JAC Class 9th Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

JAC Board Class 9th Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

→ Introduction

  • Our country India is one of the twelve mega bio-diversity countries of the world.
  • With about 47,000 plant species, India occupies tenth place in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. There are about 15,000 flowering plants in India, which account for 6 per cent the world’s total number of flowering plants.

→ Natural Vegetation

  • Natural vegetation refers to a plant community which has grmvn naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time. This is also called Virgin Vegetation.
  • Virgin vegetation is of two types: (i) Endemic species: These plants species have originated from the country. (ii) Exotic species: These plants species have originated outside the country.

→ Factors affecting flora and fauna: Factors which influence the diversity of flora and fauna are as follows:

  • Relief: It includes land and soil.
  • Land: The nature of the land i.e., hilly, plateau or a plain, determines the kind of vegetation which will grow on it. Fertile lands are used for growing crops, vegetables and fruits. Rugged and uneven terrains generally develop either into grasslands or forests.
  • Soil: The soils also vary from place to place. Different kinds of soils provide different kinds of vegetation.

Climate: It includes temperature, photoperiod and precipitation.

  • Temperature: The character and extent of vegetation and distribution of fauna is mainly determined by temperature.
  • Photoperiod: Due to longer duration of sunlight, trees grow faster in summers.
  • Precipitation: Areas of heavy rainfall have more dense vegetation and fauna as compared to other areas of less rainfall.

→ Types of Vegetation

  • According to India State of Forest Report 2011, the forest cover in India is 21.05 per cent.
  • India has following types of vegetation: (i) Tropical evergreen forests, (ii) Tropical deciduous forests, (ii) Tropical thorn  (iv) orests and scrubs, (v) Montane forests, (vi) Mangrove forests.
  • Tropical Evergreen Forests: They are found in areas where the annual rainfall is over 200 cm with a short dry season.
  • Ebony, mahogany, rubber, cinchona and rosewood trees are useful commercial trees found in these forests.
  • Animals found here include rhinoceros, elephants, monkey, lemur, deer, many bird species etc.

→ Regions of these forests are western slopes of the Western Ghats, Lakshadweep islands, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, upper parts of Assam and some parts of the coasts of Tamil Nadu and Odisha.

JAC Class 9th Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

→ Tropical deciduous forests

  • Tropical deciduous forests or monsoon forests are the most widespread forests of India.
  • These types of forests are found in areas with rainfall ranging from 70 to 200 cm.
  • On the basis of the availability of water, these forests are further divided into moist and dry deciduous.
  • Moist deciduous forests are found mostly in the eastern part of the country, such as- north-eastern states, west Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, foothills of Himalayas and the leeward side of the Western Ghats. Teak is the most prominent species of these forests.
  • Dry deciduous forests are found in rainier parts of the Peninsular plateau and the plains of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

→ Tropical Thron Forests and Scrubs

  • These forests are found in north-western part of the country including semi-arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, some areas of Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Trees like acacia, palm, euphorbia and cactus are found in these areas. Fox, wolf, rats and mice, wild ass, horses, tiger, lion, camels and similar animals are found in these areas.

→ Montane Forests

  • Montane forests are found in mountainous areas of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Altitudinal distribution of montane forests are as follows: (i) Wet temperature forests, (ii) Temperate forests, (iii) Temperate grasslands, (iv) Alpine vegetation, (v) Alpine grasslands, (vi) Tundra vegetation.
  • Trees like oaks, chestnut, pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce, cedar, birch are found in these areas.
  • Animals found here include the Kashmir stag, spotted dear, wild sheep, Jack rabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, bear, rare red panda, sheep and goats with thick hair.

→ Mangrove Forests

  • These are found in the delta areas of rivers on the eastern coast in India (Ganga, Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri).
  • In the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta, Sundari trees providing durable timber are prominent. Other trees are palm, coconut, keora and agar.
  • Animals found here include the Royal Bengal tigers, snakes, turtles, gharials and crocodiles.

→ Wild Life

  • Like its flora, India is also rich in its fauna.
  • India has approximately 90,000 of animal species. The country has more than 2,000 species of birds. They constitute 13% of the world’s total species. There are 2,546 species of fish, which account for nearly 12% of the world’s stock. It also shares between 5 and 8 per cent of the world’s amphibians, reptiles and mammals.
  • Wildlife Protection Act was implemented in 1972 in India.
  • The Gir forest is the last remaining inhabitat of the Asiatic lion.
  • The Elephants are found in the hot wet forests of Assam, Karnataka and Kerala.
  • Indian bison, nilgai, chousingha, garel and different species of deer and some other animals are also found in India.
  • India is the only country in the world that has both tigers and lions.
  • The natural habitat of the Indian lion is the Gir forest in Gujarat.
  • Tigers are found in the forests of Madhya Pradesh, the Sundarbans of West Bengal and the Himalayan region.
  • Gharial is the only representative of a variety of crocodile found in India.
  • Peacocks, pheasants, ducks, parakeets, cranes and pigeons are some of the birds inhabiting the forests and wetlands of the country.
  • The wetlands of India are home to many migratory birds such as Siberian crane, flamingo, etc.
  • Due to excessive exploitation of plant and animal resources by human beings, the ecosystem has been disturbed.

→ The main cause of threat to ecosystem are:

  • Hunting by greedy hunters for commercial purpose,
  • Pollution due to chemical and industrial waste, acid deposits,
  • Reckless cutting of the forests to bring land under cultivation and habitation,
  • Introduction of alien species.

→ To protect the flora and fauna of the country, the government has taken many steps, such as:

  • Setting up of various biosphere reserves,
  • Providing financial and technical assistance to many botanical gardens,
  • Introduced eco-developmental projects,
  • National Parks (104), Wildlife Sanctuaries, (543) and Zoological Gardens have been set up.

→ But, in spite of all these steps, all of us must realise the importance of the natural eco-system for our own survival. It is possible if indiscriminate destruction of natural environment is put to an immediate end.

JAC Class 9th Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

→ Natural Vegetation/Virgin Vegetation: It refers to a plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and is left undisturbed by humans for a long time.

→ Wildlite: It refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or survive wild in an area without being introduced by humans.

→ Biodiversity: The existence of a large number of different kinds of animals and plants which makes a balanced environment.

→ Fern: A green plant with no flowers and a lot of long thin leaves.

→ Algae: Algae is a single or multi-cellular organism that has no roots, stems or leaves and is often found in water.

→ Endemic Species: Purely Indian species.

→ Exotic Plants or Species: Plants or species which have come from outside in India are called exotic plants or species.

→ Flora: It is used to denote plants of a particular region.

→ Fauna: It is used to denote animals of a particular region.

→ Feres: Extensive and covered with trees.

JAC Class 9th Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

→ Tropical Forests: These forests are dense and evergreen; they grow in areas receiving over 200 cm annual rainfall.

→ Deciduous Forests: Forests having trees that lose their leaves every year.

→ Thorn and Scrub Forests: These grow in areas receiving less than 70 cm of annual rainfall.

→ Ecosystem: It comprises the community of living organisms and the physical environment.

→ Biosphere: Part of the earth which is inhabited by living things.

→ Biosphere Reserve: A reserved forest area where all types of flora and fauna are conserved in their natural environment.

→ National Park: It is a reserved area meant for preserving natural vegetation, wildlife and natural beauty.

→ Wildlife Sanctuaries: Wildlife sanctuaries are that part of the natural forests where hunting and poaching of wild animals and birds is prohibited.

→ Zoological gardens: These are reserved gardens where wild animals are kept in man- made surroundings according to their natural habitat.

JAC Class 9 Social Science Notes

JAC Class 9th Social Science Notes Economics Chapter 3 निर्धनता : एक चुनौती

JAC Board Class 9th Social Science Notes Economics Chapter 3 निर्धनता : एक चुनौती

→ स्वतन्त्र भारत के समक्ष सर्वाधिक कठिन चुनौती निर्धनता की समस्या है।

→ भारत एवं विश्व में निर्धनता की प्रवृतियों को निर्धनता रेखा की अवधारणा के माध्यम से समझाया गया है।

→ जिन्हें हम निर्धन समझते हैं वे गाँवों के भूमिहीन श्रमिक या शहरों की भीड़ भरी झुग्गियों में रहने वाले लोग हो सकते हैं। ये निर्धन लोग दैनिक वेतनभोगी कर्मचारी या ढाबों पर काम करने वाले बाल श्रमिक अथवा भिखारी भी हो सकते हैं।

→ एक व्यक्ति तब निर्धन माना जाता है जब उसकी आय या उपभोग का स्तर इतना कम होता है कि वह अपनी मूलभूत न्यूनतम आवश्यकताओं को भी पूर्ण नहीं कर पाता है।

→ महात्मा गाँधी सदैव इस बात पर जोर देते थे कि भारत सही मायने में तभी स्वतन्त्र होगा जब यहाँ का सबसे निर्धन व्यक्ति भी मानवीय व्यथा से मुक्त होगा।

JAC Class 9th Social Science Notes Economics Chapter 3 निर्धनता : एक चुनौती

→ सामाजिक वैज्ञानिकों द्वारा निर्धनता को अनेक सूचकों जैसे आय और उपभोग के स्तर, निरक्षरता के स्तर, कुपोषण के कारण रोग प्रतिरोधी क्षमता की कमी, स्वास्थ्य सेवाओं की कमी, रोजगार के अवसरों की कमी, सुरक्षित पेयजल और स्वच्छता की कमी आदि के माध्यम से देखा जाता है।

→ निर्धनता के प्रति असुरक्षा एक माप है जो कुछ विशेष समुदायों या व्यक्तियों के आने वाले वर्षों में निर्धन होने या बने रहने की सम्भावना को प्रदर्शित करता है।

→ असुरक्षा का निर्धारण परिसम्पत्तियों, शिक्षा, स्वास्थ्य और रोजगार के अवसरों का जीविका के लिए विभिन्न समुदायों के पास उपलब्ध विकल्पों से होता है।

→ निर्धनता रेखा की अवधारणा के माध्यम से निर्धनता का आकलन सामान्य आय एवं उपभोग स्तर के आधार पर समझाया जाता है।

→ व्यक्तियों की मूल आवश्यकताएँ काल एवं स्थान के अनुसार भिन्न होती हैं इसीलिए काल एवं स्थान के अनुसार निर्धनता रेखा भी भिन्न होती है।

→ निर्धनता रेखा का आकलन सामान्यतः प्रत्येक 5 वर्ष बाद ‘राष्ट्रीय प्रतिदर्श सर्वेक्षण संगठन’ द्वारा किया जाता है।

→ भारत में अनुसूचित जाति व अनुसूचित जनजाति के परिवार निर्धनता के प्रति सर्वाधिक असुरक्षित हैं। आर्थिक समूहों ‘ में सर्वाधिक असुरक्षित समूह-ग्रामीण कृषि श्रमिक परिवार व अनियमित मजदूर परिवार हैं।

→ निर्धन परिवार के सभी लोगों को कठिनाइयों का सामना करना पड़ता है किन्तु कुछ लोगों, जैसे महिलाओं, वृद्धों और लड़कियों को अधिक कठिनाइयों का सामना करना पड़ता है।

JAC Class 9th Social Science Notes Economics Chapter 3 निर्धनता : एक चुनौती

→ वर्ष 2011-12 में भारत का निर्धनता अनुपात 22 प्रतिशत था, लेकिन सभी राज्यों में इसकी दर एक समान नहीं है।

→ भारत के उड़ीसा, असम, बिहार, बंगाल, त्रिपुरा और उत्तर प्रदेश राज्यों में निर्धनता अन्य राज्यों की अपेक्षा एक गम्भीर समस्या है।

→ पंजाब और हरियाणा राज्यों में उच्च कृषि वृद्धि दर के द्वारा, केरल में मानव संसाधन विकास द्वारा तथा पश्चिमी बंगाल में भूमि सुधार उपायों के माध्यम से निर्धनता को कम करने में सफलता हासिल की गई है।

→ भारत में निर्धनता के प्रमुख कारण हैं

  • ब्रिटिश औपनिवेशिक शासन के दौरान आर्थिक विकास का निम्न स्तर।
  • जनसंख्या में उच्च वृद्धि दर का पाया जाना।
  • गाँवों से शहरों की ओर पलायन की प्रवृत्ति ने नगरीय क्षेत्रों में निर्धनता को बढ़ावा दिया।
  • भूमि और संसाधनों का असमान वितरण।
  • भारत में भूमि संसाधनों की कमी और भूमि का उप विभाजन।
  • भारतीयों में सामाजिक दायित्वों और धार्मिक अनुष्ठानों की प्रवृत्ति का अधिक पाया जाना।
  • अत्यधिक ऋणग्रस्तता भी निर्धनता का प्रमुख कारण है।

→ भारत में निर्धनता उन्मूलन हेतु उपाय

  • भारत सरकार द्वारा आर्थिक संवृद्धि दर को प्रोत्साहन देना।
  • राष्ट्रीय ग्रामीण रोजगार गारण्टी अधिनियम, 2005 (मनरेगा) पारित किया गया।
  • राष्ट्रीय काम के बदले अनाज कार्यक्रम प्रारम्भ करना।
  • प्रधानमन्त्री रोजगार योजना शुरू करना।
  • ग्रामीण रोजगार सृजन योजना लागू करना।
  • स्वर्ण जयन्ती ग्राम स्वरोजगार योजना प्रारम्भ करना।
  • प्रधानमन्त्री ग्रामोदय योजना प्रारम्भ करना।
  • अंत्योदय अन्न योजना प्रारम्भ करना आदि।

→ देश की प्रगति के बाद भी निर्धनता उन्मूलन एक महत्वपूर्ण चुनौती है। आशा है कि अगले 10-15 वर्षों में निर्धनता उन्मूलन में अधिक प्रगति होगी जो प्रमुख रूप से उच्च आर्थिक संवृद्धि, सभी को प्राथमिक शिक्षा उपलब्धि पर जोर, जनसंख्या विकास में कमी, महिलाओं और आर्थिक रूप से कमजोर वर्गों के बढ़ते सशक्तीकरण से सम्भव हो सकेगा।

JAC Class 9 Social Science Notes

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 1 संसाधन एवं विकास

JAC Board Class 10th Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 1 संसाधन एवं विकास

पाठ सारांश

  • हमारे पर्यावरण में पाये जाने वाला ऐसा पदार्थ अथवा तत्व जिसमें मानवीय आवश्यकताओं की पूर्ति करने की क्षमता हो, संसाधन कहलाता है।
  • मानव स्वयं संसाधनों का एक महत्वपूर्ण भाग है। वह पर्यावरण में पाए जाने वाले पदार्थों को संसाधनों में परिवर्तित कर उनका उपयोग करता है।
  • संसाधनों को उनकी उत्पत्ति, समाप्यता, स्वामित्व एवं विकास के स्तर के आधार पर निम्नलिखित भागों में बाँटा जा सकता है

(अ) उत्पत्ति के आधार पर:

  1. जैव संसाधन, (मनुष्य, वनस्पतिजात, प्राणीजात आदि),
  2. अजैव संसाधन (चट्टानें व धातुएँ आदि)।

(ब) समाप्यता के आधार पर:

  1. नवीकरण योग्य, (सौर ऊर्जा, पवन ऊर्जा, जल, वन तथा वन्य जीवन आदि)
  2. अनवीकरण योग्य (खनिज व जीवाश्म ईंधन आदि)।

(स) स्वामित्व के आधार पर:

  1. व्यक्तिगत (भूमि, घर, बाग, चरागाह, तालाब व कुआँ आदि),
  2. सामुदायिक (चारण भूमि, श्मशान भूमि, खेल के मैदान व पिकनिक स्थल आदि),
  3. राष्ट्रीय (सड़कें, नहरें, रेल लाइनें, – खनिज पदार्थ, जल संसाधन आदि),
  4. अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय (तट रेखा से 200 समुद्री मील की दूरी से परे खुले महासागरीय संसाधन आदि)।

(द) विकास के स्तर के आधार पर:

  1. संभावी, (राजस्थान व गुजरात में पवन और सौर ऊर्जा की संभावना),
  2. विकसित (सर्वेक्षण के बाद उपयोग की गुणवत्ता व मात्रा का निर्धारण करने वाले संसाधन),
  3. भंडार (हाइड्रोजन ऊर्जा),
  4. संचित कोष (बाँधों में जल व वन आदि)

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 1 संसाधन एवं विकास

  • संसाधन मानव के जीवनयापन के साथ-साथ जीवन की गुणवत्ता बनाये रखने के लिए भी अति आवश्यक हैं।
  • मानव ने संसाधनों को प्रकृति की देन समझकर उनका अंधाधुंध उपयोग किया है जिससे अनेक समस्याएँ उत्पन्न हो गयी हैं, जिनमें पर्यावरण-प्रदूषण, भूमि-निम्नीकरण, भूमंडलीय-तापन व ओजोन-परत का क्षय आदि प्रमुख हैं।
  • विश्व स्तर पर उभरते पर्यावरण संरक्षण एवं सामाजिक-आर्थिक विकास की समस्याओं का समाधान ढूँढ़ने के लिए जून, 1992 में ब्राजील के रियो-डी-जेनेरो नामक शहर में प्रथम अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय पृथ्वी-सम्मेलन का आयोजन किया गया जिसमें 100 से भी अधिक देशों के राष्ट्राध्यक्षों ने भाग लिया।
  • संसाधनों के विवेकपूर्ण उपयोग के लिए उनका उचित प्रकार से नियोजन आवश्यक है।
  • 1968 ई. में ‘क्लब ऑफ रोम’ ने अंतर्राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर व्यवस्थित तरीके से संसाधन संरक्षण की वकालत की।
  • भारत में भूमि पर पर्वत, पठार, मैदान तथा द्वीप जैसी विभिन्न प्रकार की भू-आकृतियाँ पाई जाती हैं।
  • भारत का कुल भौगोलिक क्षेत्रफल 32.8 लाख वर्ग किमी. है लेकिन वर्तमान में इसके 93 प्रतिशत भाग के ही भू-उपयोग सम्बन्धी आँकड़े उपलब्ध हैं।
  • भारत की राष्ट्रीय वन नीति, 1952 द्वारा निर्धारित वनों के तहत 33 प्रतिशत भौगोलिक क्षेत्र वांछित है जो पारिस्थितिकी सन्तुलन बनाए रखने हेतु जरूरी है।
  • भारत में संसाधनों के नियोजन के लिए प्रथम पंचवर्षीय योजना से ही प्रयास किये जा रहे हैं।
  • एक लम्बे समय तक निरन्तर भूमि संरक्षण एवं प्रबन्ध की अवहेलना तथा निरन्तर भू-उपयोग के कारण भू-संसाधनों का निम्नीकरण हो रहा है जो एक गम्भीर समस्या है।
  • वनारोपण, चारागाहों का उचित प्रबंधन, पशुचारण नियंत्रण एवं खनन नियंत्रण आदि द्वारा भूमि निम्नीकरण की समस्याओं का समाधान किया जा सकता है।
  • मनुष्य की समस्त प्रारम्भिक आवश्यकताओं का आधार मृदा संसाधन है। मृदा जैव और अजैव दोनों प्रकार के पदार्थों से बनती है। खनिज व जैव-पदार्थों का प्राकृतिक सम्मिश्रण है।
  • भारत में उच्चावच, भू-आकृतियाँ, जलवायु एवं वनस्पति की विविधता के कारण अनेक प्रकार की मृदाओं का विकास हुआ है जो निम्नलिखित हैं
  1. जलोढ़ मृदा
  2. काली मृदा
  3. लेटराइट मृदा
  4. लाल व पीली मृदा
  5. मरुस्थलीय मृदा
  6. वन मृदा।
  • जलोढ़ मृदा देश की सबसे महत्वपूर्ण मृदा है। यह बहुत उपजाऊ होती है।
  • काली मृदा कपास की खेती के लिए प्रसिद्ध है।
  • मृदा अपरदन, मृदा की सबसे महत्वपूर्ण समस्या है। इससे मृदा की उर्वर-शक्ति का निरन्तर ह्रास होता रहता है।
  • मृदा के संरक्षण हेतु कई उपाय किये जा सकते हैं, जिनमें समोच्च रेखीय जुताई, पट्टीनुमा कृषि, सीढ़ीदार कृषि आदि प्रमुख हैं।
  •  पर्यावरण की पुनर्स्थापना के लिए लोगों द्वारा इसका प्रबन्धन आवश्यक है। सुखोमाजरी गाँव एवं झबुआ जिले में इस प्रकार का कार्य हुआ है। वहाँ के लोगों ने भूमि निम्नीकरण प्रक्रिया को समाप्त कर दिखाया है।

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 1 संसाधन एवं विकास

→ प्रमुख पारिभाषिक शब्दावली
1. संसाधन: हमारे पर्यावरण में उपलब्ध वे समस्त दार्थ या तत्व जो हमारी आवश्यकताओं को पूरा करने में प्रयोग किये जाते हैं और जिनका उपयोग करने के लिए तकनीकी 7 उपलब्ध है, जो आर्थिक रूप से संभाव्य एवं सांस्कृतिक रूप से स्वीकार्य हैं, संसाधन कहलाते हैं।

2. जैव संसाधन: वे संसाधन जिनका जैवमण्डल में एक निश्चित जीवन-चक्र होता है, जैव संसाधन (जैविक संसाध न) कहलाते हैं, जैसे-वनस्पति, मनुष्य, पशु-पक्षी, छोटे जीव, वन्य-प्राणी, मछली आदि।

3. अजैव संसाधन: वें संसाधन जिनमें एक निश्चित जीवन-क्रिया का अभाव होता है अर्थात् निर्जीव वस्तुओं से बने होते हैं, अजैव संसाधन कहलाते हैं, जैसे-लोहा, सोना, चाँदी, कोयला, चट्टानें आदि।

4. नवीकरण योग्य संसाधन: वे समस्त संसाधन जिनको भौतिक, रासायनिक अथवा यांत्रिक प्रक्रियाओं द्वारा नवीकृत या पुनः उत्पन्न किया जा सकता है, नवीकरण योग्य संसाधन कहलाते हैं। उन्हें पुनः पूर्ति योग्य संसाधन भी कहा जाता है, जैसे-सौर-ऊर्जा, पवन-ऊर्जा, जल, वन, कृषि आदि।

5. अनवीकरण योग्य संसाधन: वे समस्त संसाधन जिनको एक बार उपयोग में लेने के पश्चात् पुनः पूर्ति किया जाना सम्भव नहीं है, अनवीकरण योग्य संसाधन कहलाते हैं। ये संसाधन सीमित मात्रा में होते हैं, जैसे-कोयला, खनिज तेल, यूरेनियम, प्राकृतिक गैस आदि।

6. प्राकृतिक संसाधन: प्रकृति से प्राप्त विभिन्न पदार्थ या तत्व जिनका कोई मानवीय उपयोग होता है, प्राकृतिक संसाधन कहलाते हैं, जैसे-सूर्य का प्रकाश, खनिज, धरातल, मिट्टी, जल, वायु व वनस्पति। ये संसाधन प्रकृति द्वारा मनुष्य को दिए गए निःशुल्क उपहार हैं।

7. मानवीय संसाधन: मानव द्वारा विकसित किए गए संसाधन, मानवीय संसाधन कहलाते हैं, जैसे-भवन, गाँव, स्वास्थ्य, शिक्षा, मशीन, उद्योग, सड़क आदि।

8. संभावी संसाधन: किसी प्रदेश विशेष में वे समस्त विद्यमान संसाधन जिनका अब तक उपयोग नहीं किया गया है, संभावी संसाधन कहलाते हैं।

9. विकसित संसाधन: वे समस्त संसाधन जिनका सर्वेक्षण किया जा चुका है एवं उनके उपयोग की गुणवत्ता व मात्रा का निर्धारण किया जा चुका है, विकसित संसाधन कहे जाते हैं।

10. भंडार: हमारे पर्यावरण में उपलब्ध वे समस्त पदार्थ जो मानवीय आवश्यकताओं की पूर्ति कर सकते हैं परन्तु उपयुक्त प्रौद्योगिकी के अभाव में पहुँच से बाहर हैं, भंडार में सम्मिलित किये जाते हैं।

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 1 संसाधन एवं विकास

11. संचित कोष: भण्डार का वह हिस्सा जिसे तकनीकी ज्ञान की सहायता से उपयोग में लाया जा सकता हैं लेकिन जिसका प्रयोग अभी तक आरम्भ नहीं किया गया है, संचित-कोष कहलाता है।

12. पुनःचक्रीय संसाधन: ऐसे संसाधन जिनका उपयोग बार-बार किया जा सकता है, पुनः चक्रीय संसाधन कहलाते हैं, जैसे-लोहा, सोना, चाँदी आदि धातुएँ । इन धातुओं को बार-बार पिघलाकर विभिन्न रूपों में उपयोग किया जा सकता है।

13. अचक्रीय संसाधन: ऐसे संसाधन जिनका उपयोग बार-बार नहीं किया जा सकता, अचक्रीय संसाधन कहलाते हैं, जैसे-जीवाश्म ईंधन, कोयला, खनिज-तेल, प्राकृतिक गैस आदि संसाधन एक बार प्रयोग कर लेने के पश्चात् समाप्त हो जाते हैं।

14. सतत् पोषणीय विकास: सतत् पोषणीय विकास पर्यावरण को बिना हानि पहुँचाए किया जाने वाला विकास है। इसमें वर्तमान विकास प्रक्रिया का निर्धारण भविष्य की आवश्यकताओं को ध्यान में रखकर किया जाता है।

15. संसाधन नियोजन: संसाधनों के विवेकपूर्ण उपयोग के लिए सर्वमान्य रणनीति को संसाधन नियोजन कहते हैं।

16. संसाधन संरक्षण: प्राकृतिक संसाधनों के संरक्षण का अर्थ है-उनका नियोजित एवं विवेकपूर्ण ढंग से उपयोग करना ताकि हमें अपने संसाधनों का एक लम्बे समय तक पर्याप्त लाभ प्राप्त हो सके।

17. परती भूमि: वह भूमि जिस पर एक या अधिक ऋतुओं में कृषि नहीं की मई हो ताकि उसकी उर्वरता बढ़ सके, परती भूमि कहलाती है।

18. बंजर भूमि: भूमि का वह भाग जिसका कोई उपयोग नहीं होता है, बंजर भूमि कहलाती है।

19. शुद्ध (निवल) बोया गया क्षेत्र: एक कृषि वर्ष में कुल बोया गया क्षेत्र, शुद्ध (निवल) बोया गया क्षेत्र कहलाता

20. चारागाह: घास उत्पन्न करने वाली वह भूमि जिसका उपयोग पशुओं को चराने के लिए किया जाता है।

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 1 संसाधन एवं विकास

21. सकल कृषित क्षेत्र: एक कृषि वर्ष में एक बार से अधिक बोए गए क्षेत्र को शुद्ध .(निवल) बोए गए क्षेत्र में जोड़ देना सकल कृषित क्षेत्र कहलाता है।

22. भूमि निम्नीकरण: मानवीय क्रिया-कलापों के कारण भूमि की गुणवत्ता का कम हो जाना भूमि निम्नीकरण कहलाता है।

23. रक्षक मेखला: फसलों के बीच में वृक्षों की कतारें लगाना रक्षक मेखला कहलाता है।

24. मृदा: पृथ्वी की भूपर्पटी की वह सबसे ऊपरी परत जो बारीक विखण्डित चट्टान चूर्ण से बनी होती है और पेड़-पौधों के लिए उपयोगी होती है, मृदा कहलाती है।

25. बांगर: पुरानी जलोढ़ मृदा। इस प्रकार की मृदा में कंकर ग्रन्थियों की मात्रा अधिक होती है।

26. खादर: नवीन जलोढ़ मृदा। इस प्रकार की मृदा में बांगर मृदा की तुलना में अधिक बारीक कण पाये जाते हैं।

27. मृदा अपरदन: मृदा के कटाव एवं उसके बहाव की प्रक्रिया को मृदा अपरदन कहते हैं।

28. उत्खात: भूमि-ऐसी भूमि जो अवनलिकाओं के कारण कृषि योग्य नहीं रहती, उत्खात भूमि कहलाती है।

29. खड्ड-भूमि: चम्बल नदी के बेसिन में उत्खात भूमि को खड्ड-भूमि कहा जाता है।

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 1 संसाधन एवं विकास

30. चादर अपरदन: जब बहते हुए जल के साथ विस्तृत क्षेत्र की मृदा की ऊपरी परत बह जाती है तो उसे चादर अपरदन कहते हैं।

31. अवनलिका अपरदन: जब बहता हुआ जल मृत्तिकायुक्त मृदाओं को काटते हुए गहरी वाहिकाएँ बनाता है तो उन्हें अवनलिका अपरदन कहते हैं।

32. पवन अपरदन: पवन द्वारा मैदानी अथवा ढालू क्षेत्र से मृदा को उड़ा ले जाने की क्रिया पवन अपरदन कहलाती है।

33. समोच्च जुताई: ढोल वाली भूमि पर समोच्च रेखाओं के समानान्तर हल चलाने को समोच्च जुताई कहते हैं।

34. पट्टी कृषि: बड़े खेतों को पट्टियों में बाँटकर उनके बीच में फसल उगाई जाती है तथा पट्टियों में घास उगायी जाती है जिससे पवन के वेग का प्रभाव फसलों पर नहीं पड़ता। इस प्रकार से की जाने वाली कृषि को पट्टी कृषि कहते हैं।

35. निक्षालन: निक्षालन मृदा अपरदन की एक प्रक्रिया है जिसमें मृदा के तत्व भारी वर्षा के कारण बह जाते हैं।

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes

JAC Class 10 Social Science Important Questions Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

JAC Board Class 10th Social Science Important Questions Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
When was the King Birendra killed in a mysterious massacre of the royal family?
(a) 2000
(b) 2001
(c) 2002
(d) 2003
Answer:
(b) 2001

Question 2.
When did King Gyanendra dismiss the then prime minister and dissolve the Parliament?
(a) In February 2005
(b) In February 2006
(c) In March 2006
(d) In April 2006
Answer:
(a) In February 2005

JAC Class 10 Social Science Important Questions Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

Question 3.
Against whom the people of Bolivia led a successful struggle?
(a) Limited franchise
(b) Government’s apathy towards public facilities
(c) Privatisation of water
(d) Lack of educational facilities
Answer:
(c) Privatisation of water

Question 4.
Which financial agency/organisation pressurised the government to give up its control of municipal water supply?
(a) International Monetary Fund
(b) World Bank
(c) Central Bank of Bolivia
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) World Bank

Question 5.
What is not true regarding public interest groups?
(a) hey represent some common or general interest
(b) Members of the organisation may not benefit from the cause that the organisation represents
(c) They promote collective rather than selective good
(d) They aim to help their own members
Answer:
(d) They aim to help their own members

Question 6.
Who won Bolivia’s water war?
(a) People
(b) Government
(c) MNC
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) People

Question 7.
Most of the time democracy evolves through what?
(a) Consensus
(b) Popular struggles
(c) Both the above
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(b) Popular struggles

Question 8.
Which one of the following is not true about the pressure groups?
(a) They are directly engaged in party politics
(b) They take a political stance
(c) They organise protests
(d) They try to gain public support
Answer:
(d) They try to gain public support

Question 9.
Through what outstanding democratic conflicts are usually resolved?
(a) Mass mobilisation
(b) Institutions like the Parliament or the Judiciary
(c) Both the above
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(c) Both the above

JAC Class 10 Social Science Important Questions Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

Question 10.
Which of these is one of the agencies of organised politics?
(a) Political parties
(b) Pressure groups
(c) Movement groups
(d) All of the above
Answer:
(d) All of the above

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When was the movement for democracy in Nepal conducted? What was its aim?
Answer:
The movement for democracy in Nepal was conducted in April 2006. Its aim was to restore democracy.

Question 2.
What was SPA in Nepal?
Answer:
SPA was Seven Party Alliance of all the major political parties in the parliament of Nepal.

Question 3.
What was the outcome of the struggle of people in Bolivia?
Answer:
The contract with the MNC was cancelled and water supply was restored to the municipality at old rates.

Question 4.
What are pressure groups?
Answer:
Pressure groups are organizations that attempt to influence government policies.

Question 5.
How are most of the trade unions and students’ union are established or afflicted in India?
Answer:
Most of the unions and students’ organization in India are either established or afflicted to one or other political party e.g. ABVP (BJP), NSUI (Congress).

Question 6.
Some parties grow out movements. Give one example.
Answer:
When the Assam movement led by students against the ‘foreigners’ came to an end, it led to the information of the Asom Gana Parishad.

JAC Class 10 Social Science Important Questions Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

Question 7.
Which organization led the protest against water privatisation in Bolivia?
Answer:
FEDECOR led the protest against water privatisation in Bolivia.

Question 8.
Name any two sectional interest groups.
Answer:
Two sectional interest groups of India are Hind Mazdoor Sabha and Bengal Jute Mill Workers’ Union.

JAC Class 10 Social Science Important Questions Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

Question 9.
Who were Maoists?
Answer:
Those communists who believed in the ideology of Mao, the great leader of the Chinese Revolution were called Maoists.

Question 10.
Give one difference between Nepal and Bolivia movements.
Answer:
The movement in Nepal was to establish democracy, while the struggle in Bolivia involved claims on an elected, democratic government.

JAC Class 10 Social Science Important Questions

JAC Class 10 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

JAC Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

JAC Class 10th Civics Popular Struggles and Movements Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
In what ways do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics?
Answer:
Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in a variety of ways:

  1. They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals and their activity by carrying out information campaigns, organizing meetings, file petition, etc.
  2. They often organize protest activity like strikes or disrupting government programs.
  3. Business groups often employ professional lobbyists or sponsors expensive advertisements.
  4. In some instances, the pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties.
  5. Sometimes political parties grow out of movements.
  6.  In most cases, the relationship between parties and interest or movement groups is not so direct.

Question 2.
Describe the forms of relationship between pressure groups and political parties?
Answer:
The relationship between political parties and pressure groups can take different forms. Pressure groups are often formed and led by politicians and political parties. Most trade unions and students organisations in India are either established by or affiliated to one or the other major political party. Political parties sometimes grow out of movements. Parties like DMK and AIADMK were formed this way. Many a times the issues raised by pressure or movement groups are taken up by political parties leading to a change in the policies of the parties.

JAC Class 10 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

Question 3.
Explain how the activities of pressure groups are useful in the functioning of a democratic government.
Answer:

  1. It may initially appear that it is not healthy for groups that promote the interest of one section to have influence in democracy.
  2. It may seem that these groups wield power without responsibility!
  3. Pressure groups and movements may not get their funds and support from the people.
  4. Putting pressure on the rulers is not unhealthy activity in a democracy as long as everyone gets this opportunity.
  5. Public interest groups and movements perform a useful role in countering this useful role or countering this undue influence and reminding the government of the needs and concerns of ordinary citizens.

Question 4.
What is a pressure group? Give a few examples.
Answer:
A pressure group is an organisation which attempts to influence government policies through protests and demonstrations. Pressure groups are formed when people with similar opinions get together for similar objectives. Examples of pressure groups are FEDECOR and BAMCEF.

Question 5.
What is the difference between a pressure group and a political party?
Answer:

Pressure Group Political Party
(i) They attempt to influence gavernment policies. (i) They aim to directly control or share power.
(ii) People with common interest come together to achieve a common objective. (ii) It is directly answerable to the people.

Question 6.
Organisations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers, and lawyers are called ……….. groups.
Answer:
Sectional Interest

Question 7.
Which among the following is the special feature that distinguishes a pressure group from a political party?
(a) Parties take political stances, while pressure groups do not bother about political issues.
(b) Pressure groups are confined to a few people, while parties involve larger number of people.
(c) Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do.
(d) Pressure groups do not seek to mobilise people, while parties do.
Answer:
(c) Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do.

Question 8.
Match List I (organisations and struggles) with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:

List I List II
1. Organisations that seek to promote the interests of a particular section or group A. Movement
2. Organisations that seek to promote common interest B. Political parties
3. Struggles launched for the resolution of a social problem with or without an organisational structure C. Sectional interest groups
4. Organisations that mobilise people with a view to win political power D. Public interest groups
1 2 3 4
(a) C D B A
(b) C D A B
(c) D C B A
(d) B C D A

Answer:
(b) C,D,A and B

Question 9.
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:

List I List II
1. Pressure group A. Narmada Bachao Andolan
2. Long-term movement B. Asom Gana Parishad
3. Single issue movement C. Women’s movement
4. Political party D. Fertilizer dealers’ association
1 2 3 4
(a) D C A B
(b) B A D C
(c) C D A B
(d) B D C A

Answer:
(a) D,C,A and B

Question 10.
Consider the following statements about pressure groups and parties.
A. Pressure groups are the organised expression of the interests and views of specific social sections.
B. Pressure groups take positions on political issues.
C. All pressure groups are political parties.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) A, B, and C
(b) A and B
(c) B and C
(d) A and C
Answer:
(b) A and B

JAC Class 10 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

Question 11.
Mewat is one of the most backward areas in Haryana. It used to be a part of two districts, Gurgaon and Faridabad. The people of Mewat felt that the area will get better attention if it were to become a separate district. But political parties were indifferent to this sentiment. The demand for a separate district was rais’ed by Mewat Educational and Social Organisation and Mewat Saksharta Samiti in 1996. Later, Mewat Vikas Sabha was founded in 2000 and carried out a series of public awareness campaigns. This forced both the major parties, Congress and the Indian National Lok Dal, to announce their support for the new district before the assembly elections held in February 2005. The new district came into existence in July 2005. In this example what is the relationship that you observe among movement, political parties and the government? Can you think of an example that shows a relationship different from this one?
Answer:
From the example of Mewat, we can infer that movements take up issues which have been ignored by political parties. Political parties may then be influenced by these demands when they grab their own manifesto. Finally, the party which comes to power ends up implementing steps which fulfil these demands.

The six – year long Assam movement (19791985), led by the All Assam Students Union (AASU), was aimed against the infiltration of foreigners from Bangladesh into Assam. At the end of this movement, the state assembly was dissolved, the government was dismissed, and fresh elections were held. The Asom Gana Parishad, formed out of the AASU, contested and won the elections, forming the Government of Assam. In this example, we see a political party being formed out of a pressure group, which then goes on to form the government.

JAC Class 10 Social Science Solutions

JAC Class 7 Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 8 A Shirt in the Market

JAC Board Class 7 Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 8 A Shirt in the Market

→ A chain of markets links the producer of cotton to the buyer of the shirt in the supermarket. Buying and selling takes place at every step in the chain.

→ A Cotton Farmer in Kurnool:

  • Cultivation of cotton is a very tough and difficult job. Cultivation of cotton is very expensive and requires high levels of inputs such as fertilisers and pesticides.
  • The farmers have to bear heavy expenses on account of these. The small farmers need to borrow money to meet these expenses.
  • Local traders were giving loans to farmers and in return they were buying their cottons from them at cheaper rates. They were very clever and making good amount of money.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 8 A Shirt in the Market

→ The Cloth Market of Erode

  • Different varieties of cloth are sold in Erode’s bi-weekly cloth market in Tamil Nadu.
  • It is one of the largest cloth markets in the world.
  • Cloth that is made by weavers in the villages around is also brought in the market for sale. Offices of cloth merchants are present in the market who buy this cloth. Other traders from many south Indian towns also come and purchase cloth in this market.
  • On market days, weavers bring cloth that has been made on order from the merchant. These merchants supply cloth on order to garment manufacturers and exporters around the country. Merchants purchase the yam and give instructions and directions to the weavers about the kind of cloth that is to be made.

→ Putting-out System – Weavers Producing Cloth at Home

  • The merchant distributes and hand out the work among the weavers based on the orders he has received for cloth. The merchant give yam to the weavers and in turn the weavers supply him the cloth.
  • Two advantages are there for the weavers. They do not have to spend their money on purchase of yam. Second, the problem of selling the finished cloth is taken care of.
  • But this dependence on the merchants for raw materials and markets means that the merchants has a lot of power. They give orders for what is to be made and they pay a very low price for making the cloth.
  • The weaver never know for whom they are making the cloth or at what price it will be sold. At the cloth market, the merchants sell the cloth to the garment factories. The market works in favour of the merchants most of the time.
  • Weavers invest all their savings or borrow money at high interest rates to buy looms. He cannot work alone so he takes the help
    of another adult family member. They work very hard and earn very nominal amount.
  • The arrangement between the merchant and the weavers is an example of putting-out system where the merchant supplies the raw material and receives the finished product. It is prevalent in the weaving industry in most regions of India.

→ The Garment Exporting Factory Near Delhi

  • The Erode merchant supplies the cotton cloth produced by the weavers to a garment exporting factory near Delhi. The garment exporting factory will use the cloth to make shirts.
  • The shirts will be exported to foreign buyers who are from the US and Europe who run a chain of stores.
  • They do business on their own term and conditions. They demand the lowest prices from the supplier and set high standards for quality of production and timely delivery. Any defects or delay in delivery is dealt with strictly. Hence, the exporter tries his best to meet the conditions.
  • The exporters having these conditions and pressures in turn cut the costs of weavers and maximize their own profit and supply the garment to foreign buyers at cheap rates.

→ The Shirt in the United States
The big businessperson who bought the shirts from the garment exporters in Delhi earn a huge amount of profit. Although, he spent some amount on advertising, storage, etc.

→ Who are the Gainers in the Market?
There were people who made profits in the market and there were some who did not gain as much from this buying and selling. Despite they have been toiled very hard, they earned very little.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 8 A Shirt in the Market

→ Market and Equality

  • Democracy is also about getting a fair wage in the market.
  • The foreign businessperson made maximum profits in the market But, the garment exporter made only moderate profits. Whereas, file workers earned so less at the garment export factory that are barely enough to cover their day- to-day needs. Similarly, the small cotton former and tiie weaver at Erode put in long hours ofhard work but they did not get a lair price in the market for what they produced. The merchants or traders are somewhere in between.
  • Mostly the rich and the powerful that get the maximum earnings from the market. These are the people who have money and own the factories, the large shops, large land holdings, etc. The poor have to depend on the rich and the powerful for different things. They have to depend for loans, for raw materials and marketing of their goods and most often for employment.
  • Due to this dependency and inequality, the poor people are exploited in the market.
  • To overcome these situations, cooperatives of producers are formed and ensures that laws are followed strictly.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Notes

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 5 When People Rebel 1857 and After

JAC Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 5 When People Rebel 1857 and After

JAC Class 8th History When People Rebel 1857 and After InText Questions and Answers

Page 52

Question 1.
Imagine you are a sepoy in the Company army, advising your nephew not to take employment in the army. What reasons would you give? The reasons would be:
Answer:

  1. The working conditions are very harsh and bitter.
  2. The salary and other allowances are very low.
  3. The person who will be recruited in the army might be posted overseas.
  4. They do not have any respect for Indian religious beliefs and sentiments.

Page 55

Question 2.
What were the important concerns in the minds of the people according to Sitaram and according to Vishnubhatt?
Answer:
The important concerns in the minds of the people according to:
Sitaram

  1. The main reason of sepoy’s revolt was the seizing of Oudh.
  2. The cartridge of rifles were grease with the fat of cows and pigs and the sepoys would challenge the British.

Vishnubhatt

  1. There were 84 new rules which would affect them unfavourably.
  2. Kings and princes would protest the Company’s rule.
  3. Major disturbance and turbulence would occur.

Question 3.
What role did they think the rulers were playing? What role did the sepoys seem to play?
Answer:
Role played by the rulers:
The rulers sent their forces to help and support the British. They never thought about the poor people and led a luxurious and comfortable life. Role played by the sepoys: They mutinied in many places of India. They killed several British officers and then sacrificed their life as well.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 5 When People Rebel 1857 and After

Question 4.
Why did the Mughal emperor agree to support the rebels?
Answer:
The Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, agreed to support the rebels because he wanted to rule the whole country as an independent ruler. The emperor was also against the policies of the British and in the mutiny, the emperor got the chance to do so.

Question 5.
Write a paragraph on the assessment he may have made before accepting the offer of the sepoys.
Answer:
As the Revolt of 1857 spread the sepoy regiments seized Delhi. Bahadur Shah Zafar had neutral views about religion. So some Indian kings and regiments accepted him as the Emperor of India. When the sepoys arrived at his court he asked them why they had come. He told them that he did not have the means to maintain them. Initially he was indecisive. He yielded to the demands of the sepoys when they told him that it was not possible for them to win against the East India Company without his support.

Page 59

Question 6.
Make a list of places where the uprising took place in May, June and July 1857.
Answer:
List of places where the uprising took place in May, June and July 1857 are: Meerut Delhi Faizabad Bareilly Lucknow Bulandshahar Kanpur Jhansi

Page 64

Question 7.
Imagine you are a British officer in Awadh during the rebellion. What would you do to keep your plans of fighting the rebels a top secret.
Student need to do it on their own. (Hint: I would take quick and sudden actions without revealing the plan of actions.)

JAC Class 8th History When People Rebel 1857 and AfterTextbook Questions and Answers

( Let’s Recall)

Question 1.
What was the demand of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi that was refused by the British?
Answer:
After the death of Rani Lakshmibai’s husband, she wanted her adopted son to be recognised as the heir to the kingdom. But this demand was refused by the British.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 5 When People Rebel 1857 and After

Question 2.
What did the British do to protect the interests of those who converted to Christianity?
Answer:
The British passed a law to protect the interests as allowing Indians to inherit the property of their ancestors those who converted to Christianity.

Question 3.
What objections did the sepoys have to the new cartridges that they were asked to use?
Answer:
The new cartridges that they were asked to use were coated with the fats of cows and pigs and the sepoys objected as it was related to the religious sentiments.

Question 4.
How did the last Mughal emperor live the last years of his life?
Answer:
The last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar had a very miserable and vulnerable life. He was given life imprisonment for supporting the revolt against the British. He and his wife were sent to jail in Rangoon. He died there after 4 years.

(Let’s Discuss)

Question 5.
What could be the reasons for the confidence of the British rulers about their position in India before May 1857?
Answer:
The reasons for the confidence of the British rulers about their position in India before May 1857 were:
(i) Nawabs and rajas had lost their authority and honour. Residents had been stationed in many courts, the freedom of the rulers reduced, their armed forces disbanded and their revenues and territories taken away.

  1. Awadh was one of the last territories to be annexe(d) In 1801, a subsidiary alliance was imposed on Awadh and in 1856 it was taken over.
  2. Governor-General Canning decided that Bahadur Shah Zafar would be the last Mughal king in 1856 and after his death none of his descendants would be recognised as kings and they would just be called princes.

Question 6.
What impact did Bahadur Shah Zafar’s support to the rebellion have on the people and the ruling families?
Answer:
Bahadur Shah Zafar’s support to the rebellion boosted the morale of the people and the ruling families:

  1. The people of the towns and villages also rose up in rebellion and rallied around local leaders, zamindars and chiefs who were prepared to establish their authority and fight the British.
  2. Nana Saheb, the adopted son of the late Peshwa Baji Rao, gathered armed forces and expelled the British garrison from the city.
  3. Birjis Question adr, the son of the deposed Nawab Wajid Ali Shah, was proclaimed the new Nawab in Lucknow. He too acknowledged the suzerainty of Bahadur Shah Zafar.
  4. In Jhansi, Rani Lakshmibai joined the rebel sepoys and fought the British along with Tantia Tope, the general of Nana Saheb.

Question 7.
How did the British succeed in securing the submission of the rebel landowners of Awadh?
Answer:
The British tried their best to win back the loyalty of the people. They announced rewards for loyal landholders as they would be allowed to continue to enjoy traditional rights over their lands. Those who had rebelled were told that if they submitted to the British and if they had not killed any white people, they would remain safe and their rights and claims to land would not be denied.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 5 When People Rebel 1857 and After

Question 8.
In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857?
Answer:
The important changes that were introduced by the British are as follows:
(i) In 1858, the British Parliament passed a new Act and transferred the powers of the East India Company to the British Crown in order to ensure a more responsible management of Indian affairs.

(ii) All ruling chiefs of the country were assured that their territory would never be annexed in future. They were allowed to pass on their kingdoms to their heirs, including adopted sons. However, they were made to acknowledge the British Question ueen as their Sovereign Paramount.

(iii) It was decided that the proportion of Indian soldiers in the army would be reduced and the
number of European soldiers would be increased It was also decided that more soldiers would be recruited from among the Gurkhas, Sikhs and Pathans instead of recruiting soldiers from Awadh, Bihar, central India and south India.

(iv) The land and property of Muslims was confiscated on a large scale and they were treated with suspicion and hostility. The British believed that they were responsible for the rebellion in a big way.

(v) They decided to respect the religious and social practices of the people in India.

(vi) Policies were made to protect landlords and zamindars and give them security of rights over their lands.

(Let’s Do)

Question 9.
Find out stories and songs remembered by people in your area or your family about San Sattavan ki Ladaai. What memories do people cherish about the great uprising?
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 5 When People Rebel 1857 and After

Question 10.
Find out more about Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi. In what ways would she have been an unusual woman for her times?
Answer:
Lakshmibai, Rani of Jhansi (1835-1858), a leader of Indian mutiny of 1857. Bom in Varanasi in northern India, Lakshmi Bai was married to Gangadhar Rao, the ‘ ruler of Jhansi The raja died in 1853, leaving no direct male heir, but had adopted a son without a consent of the British East India Company. The adopted son’s claim to the throne was disregarded by James Dalhousie, governor-general of India. When Jhansi fell, Lakshmibai joined the rebel leader Tantiya Tope to fight at kalpi.

When kalpi, too, fell to the British, they escaped to the forest and captured Gwalior Fort in 1858. Here, supported by the Gwalior forces, she continued to fight the British until shot dead during a battle close to the fort. She was 23 years ol(d) Romanticized as a heroine and freedom fighter, and apparently gaining the respect of her enemies for her bravery, Lakshmibai was the one of the best leaders of the Jhansi. Rani Lakshmibai was the great queen of our Indian history she remembered in all time in every heart.

JAC Class 8th History When People Rebel 1857 and After Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Awadh was annexed in the year
(a) 1823
(b) 1843
(c) 1856
(d) 1866
Answer:
(c) 1856

Question 2.
The Sepoy’s mutiny of 1857 started from………
(a) Meerut
(b) Delhi
(c) Lucknow
(d) Kolkata
Answer:
(a) Meerut

Question 3.
The sepoys felt that should rule India instead of the British.
(a) Wajid Ali Shah, the nawab of Oudh
(b) The Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar
(c) Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore
(d) Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi
Answer:
(b) The Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 5 When People Rebel 1857 and After

Question 4.
Birjis Question adr’s mother took part in organizing the uprising against the British. Her name was
(a) Noor Jahan
(b) Razia Sultan
(c) Begum Hazrat Mahal
(d) Begum Zeenat Mahal
Answer:
(c) Begum Hazrat Mahal

Question 5.
The Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar died in…….. .
(a) The Audience Hall
(b) The Royal palace
(c) The Mosque
(d) The Rangoon jail
Answer:
(d) The Rangoon jail

Question 6.
Nana Saheb was living in/near ……..when the mutiny started.
(a) Jhansi
(b) Kanpur
(c) Gwalior
(d) Meerut
Answer:
(b) Kanpur

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 5 When People Rebel 1857 and After

Question 7.
Lucknow was recaptured by the British army in……..
(a) March 1858
(b) Jume 1859
(c) October 1858
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) Jhansi

Question 8.
Rani Lakshmibai was defeated and killed in…… .
(a) June 1858
(b) July 1859
(c) June 1859
(d) May 1858
Answer:
(a) June 1858

Question 9.
In the Mandia region of Madhya Pradesh, of Ramgarh raised and led an army of four thousand against the British who had taken over the administration of the state.
(a) Rani Lakshmibai
(b) Nana Saheb
(c) Tantia Tope
(d) Rani Avantibai Lodhi
Answer:
(d) Rani Avantibai Lodhi

Question 10.
………. escaped to the jungles of central India and continued to fight a guerrilla war with the support of many tribal and peasant leaders.
(a) Mangal Pandey
(b) Tantia Tope
(c) Wajid Ali
(d) Birjis Question adr
Answer:
(b) Tantia Tope

Very Short Answer Type Question

Question 1.
Name the person who translated the memoirs of Sitaram Pande into English.
Answer:
Norgate translated the memoirs of Sitaram Pande into English.

Question 2
Who was the son of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah?
Answer:
Birjis Question adr was the son of the Nawab Wajid Ali Shah.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 5 When People Rebel 1857 and After

Question 3
When was Mangal Pandey hanged to death and why?
Answer:
On 29 March 1857, Mangal Pandey, a young soldier was hanged to death for attacking his officers in Barrackpore.

Question 4.
Who was Tantia Tope?
Answer:
Tantia Tope was the General of Nana Saheb.

Question 5.
What was the first step taken by the Company towards ending the Mughal dynasty?
Answer:
The first step taken by the Company towards ending the Mughal dynasty was to remove the name of the Mughal Emperor from the coins minted by the Company.

Question 6.
Name the person who took charge of a large force of fighters who came to Delhi.
Answer:
A soldier from Bareilly, Bakht Khan took charge of a large force of fighters who came to Delhi.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 5 When People Rebel 1857 and After

Question 7.
What do you mean by mutiny?
Answer:
When soldiers as a group disobey their officers in the army then it is called mutiny.

Question 8.
Name any two smaller rulers who acknowledged the authority of Bahadur Shah Zafar.
Answer:
Two smaller rulers who acknowledged the authority of Bahadur Shah Zafar were Nana Saheb and Birjis Question adr.

Question 9.
Who were ‘Viceroy’?
Answer:
The Governor General of India was given the title of ‘Viceroy’ which means a personal representative of the Crown.

Question 10.
For what reason did the British treat Muslims with suspicion and hostility?
Answer:
The British believed that Muslims were responsible for the rebellion in a big way, hence they treated Muslims with suspicion and hostility.

Question 11.
Why were the powers of the East India Company transferred to the British Crown?
Answer:
The powers of the East India Company were transferred to the British Crown in order to ensure a more responsible management of Indian affairs.

Short Answer Type Question

Question 1.
What was the condition for the ruling chiefs who could pass on their kingdoms to their heirs?
Answer:
All ruling chiefs of the country were assured that their territory would never be annexed in future. They were allowed to pass on their kingdoms to their heirs which includes adopted sons. But, they were made to acknowledge the British ueen as their Sovereign Paramount.

Question 2.
What do you understand by Taiping Rebellion?
Answer:
Taiping Rebellion had started in 1850 and could be suppressed only by the middle of 1860s. Thousands of labouring, poor people were led by Hong Xiuquan to fight for the establishment of the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace. This was known as the Taiping Rebellion.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 5 When People Rebel 1857 and After

Question 3.
What were the social causes of the revolt?
Answer:
The British believed that Indian society had to be reforme(d) Many laws were passed to stop the practice of sati and to encourage the remarriage of widows. They did promotion of English- language education. Many Indians believed that the British were meddling and interfering in their social customs and their traditional way of life. Hence, revolted against the British rule.

Question 4.
The British made efforts to win back the loyalty of the people. What were they?
Answer:
The British tried their best to win back the loyalty of the people in the following ways:

  1. The British announced rewards for the loyal landlords who would be allowed to continue to enjoy traditional rights over their lands.
  2. Those who had rebelled were told that if they submit to the British and if they had not killed any white people then they would remain safe and their rights and claims to land would not be denied.

Question 5.
When the British established political power in India. What happened to the Nawabs and Rajas?
Answer:
When British established political power in India then:

  1. The Nawabs and Rajas lost their authority and honour.
  2. The freedom of the rulers reduced and British Residents were stationed in all the courts, their armed forces disbanded and territories taken away by stages.

Question 6.
Brief about on Subedar Sitaram Pande.
Answer:
Sitaram Pande was employed in 1812 as a sepoy in the Bengal Native Army. He served the English for 48 years and retired in 1860. He helped the British to suppress the rebellion though his own son was a rebel and was killed by the British in front of his eyes. On retirement, he was persuaded by Norgate his Commanding Officer to write his memoirs. He completed the writing in 1861 in Awadhi and Norgate translated it into English and published it under the title ‘From Sepoy to Subedar’.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 5 When People Rebel 1857 and After

Question 7.
Write the main provisions of the Act of 1858.
Answer:
The main provisions of the Act of 1858 were as follows:

  1. In order to ensure more responsible management of Indian affairs, powers of the East India Company were transferred to the British Crown.
  2. One of the British Cabinet member was appointed Secretary of State for India and was made responsible for all matters related to the governance of India.
  3. The title of Viceroy was given to the Governor-General of India which means a personal representative of the Crown.

Question 8.
Why do you think the Indian soldiers get angry at the British?
Answer:
The Indian soldiers got angry at the British because they were unhappy • about their salary, allowances and conditions of service. Some of the new rules violated their religious emotions and beliefs. Those were the days when many people in the country believed that if they crossed the sea they would lose their religion and caste. So, when in 1824 the sepoys were told to go to Burma by the sea route to fight for the Company, they refused to follow the order, though they agreed to go by the land route. They were severely punished In 1856, the Company passed a new law which stated that every new person who took up employment in the Company’s army had to agree to serve overseas if required.

Long Answer Type Question 

Question 1.
The British introduced reforms in the Indian society. What were they? How did people of India respond to them?
Answer:
British introduced the following reforms in the Indian society:
(i) Laws were passed to stop the practice of sati and to encourage the remarriage of widows.
(ii) Promotion of English-language education was done actively.
(iii) After 1830, the Company allowed Christian missionaries to function freely in its domain and even own land and property.
(iv) A new law was passed to make conversion to Christianity easier in 1850.
(v) Many Indians began to feel that the British were destroying and suppressing their religion, social customs and their traditional way of leading the life. They were not happy with some of the changes which the British brought.

Question 2.
How did the rebellion spread to other regions of the country?
Answer:
Due to the war with sepoys the position of the British became very weak in Delhi and they were almost defeated by the rebel force. Hence, there was no uprising for almost a week. After sometime a spurt of mutinies began in several parts of India. Regiment after regiment mutinied and took to join other troops at Delhi, Kanpur and Lucknow. The people of the towns and villages also rose up in rebellion. They rallied around local leaders, zamindars and chiefs who were prepared to establish their authority and fight the British.

Nana Saheb who lived near Kanpur gathered armed forces and expelled the British Garrison from the city. He proclaimed himself Peshwa and declared that he was a Governor under emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar. In Lucknow, Birjis Question adr was proclaimed the new Nawab. He too acknowledged the suzerainty of Bahadur Shah Zafar. In Jhansi, Rani Lakshmibai joined the rebel sepoys and fought the British along with Tantia Tope, the General of Nana Saheb.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 5 When People Rebel 1857 and After

A similar situation of rebel also developed in the region of Awadh. Many new leaders also came up and joined the revolt. Ahmadullah Shah, a maulvi from Faizabad, raised a large force of supporters. He came to Lucknow to fight the British. In Delhi, a large number of religious warriors came together to wipe out the British. A soldier from Bareilly, Bakht Khan took charge of a large force of fighters who came to Delhi. An old zamindar, Kunwar Singh in Bihar, joined the rebel sepoys and fought with the British for several months.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions