peace-keeping measures, holding gen I elections.|
|Belgium : One round of constitutional change taken place, but the Dutch speakers not satisfied; they want more autonomy.||Negotiations between linguistic groups, accommodation of genuine demands.|
|Sri Lanka : The civil war come to an end in 2009, the process of reconciliation between different communities begins.||Developing trust building measures.|
|US, Civil Rights: Blacks have won equal rights but are still poor, less educated and marginalised.||Making new policies and programmes for their welfare and their participation in the government.|
|Northern Ireland : The civil war has ended but Catholics and Protestants yet to develop trust.||Developing trust building measures, holding free and fair elections.|
|Nepal : The monarchy was abolished : The constituent assembly adopted a new constitution.||Holding free and fair elections.|
|Bolivia: Morales, a supporter of water struggle becomes Prime Minister, MNCs threaten to leave the country.||Solving the problem of water supply, negotiations with the MNCs.|
Now, that you have noted down all these challenges, let us group these together into some broad categories. Given below are some spheres or sites of democratic politics. You may place against each of these the specific challenges that you noted for one or more countries or cartoons in the previous section. In addition to that, write one item for India for each of these spheres. In case you find that some challenges do not fit into any of the categories given below, you can create new categories and put some items under them.
- Creating awareness among the citizens for secularism.
- Creating awareness among the citizens for gender equality.
- Making new policies and programmes for their upliftment.
- India-provision for uniform personal laws relating to family.
- Recalling all political leaders from exile.
- Release of Ang san Suu Kyi.
- Changing the form of government to a democracy.
Working of Institutions:
- Establishing civilian control over all governmental institutions.
- Formulating policies for running the government.
- Handing over power from the army to the elected representativos.
- India : control over police brutality.
- Holding the first multi-party elections.
- Holding a general election involving all political parties.
- Ensuring a free and fair multi-party election. .
- Holding free and fair elections for setting up a Constituent Assembly to draft the Constitution.
- India : increase scope of local institutions and state governments.
Setting up an effective administration in the country.
- Decentralization of power to the provinces/regions.
- India increases the scope of local institutions and state governments.
Holding negotiations between various ethnic groups.
- Holding negotiations between majority and minority groups.
- Negotiation8 between linguistic groups.
- Allowing the genuine demands.
- Negotiations between different groups and the government.
- India : resolving disputes in reservation quotas for minorities.
- Removing the ban on solidarity.
- Putting pressure on the US in the UN by adopting a
- resolution in the General Assembly.
- Other nations individually pressuring the US outside the UN.
- India:setting up the Lokpal.
- Taking back martial law.
- Implementing trust building measures.
- Stopping the violence.
- Maoists to surrender arms.
- India: stopping violence in Maoist affected areas.
- Negoiations with the MNCs, who are threatening to leave.
- India : negotiating various boundary disputes.
Let us group these again, this time by the nature of these challenges as per the classification suggested in the first section. For each of these categories, find at least one example from India as well. (Page 107)
1. Foundational challenge – Case and context of the following:
Chile. Poland. Myanmar. China, Saudi Arabia, Nepal.
Example from India : The problem of North-Eastern states and Jammu & Kashmir,
2. Challenge of expansion – Case and context of the following:
Ghana, Mexico, Iraq, Yugoslavia, Ireland.
Example from India: Giving more power and resources to the local government.
3. Challenge of deepening – Case and context of the following:
US, Guantanamo Bay, Belgium, Pakistan
Example from India: Giving more power to the Election Commission.
Now let us think only about India. Think of all the challenges that democracy faces in contemporary India. List those five that should be addressed first of all. The listing should be in order of priority, i.e. the challenge you find most important or pressing should be mentioned at number 1. and so on. Give one example of that challenge and your reasons for assigning it the priority. (Page 107)
|challenges to democracy:||Example:||Reasons for preference:|
|1. Corruption||Redtapism and bureaucracy||Results in violation of established rules and regulations.|
|2. CasLeiiuì||Caste-based reservati ons and social divisions.||Social divisions only weaken democracy and strike a blow at unity.|
|3. Communalism||Occasional rifts and riots.||A big threat to national integration and unity.|
|4. Inequalities and Poverty||Religious divide between communities.||Poverty is a threat to prosperity itself; inequalities perpetuate poverty.|
|5. Regionalism||Income inequalities.||Regional interests may come in conflict with national interest, creating social tension and differences.|
Any other problem of your choice. (Page 109)
Challenge: Generally, it has been observed that the teachers in colleges run their private tuitions. As and when their class is over, they leave the college and spend their time in earning money. Instead of teaching the students well in the class, they suggest them to join their coaching centres. This has led to a tendency among the students to bunk their classes. This has greatly affected the quality of education.
Reform Proposals :
Government should make it compulsory for the teachers to stay in the colleges, till these are closed for that day. The university officials should make surprise visits to check the teachers’ attendence, and if found absent during their classes, they should be heavily penalised. There should be provision of ‘Best Teacher Award’. The students will select one teacher from each subject, every year, from their colleges.
Here is your space for writing your own definition of good democracy.
(Write your name here) …………… ‘s definition of good democracy (not more than 50 words) (Page 112)
A good democracy is one, in which, the rulers elected by the people take major decisions under the framework of the Constitution to fulfil the wishes of the people, but if they do not fulfil their expectations, people can call them back. Features (use only as many points as you want. Try to compress it in as few points as possible)
1. Democracy should reduce differences, giving full respect to each other.
2. People should have a right to call their representatives back before time, if they do not perform well.
3. Once found guilty, the candidate should be banned from contesting elections.
4. Democracy should take care of socio-economic matters equally.
5. Democracy should provide sufficient representation to the minority and disadvantaged classes.