JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations

JAC Board Class 7th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations

JAC Class 7th History Eighteenth Century Political Formations InText Questions and Answers

Page 139

Question 1.
See Chapter 4, Table 1. Which group of people challenged Mughal authority for the longest time in Aurangzeb’s reign?
Answer:
The Marathas under the leadership of Shivaji challenged Mughal authority for the longest time in Aurangzeb’s reign.

Page 144

Question 2.
In trying to consolidate their rule, why did Mughal subadars also want to control the office of diwan?
Answer:
In trying to consolidate their rule, Mughal subadars also want to control the office of diwan because they were very ambitious, aspiring and power hungry and diwan office was the main point.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations

Page 148

Question 3.
What is the Khalsa? Do you recall reading about it in Chapter 8?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh in the seventeenth century, organised group of warriors known as Khalsa and requested the presence of the institution of Sikhs. Five persons were chosen called as Panj Pyare who took the water of immorality. There are five features which distinguish Sikhs from others.,which are known as 5Ks. These are Kesh (hair), Kara (iron bracelet), Kangha (comb), Kripan (dagger) and Kacchera (underwear).

Page 152

Question 4.
Imagine, you are a ruler of an eighteenth century kingdom. Tell us about the steps you would take to make your position strong in your province, and what opposition or problems you might face while doing so.
Answer:
In order to make my position strong, I would reform military and financial systems of my province. I would end corruption in the administration. The most expected problem would be the attack of some other kingdom. I would be ready to face any such attack.

JAC Class 7th History Eighteenth Century Political Formations Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Match the following:

subadar a revenue farmer
faujdar a high noble
ijaradar provincial governor
misl Maratha peasant warriors
chauth a Mughal military commander
kunbis a band of Sikh warriors
umara tax levied by the Marathas

Answer:

subadar provincial governor
faujdar a Mughal military commander
ijaradar a revenue farmer
misl a band of Sikh warriors
chauth tax levied by the Marathas
kunbis Maratha peasant warriors
umara a high noble

Fill in the blanks:

Question 2.
(a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the ………..
(b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal ………..
(c) Asaf Jah Founded the Hyderabad state in ………..
(d) The founder of the Awadh state was …………
Answer:
(a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the Deccan
(b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal administration
(c) Asaf Jah Founded the Hyderabad state in 1724
(d) The founder of the Awadh state was Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa’adat Khan

Question 3.
State ’T’ for true and ’F’ for false.
(a) Nadir Shah invaded Bengal.
(b) Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore.
(c) Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.
(d) Poona became the capital of the Marathas in the eighteenth century.
Answer:
(a) False
(b) False
(c) True
(d) True

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations

Question 4.
What were the offices held by Saadat Khan?
Answer:
Sa’adat Khan held the integrated offices of subadari, diwani and faujdari. Actually, he was responsible for managing the political, financial and military affairs of the province of Awadh.

(Let’s Discuss)

Question 5.
Why did the Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal try to do away with the jagirdari system?
Answer:
The Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal tried to do away with the jagirdari system to decrease Mughal influence in the regions by reducing the number of officeholders (jagirdars) appointed by the Mughals. They also reduced the size of jagirs, and appointed his own loyal servants to vacant positions. The accounts of jagirdars were checked to prevent cheating and the revenues of all districts were reassessed by officials appointed by the Naw’ab’s court. In an effort to reduce the Mughal influence in Bengal, Murshid Question uli Khan transferred all Mughal jagirdars to Orissa and ordered a major reassessment of the revenues of Bengal. Revenue was collected in cash with great strictness from all zamindars. As a result, many zamindars had to borrow money from bankers and moneylenders.

Question 6.
How were the Sikhs organised in the eighteenth century?
Answer:
The Sikhs were organised in the eighteenth century in the following way:

  • They organised themselves into a number of bands known as jathas and later on mis Is.
  • They had a combined forces which was known as dal Khalsa or grand army.
  • In Amritsar during Baisakhi and Diwali, the whole body of people used to meet to take collective decisions called as the ‘resolutions of the Guru (gurmatas).’
  • Guru Gobind Singh organised
    the army with the influence and inspiration that their destiny was to rule.
  • The well knit Sikh organisation, put a strong resistance on Mughal governors first, then to Ahmad Shah Abdali who had captured the strong province of Punjab and siezed Sarkar of Sirhind from the Mughals.
  • The Sikh territories in the late eighteenth century extended from the Indus to the Jamuna, but they were divided under different rulers.
  • One of them, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, reunited these groups and established his capital at Lahore in 1799.

Question 7.
Why did the Marathas want to expand beyond the Deccan?
Answer:
The Marathas wanted to expand beyond the Deccan to challenge and decrease the Mughal influence. By the 1720s, they seized Malwa and Gujarat from the Mughals and by 1730s, they were recognised as the overlord of the entire Deccan.

Question 8.
What were the policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position?
Answer:
The policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position were:

  • He brought trained and skilled soldiers and administrators from northern India who wanted to explore the new opportunities in the south.
  • He recruited mansabdars and granted jagirs to them.
  • Without Mughal interference, he ruled independently. The Mughals rarely confirm the decisions that were taken by Asaf Jah.

Question 9.
Do you think merchants and bankers today have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century?
Answer:
Merchants were more influential and powerful than the bankers in the eighteenth century than today. Banks were not so organised and merchants used to provide more loan opportunities at higher rates of interests. Nowadays, banks are more influential. They provide financial assistance and loans at lower rates and act as a shield of protection of public money. They also provide subsidy on lower rates. This happened due to the spread of education.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations

Question 10.
Did any of the kingdoms mentioned in this chapter develop in your state? If so, in what ways do you think life in the state would have been different in the eighteenth century from what it is in the twenty first century?
Answer:
Students need to do by their own as if they stay in any of the region where any kingdom developed.
Hint: If we take up Punjab as the region then there developed many states in the eighteenth century, the East India Company started capturing the regions and other rulers were present. But, in twenty first century, we are a democratic country.

(Let’s Do)

Question 11.
Find out more about the architecture and culture associated with the new courts of any of the following Awadh, Bengal or Hyderabad.
Answer:
The architecture and culture associated with the new courts of any one of the following:

  • The rulers of Awadh does not discriminate between the Muslims and Hindus. They had a very secular political policies.
  • Temples and mosques were constructed.
  • Lucknow became the cultural city due to the economic prosperity and peace in the state. Lucknow was an important city of Awadh. It also developed as an important centre of art and craft.
  • Students can also mention about Hyderabad and Bengal with the help of parents and teachers.

Question 12.
Collect popular tales about rulers from any one of the following groups of people: the Rajputs, Jats, Sikhs or Marathas.
Answer:
Students need to do it at their own.
(Hint : Can take inputs from various sources such as internet, books, journals and teachers.)

JAC Class 7th History Eighteenth Century Political Formations Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded north India.
(a) 4 times
(b) 2 times
(c) 5 times
(d) 3 times
Answer:
(c) 5 times

Question 2.
The governors of big and large provinces were called
(a) Governor General
(b) Jagirdar
(c) Subedars
(d) Misl
Answer:
(c) Subedars

Question 3.
Shivaji was the
(a) founder of Maratha Kingdom
(b) founder of Sikh community
(c) founder of Mughal Kingdom
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) founder of Maratha Kingdom

Question 4.
The founder of Hyderabad state was
(a) Alamgir II
(b) Sa’adat Khan
(c) Nadir Shah
(d) Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah
Answer:
(d) Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations

Question 5.
Bengal and Awadh were founded by
(a) Asaf Jah and Farrukh Khan
(b) Murshid Quli Khan and Sa’adat Khan
(c) Murshid Quli Khan and Asaf Jah
(d) Sa’adat Khan and Asaf Jah
Answer:
(b) Murshid Quli Khan and Sa’adat Khan

Question 6.
……… is held responsible for the decline of Mughal empire.
(a) Bahadur Shah Zafar
(b) Shahjahan
(c) Jahangir
(d) Aurangzeb
Answer:
(d) Aurangzeb

Question 7.
Raja Ajit Singh of Jodhpur held the governorship of
(a) Amber
(b) Gujarat
(c) Malwa
(d) Jaipur
Answer:
(b) Gujarat

Question 8.
Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa’adat Khan was appointed subadar of Awadh in
(a) 1722
(b) 1728
(c) 1732
(d) 1742
Answer:
(a) 1722

Question 9.
Skilled soldiers and administrators were brought by Asaf Jah from
(a) eastern India
(b) central India
(c) western India
(d) northern India
Answer:
(d) northern India

Question 10.
Before and after the establishment of the Khalsa in 1699, many battles were fought against the Rajput and Mughal rulers by
(a) Guru Gobind Singh
(b) Guru Nanak
(c) Banda Bahadur
(d) Guru Arjan Dev
Answer:
(a) Guru Gobind Singh

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name three states that were sculpted out in the eighteenth century from the old Mughal provinces.
Answer:
The three states that were sculpted out in the eighteenth century from the old Mughal provinces are Awadh, Hyderabad and Bengal.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations

Question 2.
The Jats became powerful under whose leadership?
Answer:
The Jats becaine powerful under the leadership of Churaman.

Question 3.
Who became the leader of the Sikhs after the death of Guru Gobind Singh?
Answer:
Banda Bahadur became the leader of the Sikhs after the death of Guru Gobind Singh.

Question 4.
When and where did Nadir Shah, the ruler of Iran invaded?
Answer:
In 1739, Delhi was invaded by Nadir Shah, the ruler of Iran.

Question 5.
Which place was established as the capital during Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s reign?
Answer:
Lahore was established as the capital during Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s reign.

Question 6.
Who was Jawahir Shah and how many troops he had on his own?
Answer:
Jawahir Shah was the son of Nadir Shah and he had 30,000 troops on his own.

Question 7.
Who was the tenth Sikh guru?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Sikh guru.

Question 8.
Which two important trading centres were governed and ruled by the Jats?
Answer:
The two important trading centres governed and ruled by the Jats were Panipat and Ballabhgarh.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations

Question 9.
What do you understand by the term ‘chauth’?
Answer:
Zamindars claimed 25 per cent of the land revenue which was known as chauth. This was collected by the Marathas in the Deccan.

Question 10.
Which ruler raided the rich province of the Punjab and the Sarkar of Sirhind from the Mughals in mid 17th century?
Answer:
Ahmad Shah Abdali had raided the rich province of the Punjab and the Sarkar of Sirhind from the Mughals.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When did the Khalsa declare its sovereign rule and mint its own coin? Who issued these coins and what was inscripted in the coins?
Answer:
The Khalsa declared its sovereign rule and minted its own coin in 1765. Banda Bahadur issued these coins and ‘Deg O Tegh O Fateh’ was inscripted on these coins.

Question 2.
What is the difference between Faujdari and Ijaradari.
Answer:
Military administration is related to Faujdari whereas ijaradari means the practice in which the revenue farmers collected taxes from other farmers and paid to the state.

Question 3.
Give a brief on administration of Marathas.
Answer:
The Marathas developed a powerful and effective administrative system. They established and initiated revenue demands which gradually took local conditions into account. Agriculture was encouraged and trade was revived. This allowed Maratha chiefs who were known as sardars to raise powerful armies.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations

Question 4.
With which states was the state of Hyderabad was in war?
Answer:
The state of Hyderabad was continuously in war against the Marathas in the west and with independent Telegu warrior chief called as Nayakas in the Deccan plateau.

Question 5.
In what manner Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa’adat Khan minimized the Mughal influence in the Awadh region?
Answer:
Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa’adat Khan tried to minimize the Mughal influence in the Awadh region in the following way:

  • First, he decreased the number of jagirdars, i.e., office holders appointed by the Mughals.
  • He also decreased the size of the jagirs and appointed their own loyal and faithful servants to unoccupied positions.
  • Jagirdars accounts were checked to prevent cheating and revenues of all regions were re-assessed by officials who were appointed by Burhan-ul- Mulk.

Question 6.
What do you mean by sardeshmukhid Who possessed the right to levy it?
Answer:
Sardeshmukhi means that in the Deccan 9-10 per cent of the land revenue paid to the head revenue collector. Maratha king possessed the right to levy it in the entire Deccan region.

Question 7.
Which foreign invader came in the middle of the economic and political crisis in 1739? What was the effect of it?
Answer:
Nadir Shah, the-.ruler of Iran came in – the middle of the economic and political crisis in 1739. He seized and raided the city of Delhi in 1739 and took away huge amounts of wealth. This invasion was followed by the Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah Abdali who had a series of devastating raids in north India for five times between 1748 and 1761.

Question 8.
What steps were taken by Murshid Quli Khan to reduce the effect and influence of the Mughals in Bengal ?
Answer:
Murshid Quli Khan transferred all the Mughal jagirdars to Orissa and ordered a major re-assessment of the revenues of Bengal to reduce the Mughal influence. Cash was collected as revenues with strictness from all zamindars. Hence, all the zamindars had to borrow money from moneylenders and those who were unable to pay, they were forced to sell their lands and assets to big and rich zamindars.

Question 9.
In which way moneylenders and bankers achieve influential position in the state of Awadh?
Answer:
The state of Awadh depended on local bankers and mahajans for loans and sold the right to collect tax to the highest bidders. These ‘revenue farmers’ were known as ijaradars who agreed to pay the state a fixed sum of money. The revenue – farmers were given eminent freedom in the assessment and collection of taxes. All these developments enabled new social groups such as moneylenders and bankers to influence the management of the state’s revenue system something which had not occurred in the past.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations

Question 10.
During the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, how did the Jats integrated and merged their power?
Answer:
During the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the Jats were flourishing and successful agriculturists. They had integrated their power under Churaman, their chief. They captured territories situated to the west of the city of Delhi and by the 1680s they had begun to rule the region between the two imperial cities of Delhi and Agra. Panipat and Ballabhgarh became important trading centres in the areas ruled by them. The kingdom of Bharatpur emerged as a strong state under Suraj Mai.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the reasons of decline of Mughal empire.
Answer:
Decline of Mughal empire in the seventeenth century happened due to following reasons:

  • Emperor Aurangzeb exhausted and spent his military and financial resources of empire by fighting a long battle in the Deccan.
  • Ii became very tough and difficult for later Mughal Emperors to regulate the powerful mansabdars.
  • The governors and mansabdars established independent kingdoms in different areas.
  • Peasants and zamindars became rebellions due to increasing taxes.
  • Nadir Shah seized and raided the city of Delhi in 1739 and took away huge amounts of wealth.
  • This invasion was followed by the Afghan ruler, Ahmad Shah Abdali, who invaded and raided north India five times between 1748 and1761
  • Thus the empire was further incapacitated by the competition amongst different groups of nobles.

Question 2.
Discuss briefly the states of the eighteenth century into three overlapping groups.
Answer:
The states of the eighteenth century can be separated into three overlapping groups:

  • States such as Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad were old Mughal provinces. Though they were extremely powerful and quite independent, the rulers of these states did not break their formalities with the Mughal emperor.
  • States that had enjoyed considerable independence under the Mughals were watan jagirs. These included several Rajput principalities. Watan jagirs were the persons who collected taxes from each village and gave them to mansabdars and mansabdars gave the taxes to the state authority.
  • The last group included states under the control of Marathas, Sikhs and some others like the Jats. These were of different sizes and had seized their independence from the Mughals after a long-drawn armed struggle

Question 3.
Discuss briefly the states of the eighteenth century into three overlapping groups.
Answer:
The states of the eighteenth century can be separated into three overlapping groups:
1. States such as Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad were old Mughal provinces. Though they were extremely powerful and quite independent, the rulers of these states did not break their formalities with the Mughal emperor.

2. States that had enjoyed considerable independence under the Mughals were watan jagirs. These included several Rajput principalities. Watan jagirs were the persons who collected taxes from each village and gave them to mansabdars and mansabdars gave the taxes to the state authority.

3. The last group included states under the control of Marathas, Sikhs and some others like the Jats. These were of different sizes and had seized their independence from the Mughals after a long-drawn armed struggle.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations

Question 4.
How did Sikhs appear as a stronger community?
Answer:
During seventeenth century, Sikhs became political community. The Khalsa was established to protect the Sikh community from the Mughals. Under Guru Gobind Singh, they fought many battles against the Mughals. After the death of Guru Gobind Singh, Banda Bahadur established the administration over the territories between Sutlej and Jamuna. In this manner Sikhs appeared as a stronger community.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Struggles for Equality

JAC Board Class 7th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Struggles for Equality

JAC Class 7th Civics Struggles for Equality InText Questions and Answers

Page 103

Question 1.
What do you think is meant by the expression ‘power oyer the ballot box’? Discuss.
Answer:
The expression ‘power over the ballot box’ means the power and right to vote. Every adult citizen of India has the equal right to vote during elections. To elect or replace their representatives, this right has been used by people.

Page 104

Question 2.
Can you think of one person in your family, community, village, town or city whom you respect because of their fight for equality and justice?
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own with the help of parents.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Struggles for Equality

Page 106

Question 3.
What issue is the Tawa Matsya Sangh (TMS) fighting for?
Answer:
The Tawa Matsya Sangh (TMS) fighting for the issue of equality.

Question 4.
Why did the villagers set up this organisation?
Answer:
The villagers set up this organisation to protect their rights.

Question 5.
Do you think that the large-scale participation of villagers has contributed to the success of the TMS? Write two lines on why you think so.
Answer:
Yes, I think that the large-scale participation of villagers has contributed to the success of the TMS because when people are united then they get strength and finally success. Also, people stand together to fight for an issue and no one can come on their way.

Page 107

Question 6.
Can you think of an incident in your life in which one person or a group of people came together to change an unequal situation?
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Struggles for Equality

Page 108

Question 7.
Refer to the song below and answer the following questions:
The Right To Know
My dreams have the right to know
Why for centuries they have been breaking
Why don’t they ever come true My hands have the right to know
Why do they remain without work all along ‘
Why do they have nothing to do
My feet have the right to know Why from village to village they walk on their own
Why are there no signs of a bus yet My hunger has the right to know Why grain rots in godowns While I don’t even get a fistful of rice My old mother has the right to know Why are there no medicines Needles, dispensaries or bandages My children have the right to know Why do they labour day and night Why is there no school in sight

  1. What is your favourite line in the above song?
  2. What does the poet mean when he says, “My hunger has the right to know”?

Answer:
(i) Favourite line in the above song is ‘my children have the right to know’.

(ii) The poet means what he says, “ My hunger has the right to know” means that a sufferer must have a right to know the cause and reason of his suffering and pain in which he is living. He must know that who is responsible for this situation.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Struggles for Equality

Question 8.
Can you share with your class a local song or a poem on dignity that is from your area?
Answer:
Students need to do it on there own.

Page 109

Question 9.
What role does the Constitution play in people’s struggles for equality?
Answer:
The Constitution plays an important role in people’s struggles for equality. Our Constitution recognises the equality for all people. Movements and struggles for equality continuously refer to the Indian Constitution to make their point about equality and justice for everyone. For example, the fishworkers intheTawa Matsya Sangh hope that the provisions of the Constitution will come into existence through their participation in this movement By constantly referring to the Constitution they use it as a ‘living document’, i.e., something that has real meaning in our lives.

Question 10.
Can you make up a social advertisement on equality? You can do this in small groups.
Answer:
Students need to do it in the class.

JAC Class 7thCivics Struggles for Equality Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Tehri Dam is in
(a) Madhya Pradesh
(b) Uttarakhand
(c) Uttar Pradesh
(d) Himachal Pradesh
Answer:
(b) Uttarakhand

Question 2.
Full form of TMS is
(a) Tawa Matsya Sangh
(b) Tawa Matsya Samiti
(c) Tawa Maan Sangh
(d) Tawa Maan Samiti
Answer:
(a) Tawa Matsya Sangh

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Struggles for Equality

Question 3.
Tawa dam began to built in ….. and completed in
(a) 1958,1968
(b) 1968,1978
(c) 1958,1978
(d) 1978,1988
Answer:
(c) 1958,1978

Question 4.
Tawa Matsya Sangh was organised in
(a) Maharashtra
(b) Andhra Pradesh
(c) Madhya Pradesh
(d) Arunachal Pradesh
Answer:
(c) Madhya Pradesh

Question 5.
The government gave the rights for fishing in the Tawa reservoir to private contractors in
(a) 1992
(b) 1996
(c) 1994
(d) 1998
Answer:
(c) 1994

Question 6.
Similarity among Kanta, Swapna, Melani is
(a) They were all politicians
(b) They were all people of dignity
(c) They have been treated equally always
(d) They have been treated unequally
Answer:
(d) They have been treated unequally

Question 7.
A social movement consisting of adivasis, farmers, environmentalists, and human rights activists against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada river is called as
(a) Nadi Bachao Andolan
(b) Narmada Bachao Andolan
(c) Tawa Bachao Andolan
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Narmada Bachao Andolan

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What was the demand and stipulation of Tawa Matsya Sangh?
Answer:
Tawa Matsya Sangh were demanding their right to continue fishing for their livelihood.

Question 2.
Why so many people’s lives in India are highly unequal?
Answer:
People’s lives in India are highly unequal because of the poverty and the lack of resources continue to be a major reason.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Struggles for Equality

Question 3.
In what way the contractor hehave with the local people?
Answer:
The contractors got cheap labour from outside the village and drove the local people away. They also threaten the villagers.

Question 4.
Why in India people are treated unequally?
Answer:
People are treated unequally because of the person’s religion, caste and sex.

Question 5.
In what way Indian Constitution justify rights to equality?
Answer:
The Indian Constitution recognises all Indians as equal before the law and states that no person can be discriminated against because of their religion, sex, caste or whether they are rich or poor.

Question 6.
Why the old Tehri town and manyvillages totally and some partially were submerged?
Answer:
The old Tehri town and many villages some totally and some partially were submerged because of the construction of Tawa dam across the river.

Question 7.
In which way writers, singers, dancers and artists have also been very active in the fight against inequality?
Answer:
The writers, singers, dancers and artists have also been very active in the fight against inequality with their poems, songs and stories which inspire us and make us believe strongly in an issue and influence our efforts to correct the situation.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What was the outcome when the Madhya Pradesh government in 1994 gave the rights for fishing in the Tawa reservoir to private contractors?
Answer:
When the Madhya Pradesh government in 1994 gave the rights for fishing in the Tawa reservoir to private contractors, they began to threat the villagers and started suppressing them. They drove them away from there and brought cheap labour from outside. The villagers could not tolerate these monsterity and wrong doing of the contractors for the long period. They stood united and set up an organisation named as Tawa Matsya Sangh to protect their rights.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Struggles for Equality

Question 2.
When the Tawa dam began to build, what happened?
Answer:
When the Tawa dam began to build then

  • It submerged large areas of agricultural land and forests.
  • The forest dwellers lost everything, they had nothing.
  • Some of the displaced people settled around the reservoir. They started to work on there meagre farms and apart from it they found livelihood in fishing.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
In which way, Tawa Matsya Sanghhelped the fishworkers?
Answer:
Tawa Matsya Sangh helped the fishworkers in various ways:

  • The Tawa Matsya Sangh has set up a cooperative which buys the catch at a fair price from the fishworkers.
  • The cooperative then make ceratin arrangements for transportation and sells the catch in markets to get them a good price. This arrangement enhanced the earning of the fishworkers.
  • The Tawa Matsya Sangh also started to give the fishworkers loans for repair and buying new nets.

Question 2.
Indian Constitution is called the living document. Why?
Answer:
Indian Constitution is called the living document because of the following:

  • Indian Constitution recognises the equality of all persons.
  • Indian Constitution has a true meaning in everyone’s lives.
  • Movements and struggles for equality in India continuously refer to Indian Constitution to make their point about equality and justice to everyone.
  • The starting point and base of all movements for justice and the inspiration and for all the poetry, song, stories is the recognition of equality among people.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 A Shirt in the Market

JAC Board Class 7th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 A Shirt in the Market

JAC Class 7th Civics A Shirt in the Market InText Questions and Answers

Page 93

Question 1.
Did Swapna get a fair price on the cotton?
Answer:
No, Swapna didn’t get a fair price on the cotton. She was paid a very low price by the local trader.

Question 2.
Why did the trader pay Swapna a low price?
Answer:
The trader paid Swapna a low price because he lent money to Swapna at the beginning of the cropping season on a particular condition that she will sell her cottons to him only. The local trader took the advantage of this position and paid her low price.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 A Shirt in the Market

Question 3.
Where do you think large farmers would sell their cotton? How is their situation different from Swapna?
Answer:
Large farmers would sell their cotton in the market. Their situation is very much different from Swapna as she had a constraint to sell her cotton to the local trader but those farmers can sell their cotton anywhere they want.

Page 95

Question 4.
What are the following people doing at the Erode cloth market—merchants, weavers, exporters?
Answer:
The following people are doing at the Erode cloth markeL

Merchants:
They purchase the yam and give directions to the weavers about what kind of cloth has to be made. They supply cloth on order to garment manufacturers and exporters around the country.

Weavers:
The make cloth and bring this to the Erode cloth market for sale. They also make cloth on orders which they get from merchants

Exporters:
They use the cloth to make shirts to export them to the foreign buyers.

Question 5.
In what ways are weavers dependent on cloth merchants?
Answer:
Forraw materials and markets, the weavers are dependent on cloth merchants.

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Question 6.
If the weavers were to buy yarn on their own and sell cloth, they would probably earn three times more. Do you think this is possible? How? Discuss.
Answer:
Yes, this is possible. If the weavers were to buy yam on their own and sell cloth, they would probably earn three times’ more. They would buy yam at the lowest price and sell it at the highest possible price. Of their own choice, they would select the market for better price.

Question 7.
Do you find similar ‘putting-out’ arrangements in making papads, masalas, beedis ?
Answer:
Find out about this in your area and discuss in class.
Students need to do it by their own.

Question 8.
You might have heard of cooperatives in your area. It could be in milk, provisions, paddy, etc. Find out for whose benefit they were set up?
Answer:
They were set up for the benefit for those who were in want of capital.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 A Shirt in the Market

Question 9.
What are the demands foreign buyers make on the garment exporters? Why do the garment exporters agree to these demands?
Answer:

  1. The demands foreign buyers make on the garment exporters are:
  2. Lowest prices from the garment exporters.
  3. High standards for quality product. Timely delivery.
  4. The garment exporters agree to these demands because they are likely to have maximum profit even after that.

Question 10.
HowHow do the garment exporters meet the conditions set by the foreign buyers?
Answer:
The garment exporters meet the conditions set by the foreign buyers by getting the most of the work done by the weavers at the minimum wage.

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Question 11.
Why do you think more women are employed in the Impex garment factory? Discuss.
Answer:
More women are employed in the Impex garment factory because they are ready to work even at the lowest possible wage.

Question 12.
Write a letter to the Minister asking for what you think would be proper payment to the workers.
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.

Question 13.
The shirt below shows the profit made by the businessperson, and the various costs that he had to pay. Find out from the diagram below, what the cost price includes.
JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 A Shirt in the Market 1

Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.

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Question 14.
Compare the earnings per shirt of the worker in the garment factory, the garment exporter and the businessperson in the market abroad. What do you find?
Answer:
The business person in foreign makes profit of? 600 and the garment exporter makes a profit of ? 100 on one shirt. As far as the workers are concerned they get only ? 15 for one shirt.

Question 15.
What are the reasons that the businessperson is able to make a huge profit in the market?
Answer:
The reasons that the businessperson is able to make a huge profit in the market are: He knows the method as how to get the work done at the lowest possible rate from the garment exporter.He is able to sell shirts in large quantity. He sells his shirt to the high income group.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 A Shirt in the Market

Question 16.
You have read the chapter on advertising. Why does the businessperson spend ? 300 per shirt on advertising? Discuss.
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.

JAC Class 7th Civics A Shirt in the Market Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What made Swapna sell the cotton to the trader instead of selling at the Kurnool cotton market?
Answer:
Swapna sold the cotton to the trader instead of selling at the Kumool cotton market because she had taken a loan from the local trader at the beginning of the cropping season. The local trader lent the money in one condition that she will sell the cotton to him only. Swapna had no other option but to agree on the trader’s terms and condition.

Question 2.
Describe the conditions of employment as well as the wages of workers in the garment exporting factory. Do you think the workers get a fair deal?
Answer:
The conditions of employment, as well as the wages of workers in the garment exporting factory, are very pitiful. They work in an unhygienic conditions. They work for long hours everyday around 10 to 12 hours a day. They are the temporary workers and doesn’t have job security. I don’t think the workers get a fair deal. They are exploited at every steps of the work.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 A Shirt in the Market

Question 3.
Think of something common that we use. It could be sugar, tea, milk, pen, paper, pencil, etc. Discuss through what chain of markets this reaches you. Can you think of the people that help in the production or trade?
Answer:
We can take the example of sugar. Producers are the farmers who grows sugarcane. After the harvest is ready, they sell it to the traders who have the sugar mills. They produce sugar with the help of other workers. The sugar is then sold the wholesale trader in bulk. The retailers buy the sugar from the wholesale trader. Finally, the consumer gets the sugar from the retailer when required. Thus, a chain of market is created:

Producer → local trader → wholesaler retailers → consumers. The people who help in the production of sugar are producers/ farmers, traders/ sugar-mill owners, workers, wholesalers, retailers and consumers finally.

Question 4.
Arrange the statements given alongside in the correct order and then fill in the numbers in the cotton bolls accordingly. The first two have already been done for you.

  1. Swapna sells the cotton to the trader.
  2. Customers buy these shirts in a supermarket.
  3. Trader sells cotton to the Ginning Mill.
  4. Garment exporters buy the cloth from merchants for making shirts.
  5. Yarn dealers or merchants give the yam to the weavers.
  6. The exporter sells shirts to the businessperson from the USA.
  7. Spinning mill buys the cotton and sells yam to the yam dealers.
  8. Weavers return with the cloth.
  9. Ginning mill cleans the cotton and makes it into bales.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 A Shirt in the Market 2

Answer:
The statements in correct order are:

JAC Class 7thCivics A Shirt in the Market Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Swapna sold her cotton to local trader at
(a) low rate
(b) high rate
(c) moderate rate
(d) fair rate
Answer:
(a) low rate

Question 2.
Cotton cultivation requires
(a) fertilisers
(b) pesticides
(c) seeds
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question 3.
The price of things and items can be
(a) flexible
(b) fixed
(c) Either (a) or (b)
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Answer:
(c) Either (a) or (b)

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 A Shirt in the Market

Question 4.
A person who sells item in foreign countries are known as
(a) Retailer
(b) Importer
(c) Exporter
(d) Manufacturer
Answer:
(c) Exporter

Question 5.
Erode is famous for
(a) spice market
(b) cloth market
(c) woollen market
(d) jewellery market
Answer:
(b) cloth market

Question 6.
The work of the women workers at the Impex garment factory is/ was
(a) ironing and packaging
(b) buttoning
(c) thread cutting
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question 7.
Weaver’s cooperatives are helpful in providing
(a) raw materials to the weavers
(b) loans to the weavers
(c) midday meals to the weavers
(d) taking care of their kids
Answer:
(a) raw materials to the weavers

Question 8.
An arrangement between weavers and merchants is known as
(a) going out system
(b) putting-out system
(c) incoming System
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) putting-out system

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by trade?
Answer:
Trade is the sale, transfer or exchange of goods and services for a fixed price.

Question 2.
In which state Erode is located?
Answer:
Erode is located in Tamil Nadu.

Question 3.
Which people earn the minimum wage in Erode?
Answer:
The weaves earns the minimum wage in Erode.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 A Shirt in the Market

Question 4.
Who was Swapna?
Answer:
Swapna was a small farmer in Kumool which is in Andhra Pradesh and grows cotton on her small piece of land.

Question 5.
Why did Swapna borrow money from the local trader?
Answer:
Swapna had borrowed money from thetrader to buy seeds, fertilisers, pesticides for cultivation of cotton.

Question 6.
What was the condition that the trader agree to give loan to Swapna?
Answer:
The trader agreed to give loan to Swapna on a condition that she would sell all her cotton to him.

Question 7.
Garment exporting factories maximise their own profit. How?
Answer:
Garment exporting factories maximise their own profits by getting maximum work from workers at lowest price and supply the foreign buyers at cheap rates.

Question 8.
What is the reason that more women are employed in the Impex garment factory?
Answer:
The reason that more women are employed in the Impex garment factory as they agree to work even at the lowest possible wages.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by putting-out system?
Answer:
Putting-out system is an arrangement between the merchant and the weavers whereby the merchant supplies the raw material and receives the finished product. It is prevalent in the weaving industry in most regions of India

Question 2.
Explain how merchants hold lot of power.
Answer:
The merchant distributes work among the weavers based on the orders he has received for cloth. The weavers get the yam from the merchant and supply him the cloth. However, this dependence on the merchants both for raw materials and markets means that the merchants have a lot of power.

Question 3.
What do you mean by the following terms: Ginning mill, Exporter and Profit.
Answer:
Ginning mill: Ginning mill is a factory where seeds are removed from cotton bolls. Then the cotton is pressed into bales to be sent for spinning into thread.

Exporter:
Exporter is a person who sells goods in foreign countries.

Profit:
Profit is the amount that is left or gained from earnings after deducting all the expenses and costs. If the costs are more than the earnings, it would lead to a loss.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 A Shirt in the Market

Question 4.
In what ways small farmers are dependent on local traders?
Answer:
The local trader is a powerful man in the village and small farmers have to depend on him not only for loans for cultivation but also to meet other urgent needs such as illnesses, children’s school fees. Also, there are times in the year when there is no work and no income for the farmers so borrowing money is the only means of survival. In this way small farmers are dependent on local traders.

Question 5.
List the advantages of the putting-out system to the weavers.
Answer:

  • The advantages of the putting-out system to the weavers:
  • The weavers do not have to spend the money for the purchase of the yam.
  • The selling of finished cloth is also taken care of by the traders.
  • From the outset, weavers know what cloth to be made and how much quantity to be woven.

Question 6.
How do weaver’s cooperatives minimise the dependence of weavers on the cloth merchants?
Answer:
In a weaver’s cooperative, the weavers form a group and take up certain activities collectively. As we know in a cooperative, people with common interests come together and work for their mutual benefit. In the weaver’s cooperative, they procure yam from the yam dealer and distribute it among the weavers. The cooperative also does the marketing. Hence, the role of the cloth merchant is reduced and weavers get a fair price on the cloth.

Question 7.
List the disadvantages of the putting- out system for the weavers.
Answer:
The disadvantages of the putting-out system for the weavers are:

  • For raw materials and markets, the weavers have to depend on the merchants.
  • The merchants have a lot of power under this arrangement. They give orders for what is to be made and pay a very low price for making the cloth.
  • The weavers have no way of knowing for whom they are making the cloth or at what price it will be sold.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How does the market work in favour of the rich and powerful merchants? What are the ways to overcome them?
Answer:
The market work in favour of the rich and powerful merchants in . different ways. It is usually the rich and the powerful merchants that get the maximum profit from the market. These are the people who have money and own the factories, the large shops, large land holdings, etc.

The poor people have to depend on the rich and the powerful for various things. They have to depend for loans, for raw materials and marketing of their goods and mostly for employment. Due to this dependency, the poor are exploited in the market. There are ways to overcome these such as forming cooperatives of producers and ensuring that laws are followed strictly.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 A Shirt in the Market

Question 2.
Discuss briefly about the cloth market of Erode.
Answer:
Erode’s bi-weekly cloth market is in Tamil Nadu. It is one of the largest cloth markets in the world. A huge variety of cloth is sold in this market. People come from far and nearby places. Cloth that is made by weavers in the villages is also brought here for sale. Cloth merchants have the offices around the market who buy this cloth. Other traders from many south Indian towns also come and purchase cloth in this market.

On the market days, weavers brings the cloth that has been made on order from the merchant. These merchants supply cloth on order to garment manufacturers and exporters around the country. The cloth merchants purchase the yam and give instructions to the weavers about the kind of cloth that is to be made.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Markets Around Us

JAC Board Class 7th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Markets Around Us

JAC Class 7th Civics Markets Around Us InText Questions and Answers

Page 84

Question 1.
Why do people go to a weekly market?
Give three reasons.
Answer:
People go to the weekly market for thefollowing reasons:

  1. Most of the things people need are available at the same place. They don’t need to go to different places for different things.
  2. Prices are not fixed so they can bargain and buy the things.
  3. They get things at cheaper rates.

Question 2.
Who are the sellers in a weekly market? Why don’t we find big business persons in these markets?
Answer:
The sellers in the weekly market are the small traders. We don’t find big business persons in these markets because they have permanent establishments and shops to run their business. They also have their fixed and permanent customers. They earn good money and hence, they need to set up temporary shops in weekly market.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Markets Around Us

Question 3.
Why are things cheap in the weekly market?
Answer:
Things are cheap in the weekly market because the shops are not permanent there and hence, they don’t have to bear the expenses that a permanent shops have to. In weekly market, they set up shops for a day and close it in the evening. They don’t need hired workers to help them. The family members work together.

Question 4.
Explain with an example how people bargain in the market. Can you think of a situation where the bargain would be unfair?
Answer:
In the market, there are sellers and buyers. Most of the seller, demands for high prices as they want to earn more profit. Whereas, buyers want to buy the things at the minimum price. Hence, they start to bargain to bring the price down. After some discussion, they mutually agree on a bargained price and finally sell the product on that price to the buyer. In some places, we see the price is fixed. In such a case, if we bargain for the things that would be unfair.

page 85

Question 5.
Why did Sujata carry a notebook? Do you think this system is useful? Can there be problems?
Answer:
Sujata carried a notebook to note down the amount of things which she purchased from the shop as she bought the things in credit.
This system is useful to those who have low income. I don’t think there will be any problem in this system. Everything will go in a smooth manner if both the buyer and the seller are honest to each other. The buyer will not face any problems such as hunger and take things on credit and can pay later once he gets the salary or money. The seller will be ’nappy and not in ioss as weYl.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Markets Around Us

Question 6.
What are the different kinds of shops that you find in your neighborhood? What do you purchase from them?
Answer:
The different kind of shops that we find in our neighbourhood are dairy, roadside stalls, departmental stores, grocery shops, stationery shops, etc. I purchase milk and other dairy products from the dairy, medicines from chemist shop, vegetables and fruits from roadside stall, grocery from grocery shop.

Question 7.
Why are goods sold in permanent shops costlier than those sold in the weekly markets or by roadside hawkers?
Answer:
Goods sold in permanent shops are costlier than those sold in the weekly markets or by roadside hawkers because permanent shops are set up in buildings hence, they have to bear lots of expenses such as pay electricity, rent, wages to workers, fees and taxes to the governments. But, the roadside hawkers or weekly markets they don’t have to bear any such costs.

Page 86

Question 8.
Why do you think the guard wanted to stop Kavita and Sujata from entering the shop? What would you say if someone stops you from entering a shop in a market?
Answer:
The guard wanted to stop Kavita and Sujata from entering the shop because from their appearance, the guard might have guessed that they are from poor families who would not be able to buy expensive things from the mall. If someone stops me from entering a shop in a market then I will resist the person. I have full right to visit any shop even if I don’t have money or will not be able to buy expensive things.

Page 87

Question 9.
Why do people not bargain in shops located in malls whereas they bargain in weekly markets?
Answer:
People do not bargain in shops located in malls whereas they bargain in weekly markets because shops mostly sell the branded things with price tags which leave no scope fpr buyers to bargain. Whereas, in weekly markets, there are many shops selling the same kind of things which are not branded. This means that there is a competition. If someone sells goods at higher price, the buyer can move to another shop and bargain for that thing.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Markets Around Us

Question 10.
How do you think your neighbourhood shop gets its goods? Find out and explain with some examples.
Answer:
The neighbourhood shop gets its goods from the wholesaler. For example—the vegetable seller will buy the vegetables from the wholesaler and not from the farmer directly. Buying and selling takes place between traders and things reaches us as and when required.

Question 11.
Why is a wholesale trader necessary?
Answer:
A whole-sale trader is necessary because it is the person who makes the things and goods available to the retailers from whom different consumers buy different things as per their need.

JAC Class 7th Civics Markets Around Us Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
In what ways is a hawker different from a shop owner?
Answer:

A Hawker A Sfclop Owner
• A hawker doesn’t have a permanent shop. It is a door to door service. • A shop owner have a permanent shop.
• He sells his goods at minimum profit. • Things are costlier.
• It is a kind of a movable shop where he keeps different types of things of every day use. • Buyer has to go there if they require something.

Question 2.
Compare and contrast a weekly market and a shopping complex on the following:
Answer:

Market Kind of goods sold Prices of goods Sellers Buyers
Weekly market
Shopping complex

Question 3.
Explain how a chain of markets is formed. What-purpose does it serve?

Market Weekly market Shopping complex
Kind of goods sold Various items of our daily needs such as vegetables, groceries, etc. Branded things such as home appliances, readymade clothes, footwear, etc. We also get eatables such as pizzas, pasta, burgers, etc.
Prices of goods Are not very high. Common people can afford to buy easily. Are very high. Only wealthy and rich people can afford to buy them.
Sellers Small traders and hawkers Big businessmen and traders
Buyers People from low income group Wealthy and rich urban people

Question 3.
Explain how a chain of markets is formed. What purpose does it serve? .
Answer:
A chain of markets where there is a connection between producer, wholesaler and retailer in the following manner:

  • We do not buy things directly from the factory or farm where generally the production takes place.
  • The people who are in between the producer and the consumer is the trader.
  • The wholesaler buys things and goods in huge quantities and bulk and then sell it to the traders.
  • The traders or the retailers finally sells the things and items to the buyer or consumer.
  • Hence, we may say that a chain of market is formed which is from factories to the final consumer.

This serves a great purpose as it maintains a flow of money. It also makes availability of daily requirements easy and help in maintaining the coordination in the society.

Question 4.
‘All persons have equal rights to visit any shop in a marketplace.’ Do you think this is true of shops with expensive products? Explain with examples.
Answer:
Yes, it is true of shops with expensive products. Consumers can visit any shop even though if they do not have money to buy it. The shop owners are bound to show the items and things which the consumer wants to see. It fully depends on the consumer whether the person wants to buy or not. The shop owner cannot compel him to buy. As in the case of Sujata and Kavita. They went to a shopping mall in curiosity. They were wandering in the mall and entered a shop. They didn’t have plan to buy anything as they were very expensive. They looked at few branded things and moved from that place.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Markets Around Us

Question 5.
‘Buying and selling can take place without going to a marketplace.’ Explain this statement with the help of examples.
Answer:
‘Buying and selling can take place without going to a marketplace.’ It means that one does not have go and buy things. They can order through phone or internet. The things and items will be delivered at home. For this we can pay online through debit and credit cards and after delivering at home as well. We see medical executives waiting for doctors in hospitals and clinics. They are also engaged in selling their products.

JAC Class 7thCivics Markets Around Us Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
The sellers sell the branded items in
(a) shopping malls
(b) weekly markets
(c) hawkers
(d) none of these
Answer:
(a) shopping malls

Question 2.
Online shopping is a shopping on
(a) internet
(b) phone
(c) door to door
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Answer:
(a) internet

Question 3.
We use for online purchases.
(a) PAN Card v
(b) Debit Card
(c) Credit Card N
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Answer:
(d) Both (b) and (c)

Question 4. In our neighbourhood, generally …….. is not found.
(a) dairy booth
(b) grocery
(c) shopping mall
(d) departmental store
Answer:
(c) shopping mall

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Markets Around Us

Question 5.
The weekly market trader earns ……..compared to the profit of a shop owner.
(a) more
(b) less
(c) equal
(d) none of these
Answer:
(b) less

Question 6.
People who are not interested in selling small quantities are
(a) producers
(b) retailers
(c) wholesalers
(d) all of these
Answer:
(a) producers

Question 7.
The things which we will not find in the weekly market is/ are
(a) groceries
(b) branded items
(c) non-branded items
(d) vegetables
Answer:
(b) branded items

Question 8.
Accumulating things have become a status symbol now a days.
(a) non-branded
(b) semi-precious
(c) branded
(d) All of these
Answer:
(a) non-branded

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by weekly market?
Answer:
A weekly market is a market which is held on a specific day of the week.

Question 2.
List few roadside stalls.
Answer:
Few roadside stalls are vegetable hawker, the fruit vendor and the mechanic, the cobbler, etc.

Question 3
What do you mean by wholesale market?
Answer:
Wholesale market is a place where goods first reach and then they are supplied to other traders in the region.

Question 4.
How do buyers are differently placed?
Answer:
Buyers are differently placed as there are many who can afford to buy in shopping malls as there the things are expensive while there are many who buy from weekly markets and hawkers as they get the cheapest of goods.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Markets Around Us

Question 5.
There is a competition among the shops in the weekly market. Why?
Answer:
There is a competition among the shops in the weekly market because there are many shops selling the same goods in the weekly market.

Question 6.
Why branded goods are expensive as compared to non-branded goods?
Answer:
Branded goods are expensive as compared to non-branded goods because branded goods are promoted by advertising which incurs a heavy costs, thus they are expensive.

Question 7.
Why fewer people can afford to buy branded goods?
Answer:
Only fewer people can afford to buy branded goods because branded goods are expensive.

Question 8
Who is the first key in the chain of markets?
Answer:
Producer is the first key in the chain of markets.

Question 9.
When is the chain of markets formed?
Answer:
Chain of markets is formed before the things are sold to the consumer or reaches the consumer.

Question 10.
Which is the largest fruits and vegetables market in Asia? How many retail vendors come everyday?
Answer:
The wholesale market at Azadpur, Delhi is the largest fruits and vegetables market in Asia. Approximately, 30,000 retail vendors come everyday.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
List the expenditure of the permanent shop owner.
Answer:
The expenditure of the permanent shop owner are:

  • electricity
  • rent
  • taxes or fees to government
  • wages to helpers.

Question 2.
Write a brief note about Aftab.
Answer:
Aftab is the wholesale trader who purchases goods in bulk. His business starts around 2 o’clock in the morning when vegetables reach the market. This is the time when the vegetable market or mandi starts buzzing with activity. The vegetables come in trucks, matadors, tractor trolleys from farms both near and far.

Soon the process of auctions and sale by bidding begins. Aftab decides what he will buy and participates in this auction. In the market, he has a shop where he stores the vegetables that he has bought. From this place, he sells to hawkers and shopkeepers who start coming to the market around six in the morning as they have to organise their purchases so that they can start their shop for the day around ten in the morning.

Question 3.
Which price is higher a retail or a wholesale price? Why?
Answer:
A retail price will be higher than the wholesale price. The reason is that the wholesaler sells at a higher price to retailer than charged by the producer to have a profit. Hence, in order to have a profit, the retailer sells it at a higher price than that he was sold at.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Markets Around Us

Question 4.
Why do most people choose shops in the neighbourhood?
Answer:
People choose shops in the neighbourhood because for their daily needs they can visit them any time. The shopkeeper and the buyer knows each other very well and things are also given on credit, if required.

Question 5.
Distinguish between permanent and temporary shop.
Answer:

Permanent Shops

  • Permanent shop contains expensive and costly items.
  • They store the items they sell in their shop.

Ibmpdrary Shops

  • Temporary shops contains less expensive and low rate items.
  • They store the items they sell in their home.

Question 6.
What do you mean by market?
Answer:
A place which is having shops, selling different kinds of things such as vegetables, fruits, stationary, medicines, clothes, etc. is known as market.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Markets Around Us

Question 7.
What are the various types of markets found?
Answer:
The various types of markets found are

  • Wholesale market
  • Weekly market
  • Retail market
  • Shopping complexes and malls
  • Shops in the neighbourhood

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Discuss how people bargain in the market with an example. Can you think of a situation where the bargain would be unfair?
Answer:
Bargaining is a type of negotiation and discussion in which the buyer and seller of a good or service debate the price and exact nature of a transaction. If the bargaining reaches on agreement on mutual terms, the transaction takes place. Let’s understand with an example:

  • Maya asked the shopkeeper, “how much this shirt costs?”
  • Shopkeeper replied, “1000 rupees”.
  • Maya promptly replied, “500 rupees”.
  • Shopkeeper laughed and said, “Not possible, madam”.
  • Maya replied, “700 rupees and this is the final price”.
  • Shopkeeper replied, “Ok” and hand over the shirt to Maya.
  • Bargaining would be unfair in the following cases:
  • When we are getting the thing which is already at the lowest price and is of good quality.
  • The person is economically weak who is selling the thing and his livelihood depends on what he sells.

Question 2.
What are the characteristics of weekly market and wholesale market?
Answer:
The characteristics of weekly market are:

  • This market is found once in a week at a specific and particular place on a specific day.
  • This is not a daily market.
  • The traders set up temporary shops on the roadside or on open space for the day and closes it in the evening.
  • The goods are relatively cheaper as they have no expenses such as rent, electricity, etc.
  • The market sells almost everything such as lfom vegetables and fruits to the household things.
  • People can bargain here as there are many shops where one can find the same thing everywhere in the weekly market.
  • The characteristics of the wholesale market are:
  • Wholesale market is a place where goods are sold in lower price and in bulk.
  • A buyer can save lot of amount by buying from a wholesale market if he requires goods in bulk.
  • The wholesalers do not sale goods in less quantity.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Understanding Media

JAC Board Class 7th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Understanding Media

JAC Class 7th Civics Understanding Media InText Questions and Answers

Page 71

Question 1.
Look at the collage on the left and list six various kinds of media that you see.
JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Understanding Media 1
Answer:
Six various kinds of media are:

  1. Newspaper
  2. Mobile phones
  3. Radio
  4. Television
  5. Internet
  6. Cyber Cafe

Question 2.
Ask older members of your family about what they used to listen to on the radio when there was no TV around. Find out from them when the first TV came to your area. When was cable TV introduced?
Answer:
The older member of the family used to listen news of national and international importance. Different types of programmes were also broadcasted such as on science, agriculture, entertainment etc. There were sports commentaries too but during the matches such as football commentary. Entertainment programmes were such as nataks or dramas, songs, kids play etc. The first television came to my place in the early 1980s and Cable TV was introduced in the year 1984.

Question 3.
How many people in your neighbourhood use the Internet?
Answer:
Almost everyone uses the Internet in my neighbourhood.

Question 4.
List three things that you know about some other part of the world from watching television.
Answer:
Three things that I know about some other part of the world from watching television are :

  1. Australian Open in Lawn Tennis was won by Novak Djokovic.
  2. Terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre in USA.
  3. Grammy Awards ceremony held in United States.

Page 72

Question 5.
Can you list three different products that are advertised during your favourite TV programme?
Answer:
Three different products that are advertised during my favourite TV programme are

  1. Colgate Toothpaste
  2. Maggi
  3. Suzuki Bikes

Question 6.
Take a newspaper and count the number of advertisements in it. Some people say that newspapers have too many advertisements. Do you think this is true and why?
Answer:
Yes, every newspaper contains lots of advertisements. A lot of money is spent on getting the latest and new technologies as the technology of mass media keeps changing. Due to these costs, mass media needs lots of money. Hence, this is one method to earn money by advertising various products like food items, shoes, accessories, cars, bikes etc.

Page 74

Question 7.
Are the above stories in the two newspapers similar? And if not, why not? What, in your view, are the similarities and the differences?
JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Understanding Media 2
Answer:
No, the above stories in the two newspapers are not similar. In the News of India newspaper, the report is about the nuisance created by the protestors. They disrupted the traffic and continually polluted the city which gave a bad impression of the factories. Whereas, India Daily reports that they are protesting because a lot of livelihood will be lost if the factories shuts down.

Similarities Dissimilarities
In both the reports, the protestors were assured by the government that they will relocate the factories to some other place. The News of India reports that closure of factories will give us neat, clean and green city.
Both the newspaper reports about the protests due to the factories shut down. The India Daily reports that the closure of factories will give many loss of livlihoods.

Question 8.
If you read the story in the News of India, what would you think about the issue?
Answer:
Since the government has taken a decision to close the factories which lead to pollution and it will reduce by the closure. But, the government’s decision infuriated and provoked the factory owners and the workers. The protest started due to this decision.

Page 75

Question 9.
Do you think it is important to know both sides of the story? Why?
Answer:
Yes, it is important to know both sides of the story because then only we will be able develop our own opinions and views about the story unbiasedly.

Question 10.
Pretend that you are a journalist for a newspaper and write a balanced story from the two news reports,
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.

Page 77

Question 11.
What is the consequence of the media ‘setting the agenda’ by reporting on the Fashion Week rather than the slum demolitions?
Answer:
The consequence of the media ‘setting the agenda’ by reporting on the Fashion Week rather than the slum demolitions is that the media earns a good amount of money and fame as well.

Question 12.
Can you think of an issue that does not seem important to you because it is never featured in the media?
Answer:
An issue that does not seem important to you because it is never featured in the media is the price hike of the essential and daily use commodities.

JAC Class 7th Civics Understanding Media Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
In what ways does the media play an important role in a democracy?
The media plays an important role in a democracy:

  • The media provides news and discuss events taking place in the country and the world. It is on the basis of this information that people can get information about how government works.
  • It also criticizes and depricate the unpopular policies and programmes of the government.
  • On behalf of public, it forms the public opinion.
  • It raises issues and problems related ‘ to common people.
  • It also acts as reminder for the government about their promises.

Question 2.
Can you give this diagram a title? What do you understand about the link between media and big business from this diagram?
JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Understanding Media 3
Answer:
The title we can give ‘Media and Giant Corporate Houses’. From this diagram it is clear that some big corporate and business houses have their own television channels and newspapers. They show news of interest to the people on television and newspaper and advertise their own product in between. To make money, independent media houses also advertise product of big business houses. As a result, most television channels and newspapers are part of big business houses. People are influenced by these advertisements to buy these advertised products of the big business houses and money flow back to them.

Question 3.
You have read about the ways in which the media ‘sets the agenda’. What kind of effect does this have in a democracy? Provide two examples to support your point of view.
Answer:
The media plays an important role in deciding what stories to emphasize on and decides on what is newsworthy. By emphasizing on particular issues and points, the media influences our thoughts, feelings and actions and brings those issues to our attention. Examples are:

  • The media drew our attention to alarming levels of pesticides in cola drinks. They published reports that indicated the high level of pesticides, hence, according to international quality and safety standards we need to regularly monitor these colas and made us aware of the fact.
  • The media drew our attention to suicide committed by farmers due to drought which leads to large scale movement and forced the government to look further on this issue.

Question 4.
As a class project, decide to fucns on a particular news topic and cut out stories from different newspapers on this. Also watch the coverage of this topic on TV news. Compare two newspapers and write down the similarity and differences in their reports. It might help to ask the following questions.

  1. What information is this article providing?
  2. What information is it leaving out?
  3. From whose point of view is the article being written?
  4. Whose point of view is being left out and why?

Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.

Question 5.
Do projects (solo, pair or group) about types of advertisements. Create commercial advertisements about some products and social advertisements about public health, road safety and the need to save water and energy.
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.

JAC Class 7thCivics Understanding Media Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
The one word which includes television, radio, newspaper, books, internet and other means of communications is
(a) censorship
(b) media
(c) technology
(d) advertisements
Answer:
(b) media

Question 2.
An example of mass media is
(a) watching news on TV or listening songs in radio
(b) playing football with friends
(c) roaming in the city and eating delicious foods
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) watching news on TV or listening songs in radio

Question 3.
The medium through which we get the picture in our television is
(a) mobile phones
(b) censorship
(c) satellite and cables
(d) public transport
Answer:
(c) satellite and cables

Question 4.
The Emergency Period was from
(a) 1965 to 1975
(b) 1975 to 1977
(c) 1970 to 1977
(d) 1985 to 1990
Answer:
(b) 1975 to 1977

Question 5.
The earliest form of mass media is
(a) print Media
(b) digital Media
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Either (a) or (b)
Answer:
(a) print Media

Question 6.
…. is not a part of digital media.
(a) Television
(b) Internet
(c) Cellular Phones
(d) Books and magazines
Answer:
(d) Books and magazines

Question 7.
Prasar Bharti includes
(a) Doordarshan (Television)
(b) All India Radio
(c) Internet
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Answer:
(d) Both (a) and (b)

Question 8.
The Right to Information Act was passed on
(a) January, 2005
(b) May, 2008
(c) October, 2005
(d) July, 2002
Answer:
(a) January, 2005

Question 9.
Television was invented by
(a) Thomas Edison
(b) J.L. Baird
(c) Madam Curie
(d) Galileo
Answer:
(b) J.L. Baird

Question 10.
The newspapers which are published in Hindi is/are
(a) Punjab Kesari
(b) Hindustan
(c) Dainik Jagran
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Do you think television influences us? How?
Answer:
Yes, television influences us. It shapes our views of the world, our beliefs, attitudes and values.

Question 2.
Why do yoir think newspapers are called print media?
Answer:
Newspapers are called print media because they are in printed form.

Question 3.
Give examples of local media.
Answer:
Examples of local media are Community Radio, Documentary Films, Local newspaper such as ‘KhabarLahriya’.

Question 4.
What do you mean by broadcast?
Answer:
Broadcast is used to refer to a television or radio programmes that are widely transmitted.

Question 5.
What do you understand by censorship?
Answer:
Censorship refers to the powers that government has to disallow or prevent media from publishing or showing certain stories.

Question 6.
Why we need to analyse the news?
Answer:
We need to analyze the news because the ‘factual information’ that a news report provides is often incomplete and can be one-sided.

Question 7.
Mention one way in which mass media earns money.
Answer:
One way in which the mass media earns money is by advertising different products such as cars, chocolates, clothes, mobile phones, etc.

Question 8.
Why are some advertisements shown repeatedly on the television screen?
Answer:
Advertisements are repeatedly shown on the television screen because these will influence the people and they will go out and buy what is advertised.

Question 9.
Is it necessary for media to be independent? Why?
Answer:
Yes, it is necessary for media to be independent because then only media can deliver a balanced report and information.

Question 10.
Which is the lighthouse of democracy?
Answer:
The media is lighthouse of democracy because it is the media who awares people about their rights. The government is criticised for its wrong doings by it. It also helps to maintain transparency.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Television is known as a window of the world. How?
Answer:
Television is known as a window of the world because a lot of our impressions about the world around us are formed by what we see and listen on television.

Question 2.
List one useful feature about internet.
Answer:
One useful feature of internet is that we always get the latest information on internet as we can read latest news and gain knowledge about the latest products within minutes of their release.

Question 3.
What do you mean by public protest?
Answer:
Public protest is a type of protest when a large number of people come together and openly state their opposition to some issue. Organising a rally, starting a signature campaign, blocking roads, etc. are some of the ways in which public protest is done.

Question 4.
Define an independent media.
Answer:
An independent media means that no one should control and influence and affect its coverage of news. No one should tell the media what can be included and what should not be included in a news story. They should not be biased.

Question 5.
What do you understand by the term mass media?
Answer:
Television, radio and newspapers are a form of media that reaches millions of people or the masses across the country and the world are known as mass media.

Question 6.
Why do you think media is not interested in covering small issues that involve common people and their daily lives?
Answer:
Media is not interested in covering small issues that involve common people and their daily lives because these issues generally not attract many reader or viewer and may affect their business.

Question 7.
In what ways media and money are interrelated?
Answer:
The different technologies that mass media use are very costly and expensive. In a news studio, it is not only the newsreader who needs to be paid but also a number of other people who help put the broadcast together. The technologies that mass media use keep changing and hence lots of money is spent on getting the latest technology. Due to these costs, the mass media needs a great deal of money to do its work. So, we can say that media and money are interrelated.

Question 8.
Explain in brief that ‘Most television channels and newspapers are part of big business houses’.
Answer:
The statement ‘Most television channels and newspapers are part of big business houses’ is true. In a news studio, it is not only the newsreader who needs to be paid but also a number of other people who help put the broadcast together. This includes those who look after the cameras, lights, research people, etc. As you know that the technologies of mass media which is used keeps on changing and hence a lot of money is spent on getting the latest technology. Due to these costs, the mass media needs a great deal of money to do its work and the big business houses provide it.

Question 9.
In what ways, dees technology affect the media industry?
Answer:
Making technology more modem and advanced and changing technology or machines help media to reach more people. It also improves the quality of sound and the images that we hear and see. But technology does more than this. It also changes the ways in which we think about our lives. Now a days, it is quite difficult for us to think of our lives without television. Television has enabled us to think of ourselves as members of a larger global world. The world has come closer to us. Television images travel huge distances through satellites and cables which permits us to view news and entertainment channels from other parts of the world.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain local media.
Answer:
Local media covers small and minute issues that involves common people and their daily lives. Several local groups have come forward to start their own media. Several people use community radio to tell farmers about the prices of different crops and advise them on the use of seeds and fertilisers. Other people make documentary films with very low budget and cheap and easily available video cameras on real-life conditions and problems faced by different poor communities.

At times, even they have given the poor people these video cameras to make films on their own lives. We can see an example. A newspaper called Khabar Lahriya which is a fortnightly that is run by eight Dalit women in Chitrakoot district in Uttar Pradesh. Written in the local language Bundeli. This eight-page newspaper reports on Dalit issues and cases of violence against women and political corruption.

Question 2.
In what ways we can say that media is. still not free to give unbiased and unprejudiced news and stories?
Answer:
We can say that media is still not free to give unbiased and unprejudiced news and stories mainly because of two reasons:

  • The first one is that the government has the control on the media. When the government prevents and bans either a news item or scenes from a movie or the lyrics of a song from
    being shared with the larger public this is referred to as censorship. There have been periods in Indian history when the government censored the media.
  • Second one is that at times, it is in the interest of these businesses to focus on only one side of the story. Media’s continual need for money and its connects to advertising means that it becomes difficult for media to be reporting against people who give them advertisements and money.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Women Change the World

JAC Board Class 7th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Women Change the World

JAC Class 7th Civics  Women Change the World InText Questions and Answers

Page 55

Question 1.
Fill in the table below. Add up the number of male and female images separately for each occupation.

Category Male Image Female Image
Teacher 15 35
Farmer 47 04
Factory Worker 50 20
Nurse 0 43
Scientist 38 08
Pilot 63 7

(a) Are there more images of men than women?
(b) In what kinds of jobs were there more images of men than women?
(c) Have all the nurses been drawn as females? Why?
(d) Are there fewer images of female farmers? If so, why?
Answer:
(a) Yes, there more images of men than women.

(b) Men are mostly employed more in all of the above works such as fanner, scientist, pilot, etc. than . women.

(c) Yes, all the nurses have been drawn as females. The women are more patient and take good care of people than men so the number of nurses is more as women.

(d) Yes, there are fewer images of female farmers. The reason is that farming is very tough and strenuous job. Physical work such as ploughing, sowing, harvesting, threshing etc. are very tough. They majorly assist their male partners but now a days we can see many women in the field doing this job.

Page 56

Question 2.
How does your class exercise compare with Rosie Ma’am’s class exercise?

Category Male Image Female Image
Teacher 5 25
Farmer 30 0
Factory Worker 25 5
Nurse 0 30
Scientist 25 5
Pilot 27 3

Answer:
The exercise done and that of Rosie Ma’am is same in the numbers of images in the categories, the male numbers are also more as ours. No comparison can be done.

Page 58

Question 3.
Read the story given in the book and answer the questions:
JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Women Change the World 1
(a) If you were Xavier, what subject would you choose and why?
(b) In your experience, what are some of the other pressures that boys experience?

Answer:
(a) If I were Xavier then I would choose History because this helps us to know the past and about our culture as well. Apart from this, I am very much interested about past to learn.

(b) The other pressures that boys experience are that there parents want them to study mostly, science, maths, computers which can bring them excellent and high profile jobs. They are also pressurized to think about getting a good job that will pay them a lucrative salary. Even if they are interested. in History or Geography, then they won’t be able to study as there parents don’t want.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Women Change the World

Page 62

Question 4. Study the table below and answer the following questions:

Level AW SC ST
Boy Girls Tbtal Boy Girts Tntal BOy Girls Total
Primary (Classes 1-5) 4.36 3.88 4.13 4.71 4.20 4.46 7.02 6.84 6.93
Lpper’Primary (( lasses 6-8) . 3.49 4.60 4.03 5.00 6.03 5.51 8.48 8.71 8.59
Secondary (Classes 9-10) 17.21 16.88 17.06 19.64 19.05 19.36 24.94 24.40 24.68

(a) What percentage of children leave school at the elementary level?
(b) At which level of education do you see the highest percentage of children leaving?
(c) Why do you think that the percentage of Adivasi girls and boys leaving school is higher than that of any other group?
Answer:
(a) The percentage of children leave school at the elementary level is 52%.

(b) At secondary level of education, we see the highest percentage of children leaving.

(c) The percentage of Adivasi girls and boys leaving school is higher than that of any other group because in rural and poor regions of our country, there are no proper schools. Hence, there are no teachers to teach them. They are sometimes discriminated by the teachers and the students. If the school is far from there home and transport facility is not available then they don’t send their children to school.

Question 5.
From the given table, convert the figures of primary class children who leave school into a bar diagram. Two percentages have already been converted for you in the bar diagram on the left.
JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Women Change the World 2
Answer:
Students need to do it own their own.

JAC Class 7th Civics  Women Change the World Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
How do you think stereotypes, about what women can or cannot do, affect women’s right to equality?
Answer:
Most of the time women are considered lower in status to men. There is a belief that women lack the technical mind and hence, cannot be a scientist. Women are always considered that they are good in taking care of people and are patient. So, they can be teachers, nurses, etc. these stereotypes about women affect women’s right to equality very badly. Due to this rationale behaviour and cause women are paid less than men.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Women Change the World

Question 2.
List one reason why learning the alphabet was so important to women like Rashsundari Devi, Ramabai and Rokeya.
Answer:
Learning the alphabet was so important to women like Rashsundari Devi, Ramabai and Rokeya because they were able to write only after that. The stories, autobiographies which explained and described their own experiences about inequality.

Question 3.
“Poor girls drop out of school because they are not interested in getting an education.” Re-read the last paragraph on page 62 and explain why this statement is not true.
Answer:
Poor girls do not leave school on then wish but they are compelled to do so because they are from those regions of the country where there is no school, no teacher. If they have school which is not near to their home, their parent won’t send them as they do not have transport facilities also.

Question 4.
Can you describe two methods of struggle that the women’s movement used to raise issues? If you had to organise a struggle against stereotypes, about what women can or cannot do, what method would you employ from the ones that you have read about? Why would you choose this particular method?
Answer:
Many methods of struggle have been used in women’s movement to raise their voice on different issues. Two methods are:

  • One of the important part of women’s movement is campaigning. It fights violence, discrimination against women. New laws have been passed due to campaigning.
  • The women’s movement led the Supreme Court to formulate rules and guidelines in 1997 to protect women against any type of harassment such as sexual harassment in workplace. Harassment at home in the form of dowry. Voices has been raised against it as well.
  • When violations against women happened, the women’s movement raised its voice. The powerful way of drawing attention are bringing out rallies and demonstrations against injustice.

I would like to employ the method of raising awareness if I had to organise a struggle against the stereotypes. Awareness can work effectively while pressurizing sometimes doesn’t work. Through street plays, nukkad natak, songs, public meetings, we can realize the common people about the injustice which is happening.

JAC Class 7thCivics Women Change the World Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
‘Amar Jiban ’ was written by
(a) Rashsundari Devi
(b) Ramabai
(c) Sarojini Naidu
(d) Rani Lakshmibai
Answer:
(a) Rashsundari Devi

Question 2.
The International Women’s Day is celebrated on
(a) 6th March
(b) 8th April
(c) 8th March
(d) 8th May
Answer:
(c) 8th March

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Women Change the World

Question 3.
The first women driver of Northern railways is
(a) Lakshmi Leela
(b) Laxmi Lakra
(c) Satundarya Devi
(d) Bachendri Pal
Answer:
(b) Laxmi Lakra

Question 4.
Female are engaged in as …… more than males.
(a) farming
(b) factory workers
(c) painting
(d) nursing
Answer:
(d) nursing

Question 5.
For spreading awareness amongst the common people are
(a) songs
(b) public meetings
(c) street plays
(d) All of the above
Answer:
(d) All of the above

Question 6.
The National Commission on Women was established in India in
(a) 1975
(b) 1992
(c) 1986
(d) 1998
Answer:
(b) 1992

Question 7.
The title ‘Pandita’ was given to
(a) Ramabai
(b) Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain
(c) Laxmi Lakra
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(a) Ramabai

Question 8.
Scheduled Tribe is the official term for
(a) Dalit
(b) Adivasi
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) Either (a) or (b)
Answer:
(b) Adivasi

Question 9.
Ramabai set up a Mission in 0……… near Pune.
(a) khedgaon
(b) nasik
(c) lonavala
(d) mahabaleshwar
Answer:
(a) khedgaon

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Women Change the World

Question 10.
Satyarani was a
(a) first engine driver
(b) first commercial pilot
(c) active member of…… women’s Movement
(d) first woman lawyer
Answer:
(c) active member of…… women’s Movement

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who wrote Sultana’s Dream and in which year?
Answer:
Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain wrote Sultana’s Dream and in the year 1905.

Question 2.
Why was Satyarani’s daughter murdered?
Answer:
Satyarani’s daughter was murdered for dowry.

Question 3.
What type of agricultural work women do?
Answer:
The type of agricultural work women do are ploughing, planting, weeding, harvesting and threshing.

Question 4.
What is the percentage of women in India who are engaged in agricultural work?
Answer:
The percentage of women in India who are engaged in agricultural work is 83.6%.

Question 5.
What are the different means of raising awareness among the people?
Answer:
Message can be spread through street plays, songs and public meetings.

Question 6.
Why girls cannot continue their education mostly in rural areas?
Answer:
Girls cannot continue their education mostly in rural areas because of poverty and discrimination.

Question 7.
What reasons led some women to question the situation of women in society?
Answer:
The reasons which led some women to question the situation of women in society are learning to read and write.

Question 8.
In what ways did Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain learn to read and write Bangla and English?
Answer:
Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain learnt to read and write Bangla and English with the support of her elder brother and an elder sister.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Women Change the World

Question 9.
What do you mean by woman entrepreneur?
Answer:
A woman who takes initiatives, organises and operates a business enterprise is called as woman entrepreneur.

Question 10.
Women’s economic work is underestimated ih different reports in India. Why?
Answer:
Women’s economic work is underestimated in different reports in India because they are mostly employed in unorganised sectors.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
In what ways did Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain help the other girls?
Answer:
Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain’s education gave her the power not only to dream and write but also to do more such as to help other girls go to school and to build their own dreams. In 1910, she started a school for girls in Kolkata and till date the school is still functioning.

Question 2.
Government of India conduct census every 10 years. Why?
Answer:
Government of India conduct census every 10 years which counts the whole population of the country. It also gathers detailed information about the people living in India such as their age, schooling, what work they do, where do they live, how many members in the family and so on. This information is used to measure many things like the number of literate people and the ratio of men and women.

Question 3.
Who was Rashsundari Devi and what did she write in her autobiography?
Answer:
Rashsundari Devi was a housewife from a rich landlord’s family. At the age of 60, she wrote her autobiography in Bangla. Her book titled Amar Jiban is the first known autobiography written by an Indian woman. She wrote about her everyday life experiences in details in her autobiography which was written some 200 years ago.

Question 4.
Write a short note on Sultana’s Dream.
Answer:
The story imagined about a woman named Sultana who reaches a place called Ladyland. Ladyland is a place where women had the freedom to study, work, and create inventions and discoveries such as controlling rain V from the clouds and flying air cars etc. In this Ladyland, the men had been sent into seclusion, their aggressive guns and other weapons of war defeated by the brain-power of women. This book was written by Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain at the age of 25 years in 1905.

Question 5.
Who started a mission in Khedgaon near Pune in 1898? What was the mission about and how did it help the women?
Answer:
Ramabai started a Mission in Khedgaon near Pune in 1898 where widows and poor women were encouraged not only to become literate but to be independent. They were taught different skills from carpentry to running a printing press, the skills which are not usually taught to girls even today. Ramabai’s Mission is still active today.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Women Change the World

Question 6.
Explain the terms Discrimination, Violation and Sexual harassments.
Answer:
Discrimination:
When we do not treat people equally or with respect, we are indulging in discrimination. It generally happens when people or organisations act on their prejudices. Discrimination usually takes place when we treat someone differently or make a distinction or biased with someone.

Violation:
When someone forcefully breaks the law or a mle or openly shows disrespect or doesn’t follow the law, we say that he or she has committed a violation.

Sexual harassment:
It refers to physical or verbal behaviour that is of a sexual nature and against the wishes of a woman. When women are abused as well, we say that she has been harassed.

Question 7.
Brief in short about Rashsundari Devi and her contribution in improving women situation in the society.
Answer:
Rashsundari Devi was bom in West Bengal some 200 years ago. At the age of 60, she wrote her autobiography in Bangla and Amar Jiban is the first known autobiography written by an Indian woman. Rashsundari Devi was a housewife from a rich landlord’s family. At that time, it was believed that if a woman learnt to read and write, she would bring bad luck to her husband and become a widow. Despite this, she taught herself how to read and write in secret, well after her marriage. She led the way that it was superstitions those held women back as not to make them educated.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Women Change the World

Question 8.
What is the major reason of concern though the literacy rate have increased after independence.
Answer:
It is quite relevant that the literacy rate have increased after independence. According to the 1961 census, about 40 per cent of all boys and men were literate compared to just 15 per cent of all girls and women. In the census of 2001, these figures have grown to 76 per cent for boys and men, and 54 per cent for girls and women. It means that the ratio of both men and women who are now able to read and have at least some amount of schooling has increased. But the major concern is that the percentage of the male group is still higher than the female group. The gap has not gone away. Still there is discrimination between boys and girls in India.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Discuss in brief tbe life history of Laxmi Lakra.
Answer:
Laxmi Lakra :

  • Laxmi Lakra is from a poor tribal family in Jharkhand. She is the first woman engine driver for Northern Railways.
  • Laxmi studied in a government school. She studied hard and did well and then went on to get a diploma in electronics.
  • She then took the railway board exam and passed it on her first attempt. In this way she broke the stereotype that engine drivers could be men only.
  • Laxmi says, ‘I love challenges and the moment somebody says it is not for girls, I make sure I go ahead and do it.’
  • Laxmi has had to do this several times in her life as such instances came many a times ,when she wanted to take electronics; when she rode motorcycles at the polytechnic; when she decided to become an engine driver.

Question 2.
Explain the different ways which women apply to fight discrimination and seek justice.
Answer:
The different ways which women apply to fight discrimination and seek justice:

  • Raising Awareness :
    women work hard to raise awareness on women’s rights issues. They do these through various means such as street plays or nukkad natak, songs, public meetings, etc.
  • Protesting :
    women rise in protest whenever a law or policy acts against the betterment or interest of women by holding public rallies, demonstrations. These are the powerful and substantial methods of drawing attention to injustice which is happening.
  • Campaigning :
    It has led to a new law which has been passed in 2006. This law gives protection to women against dowry solidarity with other women and for their causes and pains.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Growing up as Boys and Girls

JAC Board Class 7th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Growing up as Boys and Girls

JAC Class 7th Civics Growing up as Boys and Girls InText Questions and Answers

Page 45

Question 1.
In what ways do the experiences of Samoan children and teenagers differ from your own experiences of growing up? Is there anything in this experience that you wish was part of your growing up?
Answer:
The experiences of Samoan children and teenagers differ from us is that they did not go to school. They used to do household work and looked after there siblings who were younger to them. Another major activity of the Samoan children were fishing. We cannot think our life without school as a child. We go to school daily and learn many new things from our parents and. teachers. We don’t have much free time as we have to do homework after the school is over. We play in the evening after finishing our school work.

Page 46

Question 2.
Make a drawing of a street or a park in your neighbourhood. Show the different kinds of activities young boys and girls may be engaged in. You could do this individually or in groups.
Answer:
Students need to do it own their own.

Question 3.
Are there as many girls as boys in your drawing? Most probably you would have drawn fewer girls. Can you think of reasons why there are fewer women and girls in your neighbourhood streets, parks and markets in the late evenings or at night?
Answer:
Students need to do it own their own.

Question 4.
Are girls and boys doing different activities? Can you think of reasons why this might be so? What would happen if you replaced the girls with the boys and vice-versa?
Answer:
Students need to do it own their own.

Page 49

Question 5.
Were Harmeet and Shonali correct in saying that Harmeet’s mother did not ‘ work?
Answer:
No, they were not at all correct in saying that Harmeet’s mother did not work. Harmeet’s mother did a lot of work at home and her work was not paid. Hence, they thought that their mother is not working.

Question 6.
What do you think would happen if your mother or those involved in doing the work at home went on a strike for a day?

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Growing up as Boys and Girls

Answer:
My daily activities and routine will be disturbed. Instead of going to school, I will have to do all household works such as have to prepare lunch, clean the house, etc. Even my father will face the problem as without my mother’s assistance, he can’t do anything.

Question 7.
Why do you think that men and boys generally do not do housework? Do you think they should?
Answer:
Men and boys generally do not do housework because

  • they think that they are meant for outdoor work while females are meant for indoor works,
  • they sometimes also feel that it will be against the norms of the society if they get themselves involved in the household works.

Page 50

Question 8.
What are the total number of work hours spent by women in Haryana and Tamil Nadu each week?

State Haryana Tamil
Women Paid (work hours per week) 23 Nadu
Women Unpaid (housework hours per week) 30 19
Women (Total) 7 35
Men Paid (work hours per week) 38 ?
Men unpaid (house work hours per week) 2 40
Men (Total) ? 4

Answer:
The total number of work hours spent by women in Haryana for each week is 53 hours and in Tamil Nadu, it is 54 horns.

Question 9.
How does this compare with the total number of work hours spent by men?
Answer:
In contrast to this, the total number of work hours spent by men is 40 hours in Haryana and 44 hours in Tamil Nadu.

JAC Class 7th Civics Growing up as Boys and Girls Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Are the statements given below are true or false. Support your answer with the use of an example
(a) All societies do not think similarly about the roles that boys and girls play.
(b) Our society does not make distinctions between boys and girls when they are growing up.
(c) Women who stay at home do not work.
(d) The work that women do is less valued than that of men.
Answer:
(a) True, in most of the societies, the boy’s work is given more importance than the girl’s work.

(b) False, in most of the societies, there is a discrimination among the boys and the girls. Even while at their . growing age, boys are given cars to . play and girls are given dolls. Boys are taught to be tough and serious while girls are taught to be soft and mild.

(c) False, women who stay at home do many household works. They cook food, clean the house, wash the clothes, take* care of the children and old people etc which are very strenuous.

(d) True, most of the women do all household works and care giving tasks which are in continuation and don’t get leave even. Yet, the work that women do are not recognized as work. It is presumed that it is something which comes naturally to women. Hence, they are not to be paid and the work that women do are less valued than that of men.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Growing up as Boys and Girls

Question 2.
Housework is invisible and unpaid work. Housework is physically demanding. Housework is time consuming. Write in your own words what is meant by the terms ‘invisible’, ‘physically demanding’, and ‘time consuming’? Give one example of each based on the household tasks undertaken by women in your home.
Answer:
Invisible:
The work that is not seen with our eyes. As for example the women does the housework and care-giving task means looking after the children and old people, if. any member is sick than the women has to take care of that person. Apart from this they have to do other works such as cooking, washing, cleaning, etc., which are not recognized and remains invisible.

Physically demanding:
It means very tough and difficult work. As for example inside the home, women do many types of work which require physical strength as well. Fetching water from far-off places and carrying it on their head, head loads of firewood, washing clothes of every member of the house, etc., are very difficult and tough. Still without any complaints, women do it everyday.

Time-consuming:
It means various household work are time taking process. As for example from early morning, women starts their daily routine and it goes till late night. During this time, they are busy in doing different works and fulfilling everyone’s wishes. They also help there children to complete their homeworks and studies which is also very time consuming.

Question 3.
Make a list of toys and games that boys typically play and another for girls. If there is a difference between the two lists, can you think of some reasons why this is so? Does this have any relationship to the roles children have to play as adults?
Answer:
List of toys and games that

Boy Girl
Cars, trucks,

buses, guns,

sword, lions,

tigers, horses,

cricket, football, kabaddi, etc.

Dolls, Barbie,

houses, kitchen

set, hide and

seek,pittho, etc.

Some of the games are also played by the boys. But, from the above list we can say that there is a difference between the toys with which the boys play and with which the girls play.

Reason:
Our society make a clear distinction between boys and girls from very early age. Boys are taught to be rough and tough and girls to soft and mild. Boys are expected to work in which they can show there manly features and girls to remain in their limits with feminine virtues. Later these factors affect a lot when they grow up as man and woman. It even affects their studies and career as well.

Question 4:
If you have someone working as a domestic help in your house or locality talk to her and find out a little bit more about her life  Who are her family members? Where is her home? How many hours does she work? How much does she get paid? Write a small story based on these details.
Answer:
Jyotsna has been working in our house from many years as a domestic help. She is from Bihar. She lives in Delhi with her family comprising of her husband, father-in-law, mother-in-law, brother- in-law and her two kids. She works in six houses and comes very early in the morning. After completing the morning work in our society, she goes back to her home and then do her own household works and take care of her two kids as they are small.

In the evening, she again comes and the rest of her work in the society. She does her work skillfully and efficiently. She is very polite and hardworking. Due to this reason, she has developed good relations with all her owners where she works. In total, she earn about ? 14#00/- . Everyone helps her when she is in need of anything like doctors, medicines, clothing, etc. Her husband works as a mechanic who also earns well. Hence, Jyotsna leads a happy life with her family.

JAC Class 7thCivics Growing up as Boys and Girls Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
The different roles assigned to the boys and girls lead to
(a) It makes them rude.
(b) It prepares them for the future roles as men and women
(c) It prepares them to be scared and afraid
(d) It makes them dull.
Answer:
(b) It prepares them for the future roles as men and women

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Growing up as Boys and Girls

Question 2.
In the Samoan island, the most important activity for the young people was
(a) fishing
(b) cultivation
(c) hunting
(d) studying
Answer:
(a) fishing

Question 3.
In the Samoan island, the boys joined the older boys as they attain the age of around 9 years for fishing and other activities. The girls at this age were
(a) going to the forest and hunt wild animals
(b) not doing anything
(c) going for fishing and earn money by selling them
(d) looking after small children and do work for the adults till they were the teenagers
Answer:
(d) looking after small children and do work for the adults till they were the teenagers

Question 4.
After the age of fourteen years, the girls were free to do
(a) Ashing trips
(b) learning weaving baskets
(c) plantations
(d) all of the above
Answer:
(d) all of the above

Question 5.
In Madhya Pradesh, the girl’s school were different from the boy’s school. The difference was
(a) girl’s school had shops near the playground
(b) girls school had big trees around  the playground
(c) girl’s school had a central courtyard where they played in total isolation and safety from the outside world
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(c) girl’s school had a central courtyard where they played in total isolation and safety from the outside world

Question 6.
To play, boys are given cars, bikes and girls the dolls. This shows that
(a) different toys give them variety to play
(b) it becomes a way of telling children that they will have different futures as when they grow up
(c) this tells nothing
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(b) it becomes a way of telling children that they will have different futures as when they grow up

Question 7.
The child care centres in many villages are known as
(a) Anganwadis
(b) Naari Sudhar Samiti
(c) Bal ashrams
(d) Dharamshalas
Answer:
(a) Anganwadis

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Growing up as Boys and Girls

Question 8.
The work of men and women are
(a) equally valued
(b) women’s work is more valued than the men’s work
(c) not equally valued
(d) all of the above
Answer:
(c) not equally valued

Question 9.
The girls and boys go to separate school in Madhya Pradesh from
(a) class III onwards
(b) class IV onwards
(c) class V onwards
(d) class VI onwards
Answer:
(d) class VI onwards

Question 10.
Melani was a
(a) factory worker .
(b) domestic worker
(c) shopkepeer
(d) teacher
Answer:
(b) domestic worker

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why domestic worker’s wages are very low?
Answer:
Domestic worker’s wages are very low because there work are less valued as much as other works are valued.

Question 2.
Why do girls like to go to school in group?
Answer:
Girls like to go to school in groups because of fears of being teased or attacked.

Question 3.
What do we teach boys and girls from a very tender age?
Answer:
We teach boys to be tough and girls to talk softly.

Question 4.
Do you think Harmeet and Shonali was correct in saying that Harmeet’s mother did not work?
Answer:
No, Harmeet and Shonali were not correct in saying that Harmeet’s mother did not work.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Growing up as Boys and Girls

Question 5.
What do you mean by the term Double-burden?
Answer:
The term Double-burden means a double load. This term is generally used to describe the women’s work situation. It has emerged from a recognition that women make great effort both inside the home means household works and outside as well.

Question 6.
What do you mean by the term Identity?
Answer:
I dentity is a sense of self-awareness of who one is. Generally, a person can have several identities. As for example, a person can be a girl, a sister and a musician.

Question 7.
What do you mean by the term Care-giving?
Answer:
Care-giving refers to a series of tasks related to looking after and nurturing. Besides physical tasks, they also involve in a strong emotional and sentimental aspect.

Question 8.
Name some of the social reformers who work in- the field of gender equality and empowerment of women.
Answer:
The social reformers who work in the field of gender equality and empowerment of women are:

  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy
  • Swami Dayanand Saraswati
  • Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What measures to be taken to avoid gender discrimination?
Answer:
The measures to be taken to avoid gender discrimination are

  • awareness program on gender equality should be carried out.
  • the government should make out the reasons and find the solutions.
  • it has to be dealt with thorough actions not just at the individual level or by the family but by the community and the government as well.

Question 2.
Do you think .that men and boys generally do not do housework? Why?
Answer:
Men and boys generally do not do housework because it is assumed that this is something that comes naturally to women. Thus, across the world, the main responsibility for housework and care-giving tasks lies with women.

Question 3.
‘The work women do is strenuous and physically demanding.’ Why?
Answer:
Tasks like washing clothes, cleaning, sweeping and picking up loads require bending, lifting and carrying. Many household chores such as cooking, involve standing for long hours in front of hot stoves. Hence, the work women do is strenuous and physically demanding.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Growing up as Boys and Girls

Question 4.
What do you mean by the term De-valued?
Answer:
A person feels de-valued when someone is not given due recognition for a task or job they have done. As for example, if a boy has put in a lot of effort into making a special birthday gift for his friend and this friend does not say anything about this, then the boy may feel de-valued.

Question 5.
Why Harmeet think that her mother did not work?
Answer:
The main responsibility for housework and care-giving tasks such as looking after the family,especially children, the elderly and sick members, lies with women. The work that women do within the home is not recognised as work, ft is also assumed that this is something that comes naturally to women. Hence, does not have to be paid for. And that is why Harmeet thinks that her mother did not work.

Question 6. What role was assigned to young boys and girls in the Samoan Islands?
Answer:
Roles assigned to young boys and girls in the Samoan Islands are:

  • Both boys and girls have to look after their younger siblings.
  • But by the time a boy attains the age of about nine years, he joined the older boys in learning outdoor jobs such as fishing and planting coconuts.
  • After the age of fourteen or so girls also went on fishing trips, worked in the plantations and leamt how to weave baskets.
  • Boys were supposed to do most of the work in cooking while girls helped with the preparations in special cooking houses.

Question 7.
Explain the initiatives taken by the gover’nment to promote equality between the male or female.
Answer:
Government recognises that burden of child-care and housework falls on women and girls. This naturally has an impact on whether girls can attend school or not. It determines whether women can work outside the house and what kind of jobs and careers they can have. The government has set up anganwadis or child-care centres in several villages in the country. The government has passed laws that make it mandatory for organisations that have more than 30 women employees to provide creche facilities. The provision of creches helps many women to take up employment outside the home. It also makes it possible for more girls to attend schools.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Growing up as Boys and Girls

Question 8.
List any three major points of discrimination against girls and women in India.
Answer:
Three major points of discrimination against girls and women in India are:

  • Girls and women receive less health care facilities than men.
  • Women’s work is less valued though they work hard in society.
  • In rural regions, girls are given less education as compared to boys. They are forced to stay at home and help in household works.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Growing up in Samoa was different from other societies in the 1920s. How?
Answer:
Growing up in Samoa was different from other societies in the 1920s as:

  • In the 1920s, according to research reports on Samoan society, children did not go to school.
  • They leamt many things, such as how to take care of children or do household work from older children and from adults.

Fishing was a very important activity on the islands. Young people learnt to undertake long fishing expeditions. But they learnt these things at different points in their childhood. Both boys and girls looked after their younger siblings. But, by the time a boy attains the age of about nine years, he joined the older boys in learning outdoor jobs such as fishing and planting coconuts.

Girls had to continue looking after small children or do works for adults till they were teenagers. But once they became teenagers they had much more freedom. After the age of fourteen or so, girls also went on fishing trips, worked in the plantations and leamt how to weave baskets. Boys were supposed to do most of the work in cooking while girls helped with the preparations and it was done in special cooking-houses.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 How the State Government Works

JAC Board Class 7th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 How the State Government Works

JAC Class 7th Civics How the State Government Works InText Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is happening in Patalpuram?
Answer:
Patalpuram is facing a problem of severe water crisis. People are drinking unclean water as they have no other choice. Hence, they are becoming ill and having diarrhoea. Children are the most affected in this situation.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 How the State Government Works

Question 2.
Why is this problem serious?
Answer:
This problem is serious because a large number of people are facing the problem of serious and acute diarrhoea and many people died from this disease as well. Thus, it is important to take necessary steps to bring the situation under control immediately.

Question 3.
What action do you think can be taken in the above situation and who do you think should take this action? Discuss.
Answer:
Clean drinking water should be supplied to the people of Patalpuram. The MLA and the government should be responsible enough to take this action.

Page 32

Question 4.
Discuss the following terms with your teacher public meeting, States in India, constituency, majority, ruling party and opposition.
Answer:
Public meeting :
Public meetings are the assembly of general people in which they are made to know about the current problems faced by the people in general. States

In India:
India is divided into many units and parts with well defined boundaries. These parts or units are known as States in India.

Constituency :
Constituency is the area from where the eligible voters can cast their vote to elect their representative or leader.

Majority :
A political party whose MLAs have won more than half the number seats or constituencies in a state is said to be in majority.

Ruling party:
The party which has the majority is often known as the ruling party.

Opposition:
The elected representatives who are not from the ruling party are known as the opposition. The people can question the government’s decisions and actions. They can also raise new and concerned issues for the benefit of the people.

Question 5.
Can you explain the following terms majority, ruling party, opposition with reference to your state?
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own with ine ‘ne’ip oi teacher.

Page 33

Question 6.
Construct a table, similar to the one given for Himachal Pradesh, for your state.
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own with the help of teacher.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 How the State Government Works

Question 7.
At times, the ruling party may not be a single party but a group of parties working together. This is called a coalition. Discuss with your teacher.
Answer:
The coalition is formed when two or more parties come together and elect their leader. The state Governor appoints their leader as the Chief Minister. The coalition parties prepare the Common Minimum Programme and present it during the period for which the coalition is formed.

Page 35

Question 8.
Can you identify the MLAs of the ruling party and the opposition in the illustration? Colour the ruling party in one colour and the opposition in another.
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.

Page 1

Question 9.
What were the main arguments put forward by different MLAs who thought that th§ government was not taking the situation in a serious manner?
Answer:
MLA1:
He belongs to the Akhandagaon constituency. In last three weeks, several people died due to diarrhoea. He is very sad and upset that the government has not been able to check the situation although they proclaim that they are doing it.

MLA2:
He wants to know why the government hospitals are in bad conditions. We a’iso as’ks tiie government that how it plans to deal with this situation which is badly affecting the common people.

MLA3:
The Tolpatti constituency which he represents is facing shortage of water. Women had to fetch water from far away. He wants to know from the government that what actions are taken to clean and disinfect the wells and ponds.

Question 10.
If you were the health minister, how would you respond to the above discussion?
Answer:
If I were the health minister, I would promptly respond to the above discussion. I would have put mobile vans with equipments with doctors, nurses and health Workers into service for the ill people.

Question 11:
Do you think the above debate would have been useful in some ways? How? Discuss.
Answer:
Yes, the above debate would have been useful. It has highlighted many issues concerning about the public health and their solutions are sorted out in the minimum time.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 How the State Government Works

Question 12.
In the working of the government, explain the difference between being an MLA and an MLA who is also a minister.
Answer:
An MLA is only responsible for the development of his constituency whereas, an MLA who is a minister
also has to do dual responsibilities. He is accountable for the entire state as well for his constituency also.

Page 37

Question 13.
Write two measures that the government undertook for controlling diarrhoea. The two measures that the government undertook for controlling diarrhoea are:

  • To every village, there should be supply of water through tanker trucks.
  • Creating awareness through different campaigns in order to inform people about the measures to prevent diarrhoea.

Question 4.
What is the purpose of a press conference? How does the press conference help you get information on what the government is doing?
Answer:
The purpose of the press conference is to ask questions on a particular issues about the steps taken and hear about the same. The data collected by press conference is printed in newspaper and magazines for the common people. Such conference also create a public opinion about the issue.

Page 1

Question 15.
Find out with the help of your teacher, the work done by the government departments mentioned and fill in the table.
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own

Page 40

Question 16.
Do a similar wallpaper project about any issue connected with the working of your State Government like an education programme, any law and order issue, midday meal scheme, etc.
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.

JAC Class 7th Civics How the State Government Works Textbook Questions and Answers

Page 41

Question 1.
Use the terms ‘constituency’ and ‘represent’ to explain who an MLA is and how is the person elected?
Answer:
A state is divided into many regions known as constituencies on the basis of the population. For the Legislative Assembly, one representative is elected from every constituency and that person represents that constituency. That person is known as the Member of Legislative Assembly or MLA. Through general election, an MLA is elected. That person can be an independent or a member of a particular political party. The person who gets the maximum votes or wins the election becomes the MLA of that constituency.

Question 2.
How did some MLAs become Ministers? Explain.
Answer:
Some MLAs become Ministers as:

  • The party which is elected in majority or wins the election for the Legislative Assembly forms the government.
  • According to the constitutional norms, the ruling party elects its leader who is known as the Chief Minister, who heads the government.
  • The Chief Minister constitutes a cabinet which includes members of his party as ministers.
  • The MLAs who become the ministers are allotted with a portfolio or department of work.
  • Hence, the MLAs turned ministers become responsible for the entire state of that particular department.

Question 3.
Why should decisions taken by the Chief Minister and other ministers be debated in the Legislative Assembly?
Answer:
The decisions taken by the Chief Minister and other ministers are debated in the Legislative Assembly because at the time of debate it is discussed that whether the steps or decisions taken are in the interest of the common people or not. It is also discussed that whether it is urgent and important or not. Depending upon this they discuss how much would the cost incur of the government. They also see that anything objectionable is there for any particular community or not.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 How the State Government Works

Question 4.
What was the problem in Patalpuram? What discussion/ action was taken by the following? Fill in the table. Public Metting Legislative Assembly Press conference Chief Minister.
Answer:
Patalpuram was facing shortage of water.

Public’ Meeting Reprimanded and showed complete disapproval to the government and also showed protest, their demand were kept in front of the government.
Legislative Auembli Discussed the problems and issues and decided the actions and steps which are to be taken.
Press Conference The plan of action which was initiated by the government was presented by the Health Minister.
Chief Minister Announced the compensation to the affected family, also visited the village of Patalpuram. Clearly mentioned the future actions and steps to be taken to solve the problem.

Question 5.
What is the difference between the work that MLAs do in the Assembly and the work done by government departments?
Answer:
The difference between the work that MLAs do in the Assembly and the work done by government departments are that eveiy department is headed by the Minister who is also an MLA. Any work done or proposed by the department is approved by the minister. For the completion of work, the department is responsible whereas, the minister or MLA coordinate and synchronize between the Assembly and the departments.

JAC Class 7thCivics How the State Government Works Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
The multi-level system of government is called
(a) Unitary
(b) Federal
(c) Dictatorship
(d) Monarchy
Answer:
(b) Federal

Question 2.
The MLAs represent
(a) people
(b) technology
(c) themselves
(d) only the poor and the old
Answer:
(a) people

Question 3.
The state in India which has the highest number of constituencies is
(a) Uttar Pradesh
(b) Madhya Pradesh
(c) Kerala
(d) Maharashtra
Answer:
(a) Uttar Pradesh

Question 4.
The party or the coalition of parties that wins the election with more than half of the total number of constituencies in a state is called to be in a
(a) minority
(b) profit
(c) majority
(d) none of the above
Answer:
(c) majority

Question 5.
All the parties that failed to get the majority in the election are together are said to the
(a) majority
(b) opposition
(c) minority
(d) loss
Answer:
(b) opposition

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 How the State Government Works

Question 6.
The leader of the ruling party who is the head of the state as well of the country is known as
(a) Prime Minister
(b) MP
(c) MLA
(d) Chief Minister
Answer:
(d) Chief Minister

Question 7.
Legislative Assembly is also known as
(a) Vidhan Sabha
(b) Vidhan Parishad
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Lok Sabha
Answer:
(a) Vidhan Sabha

Question 8.
The Chief Minister is appointed by the
(a) President
(b) Prime Minister
(c) Governor of the state
(d) Any of the above
Answer:
(c) Governor of the state

Question 9.
The Governor of the state is appointed by the
(a) Prime Minister
(b) Supreme Court Judges
(c) High Court Judges
(d) President
Answer:
(d) President

Question 10.
The gives information to the people which acts as a link between the government and the people.
(a) Press conference
(b) Debates
(c) Mass media
(d) Mass distribution
Answer:
(c) Mass media

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which institution makes laws at the central or national level?
Answer:
The Parliament makes laws at the central or national level.

Question 2.
What is the urban local government known as?
Answer:
The urban local government is known as the Municipal Corporation.

Question 3.
Who gives the approval to the ministers to take certain decisions for the common people?
Answer:
Legislative Assembly gives the approval to the ministers to take certain decisions for the common people.

Question 4.
Does the Member of the Legislative Assembly elected by the people?
Answer:
Yes, the Member of the Legislative Assembly are elected by the people.

Question 5.
How many levels of government are there? Name them.
Answer:
There are three levels of Government present. The three levels are local, state and national.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 How the State Government Works

Question 6.
For what reason the governor of state is appointed?
Answer:
Governor of state is appointed to make sure that the State Government works

  • Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP)
  • Indian National Congress (INC)

Question 7.
What is wallpaper project?
Answer:
Wallpaper project is an interesting activity through which research can be done on particular topics of interest.

Question 8.
What do you understand by the Election Commission?
Answer:
Election Commission is an independent association or body in which the whole process of the election in our country is conducted, controlled and supervised.

Question 9.
What are the two main functions of Election Commission?
Answer:
The two main functions of Election Commission are :

  • to recognize all the political parties.
  • to allot symbols to the political parties and to independent candidates who are also contesting the election.

Question 10.
Name the two houses of state legislature in India.
Answer:
The two houses of state legislature in India are:
Legislative Assembly or Vidhan Sabha Legislative Council or Vidhan Parishad

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define political party. Name at least two national political parties in India.
Answer:
A political organisation that follows a particular ideology and seeks to attain the political power of the state as well as of the nation is known as the political party. Two national political parties in India are

Question 2.
List four features of electoral system of India.
Answer:
Four features of electoral system of India are:

  • Single member constituency
  • Joint electorate
  • Adult franchise
  • Election petition within the rules and regulations of the Constitution.

Question 3.
What do you understand by constituency?
Answer:
Constituency is a particular area or place from which all the voters living there choose their representatives. This could be such as a panchayat ward or an area that chooses an MLA.

Question 4.
How does a government function in a state?
Answer:
The people elect their representatives as Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) in the democracy, thus, it is the people who have the main authority. The ruling party members who wins the election then form the government and some members are appointed as ministers. These ministers are in charge of various departments of the government such as health, transport, etc. Whatever work is done by these departments has to be approved by the members of the legislative assembly.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 How the State Government Works

Question 5.
In India, what are the qualifications and the disqualifications of a voter?
Answer:
In India, the qualifications and the disqualifications of a voter are:
Question ualification: according to the law, a voter must

  • be a citizen
  • have attained the age of 18 years and above.

Disqualification: according to the law, a voter must not

  • be bankrupt, traitor to the country
  • be insane person
  • been convicted for any serious crime.

Question 6.
In what ways do the people in power like the chief minister and the minister take action?
Answer:
The people in power like the chief minister and the minister take action through various departments like the Public Works Department, the Agriculture Department, the Health Department, the Education Department and so on. They also have to answer questions that are asked in the Legislative Assembly and convince people asking the questions that proper steps are being taken. At the same time, newspapers and the media widely discuss the issue and the government has to respond, for example, by holding the press conferences.

Question 7.
What do you understand by debate?
Answer:
A discussion held in the Assembly to discuss current and important problems is known as the debate. During debate, the MLAs can express their views and ask questions related to the problems and issues. They could even give suggestions about what should be done by the government for the betterment of the people. The ministers then replies to the questions asked and give assurance to the Assembly that proper steps are being taken.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 How the State Government Works

Question 8.
Distinguish between By-election and Mid-term election.
Answer:

By-eieetion Mid- term eieetion
Before the completion of the tenure of the house, if the member of the parliament, state legislative assembly dies or resigns from his constituency then the election which takes place again is known as the byelection. Before the completion of the tenure of 5 years, sometimes the president dissolves the government of the state on the advice of the Prime minister. Then the fresh elections are held. This type of election is known as the mid-term election.

Question 9.
What were the ways by which the people of Patalpuram adopt to put their grievances?
Answer:
The people of Patalpuram organised a rally and gheraos of the MLAs residence. Their leader who was the member of the opposition party demanded loudly that the action and steps should be taken immediately and to bring the public health situation under control.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the process of emergence and development of government in a state.
Answer:
In India, every state has a Legislative Assembly. Each state is divided into different areas or constituencies. From each constituency, the people elect one representative who then becomes a Member of the Legislative Assembly or better known as MLA. People stand for elections in the name of different political parties. These MLAs belong to different political parties. Apolitical party whose MLAs have won more than half the number of constituencies in a state are said to be in a majority. The political party that has the majority forms the government.

In case no party gains the majority then in that case the party with maximum elected members tries to get support from different parties or candidates. The party that proves to have maximum supporters is allowed to form the government which is also known as the coalition government. If no party proves the majority then there would be reelection.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Role of the Government in Health

JAC Board Class 7th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Role of the Government in Health

JAC Class 7th CivicsRole of the Government in Health InText Questions and Answers

Page 19

Question 1.
Would you associate all or some of these pictures with ‘health’ ? In what ways? Discuss in groups.
Answer:
Students need to do it by themselves.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Role of the Government in Health

Question 2.
Pick two situations from the collage that are not related to illness and write two sentences on how they are related to health.
Students need to do it by themselves.

Question 3.
Can you provide a title to these columns?
Answer:
The titles can be:

  • Advancement in Health Care
  • Health situation in India

Question 4.
In India, it is often said that we are unable to provide health services for all because the government does not have enough money and facilities. After reading the above left hand column, do you think this is true? Discuss.
Answer:
No, it is not true because after reading the left hand side column, we came to know the following things:

  • Healthcare have grown significantly over the years.
  • India has the largest number of medical colleges in the world.
  • India is among the largest numbers of doctors.
  • India is the fourth largest producers of the medicines in the world.
  • India gets large number of medical tourists for many countries.

Page 21

Question 5.
Read the story given refer NCERT page-21. Then imagine that you are a Judge in the court. What would you say to Hakim Sheik?
Answer:
Being a Judge, I would try to give a fair judgment. He would be granted his due compensation and the doctors and the hospitals who denied to admit him and do the treatment would be given punishments.

Page 21

The story of Hakim Seikh Hakim Seikh was a member of the Paschim Banga Khet Mazdoor Samity (PBKMS), an organisation of agricultural labourers in West Bengal. One evening in 1992, he accidentally fell off a running train and suffered head injuries. He was in a very serious condition and needed immediate treatment. He was taken to a government hospital in Kolkata but they refused to admit him because they did not have a spare bed.Another hospital did not have the facility or the specialised doctors necessary for his treatment. I

n this way he spent 14 hours in a critical state and was taken to eight different government hospitals, but none of them admitted him. Finally, he was admitted in a private hospital, where he received treatment. He spent a lot of money oy his treatment.Angry and upset over the indifferent attitude of all the hospitals that refused to admit him, Hakim Seikh and PBKMS filed a case in the court.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Role of the Government in Health

Question 6.
Read the story given above. Then imagine that you are a Judge in the court. What would you say to Hakim Seikh?
Answer:
I would pronounce the judgement with due compensation to Hakim Seikh. I would also heavily fine the delinquent hospitals as deterrent punishment for dereliction of duty.

Page 24

Question 7.
Where do you go when you are ill? Are there any problems that you face? Write a paragraph based on your experience.
Ans:
I go to a private hospital or clinic. I prefer it because there is no rush. Doctors give attention to the patients immediately. We get all the services in one place only. Apart from this, the private clinics are neat and clean also. Problems to be face:

  • Non-availability of expert doctors on the spot-.
  • High cost of treatment.
  • No proper guidance and information.

Question 8.
Why did Ranjan have to spend so much money? Give reasons.
Answer:
Ranjan have to spend, so much money because his father took him to a private hospital and got a quick treatment as they are from a well to do family.

Question 9.
What problems did Aman face in the Government hospital? How do you think the hospital can work in a better manner? Discuss.
Answer:
In the public hospital, people always get long queues to wait for their turn. Hence, Aman also had to wait for his turn at the OPD section. He leaned on his father as he was feeling very sick. There turn came after a long wait and the doctor asked to do some blood tests. For blood tests also there was a long queue. They got the test results after three days.Again they visited the doctor but another doctor was on duty on that day and he prescribed the medicines.

In order to avoid these type of situations, there should be more qualified and experienced doctors and medically trained person. Facilities should be improved so that the people get the results little early. More branches of healthcare services should be provided. More mobile clinic should also be opened.

Question 10
What problems do we face in private hospitals? Discuss.
Answer:
In private hospitals we have to spend much more than the public hospitals. We have to buy the medicines from outside which the doctor will prescribe. Most of the time its mandatory to avail the facilities provided by hospital which is costlier then the outside market. Sometimes, some unnecessary tests and medicines are also given for their own profit which is not necessary for the patient.

Page 25

Question 11.
In what ways is the public health system meant for everyone?
Answer:
Public hospitals and health centres have been established by the government to provide healthcare to all citizens. The taxes we pay to the government are used to run these services. Hence, such facilities are meant for every citizen.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Role of the Government in Health

Question 12.
List some Public Health Centres (PHCs) or hospitals near your place. From your experience (or by visiting any one of them), find out the facilities provided and people who run the centre.
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.

Page 26

Question 13.
How can health care be made more affordable? Discuss.
Answer:
The different ways through which we can make healthcare affordable for all are:

  • Opening more numbers of hospitals, healthcare centres, dispensaries and family welfare centres.
  • Organizing more camps for the prevention of spreading of diseases such as pulse polio.
  • To provide cheaper health services and little early to the poor people.
  • Free camps for check up of general public should be increased.
  • Among common people, spreading
  • health awareness through different means.
  • Provisions should be made to deal with unwanted situations like emergency, epidemics and pandemics.

Question 14.
Private health facilities can mean many things. Explain with the help of some examples from your area.
Answer:
Private health facilities can mean many things’. Now a days these hospitals are run by big companies. Such companies
run several businesses associated with these centres such as the facilities of pathology, laboratory, medicines, etc.

JAC Class 7th Civics Role of the Government in Health Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
In this chapter you have read that health is a wider concept than illness. Look at this quote from the Constitution and explain the terms ‘living standard’ and ‘public health’ in your own words.
Answer:
Living standard :
it means the standard of living of people at which they live provided by the family or government. It also refers to the status earned by the people. It means that if they are having all comforts of life and live in a hygienic conditions then there standard of living is quite good. Whereas, if the person is not having all the necessary things for the day to day life, bound to live in a filthy and dirty place, drink polluted water and eat unhygienic foods, it means they have a low standard of living.

Public health:
it refers to the health of the general public of the country. It also refers to the-provision of quality healthcare services by the government either free or at low cost.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Role of the Government in Health

Question 2.
What are the different ways through which the government can take steps to provide healthcare for all? Discuss.
Answer:
The different ways through which the government can take steps to provide healthcare for all are:

  • Opening more numbers of hospitals, healthcare centres, dispensaries and family welfare centres.
  • Organizing more camps for the prevention of spreading of diseases such as pulse polio.
  • To provide cheaper health services and little early to the poor people.
  • Free camps for check up of general public should be increased.
  • Among common people, spreading health awareness through different means.
  • Provisions should be made to deal with unwanted situations like emergency, epidemics and pandemics.

Question 3.
What differences do you find between private and public health services in your area? Use the following table to compare and contrast these.

Facility Affordability Availability Quality
Private
Public

Answer:

Facility Affordability Availability Question uality
Private Expensive, very high Available Good quality
Public Either free or at low cost Services are available but it takes long time. There is always a rush in these hospitals.

Question 4.
‘Improvement in water and sanitation can control many diseases.’ Explain with the help of examples.
Answer:
The basic necessities for the maintenance of our health are water and sanitation. Poor quality of water causes many health issues such as dysentery, malaria, cholera, diarrhoea, jaundice. Similarly, poor sanitation causes many epidemics and diseases such as plague, dengue. Hence, improvement in water and sanitation can control many diseases. We can do simple things to achieve this such as keeping the water coolers dry, not to store water in pots, change waters in coolers, etc.

JAC Class 7thCivics Role of the Government in Health Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
The expected role of government is
(a) Polluting environment
(b) Having clean and pollution free environment
(c) Allowing people to litter around
(d) Providing filthy drinking waters to the people of the country
Answer:
(b) Having clean and pollution free environment

Question 2.
The water borne disease/s is/are
(a) Hepatitis
(b) Worms
(c) Diarrhoea
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Role of the Government in Health

Question 3.
India is the ……. largest producer of medicines in the world and also a large exporter of medicines,
(a) First
(b) Second
(c) Third
(d) Fourth
Answer:
(d) Fourth

Question 4.
Our country has the money, knowledge and people with experience but cannot make the necessary healthcare available to all its citizens such a situation is known as
(a) Paradox: Something that is contrary .to what would be expected.
(b) Healthy: Free of illness, injury and mental strain.
(c) Mundane: Boring situation.
(d) Personification: Figure of speech
Answer:
(a) Paradox: Something that is contrary .to what would be expected.

Question 5.
RMPs are
(a) Rural Medicine Property
(b) Registered Medical Property
(c) Registered Medical Practitioners
(d) Rural Multiplex Property
Answer:
(c) Registered Medical Practitioners

Question 6.
Costa Rica became a healthy country by using
(a) The money they save by not having an army but spending it on health services and facilities.
(b) Because they only eat vegetarian food
(c) The money they spend on their animals
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(a) The money they save by not having an army but spending it on health services and facilities.

Question 7.
The healthiest country/ies in South America is/are
(a) Argentina
(b) Chile
(c) Costa Rica
(d) All of these
Answer:
(c) Costa Rica

Question 8.
One of the major function of public healthcare system is to prevent the spread of dangerous diseases such as TB, malaria, jaundice, cholera, diarrhoea etc. and it is possible when
Answer:
(a) all work is done by the people of the country
(b) the government and the people . work together to achieve this common goal
(c) everything is done by the private sectors
(d) all the work is done by the government
Answer:
(b) the government and the people . work together to achieve this common goal

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Role of the Government in Health

Question 9.
Health concerns of are generally ignored.
(a) Men
(b) Women
(c) Children
(d) both (b) and (c)
Answer:
(b) Women

Question 10.
OPD means
(a) Out Patient Department
(b) Ordinary Public Department
(c) Other Patient Department
(d) Other Public Department
Answer:
(a) Out Patient Department

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which state of India guarantee the Right to Healthat first?
Answer:
Assam is the first state of India to guarantee the Right to Health.

Question 2.
What is the percentage of water borne communicable diseases?
Answer:
The percentage of water borne communicable diseases is 21%.

Question 3.
Name one communicable disease.
Answer:
T.B. or tuberculosis is one of the communicable disease.

Question 4.
Name the organisation which is responsible for healthcare policy making in India.
Answer:
The organisation which is responsible for healthcare policy making in India is The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Role of the Government in Health

Question 5.
Write the full form of UNICEF and WHO.
Answer:
The full form of
UNICEF: UnitedNations International Children’s Emergency Fund.
WHO: World Health Organisation

Question 6.
Who runs public healthcare system?
Answer:
Government runs public healthcare system.

Question 7.
In what kind of hospitals patients see long standing queues?
Answer:
Patients and p’eople generally see long standing queues in public and government hospitals.

Question 8.
What do you mean by communicable diseases?
Answer:
Communicable diseases are diseases that are spread from one person to another in several ways such as through water, food, air, etc.

Question 9.
What do you mean by health?
Answer:
Health means leading a good and happy life without mental strain and being active, in positive spirit. Above all, ability to remain free from illness and injuries.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Role of the Government in Health

Question 10.
Where are private health services available?
Answer:
Private health services are available in urban areas.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who are medical tourists?
Answer:
Medical tourists are the foreigners who come to this country especially for medical treatment at hospitals that offer world-class facilities at a lower cost than what they would have to pay in their own countries.

Question 2.
What is the work of village health workers?
Answer:
There are health centres in the villages where there is usually a nurse and a village health worker. They are trained in dealing with common illnesses and work under the supervision and observation of doctors at the Primary Health Centre (PHC).

Question 3.
What measures can we take to prevent and treat illnesses?
Answer:
The measures we can take to prevent and treat illnesses is that we need appropriate healthcare facilities such as health centres, hospitals, laboratories for testing, ambulance services, blood banks, etc., that can provide the required care and services that patients need in time of emergency.

Question 4.
Government hospitals are less costly and expensive than the private hospitals. Why?
Answer:
Government hospitals are less costly and expensive than the private hospitals because government uses the money which we pay as tax for providing many public health services for the benefit of all citizens. Whereas, the private health services are run for their own profit and the cost of these services are very high.

Question 5.
Do you think poor people fall ill more? If so, why?
Answer:
The poor people are undernourished. These families do not get enough food to eat. They are not provided with the basic necessities such as drinking water, proper housing, neat and clean surroundings, etc. and hence are more likely to fall ill. The expenses on illness make their situation even worse.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Role of the Government in Health

Question 6.
What is medical ethics?
Answer:
Medical ethics means the value that guide and steer medical professionals. These values refers to the justice, honesty, dignity of work practised by the medical professionals.

Question 7.
What do you mean by health insurance?
Answer:
A policy taken by a person in which the insurance company agrees to pay a fixed and specified amount for medical expenses in case of illness or injury in lieu of a regular premium to the insurance company is known as health insurance.

Question 8.
Do you think sufficient and adequate healthcare available to all? Justify.
Answer:
No, sufficient and adequate healthcare is not available- to all. In India, we are facing a situation where private services are rising and increasing but public services are not. Majorly private services are available and that too are concentrated in urban areas. As these services are expensive, many people cannot afford them or have to borrow money when there is an illness in the family.

Women are not taken to a doctor until and unless the matter triggers as women’s health concerns are considered to be less important and valuable than the health of men in the family. Many tribal areas have few health centres and they do not run properly. Even private health services are not available there.

Question 9.
Discuss the positive features of healthcare in India.
Answer:
Positive features of healthcare in India are:

  • India has the largest number of medical colleges in the world and is among the largest producers of doctors.
  • Healthcare facilities have grown substantially and significantly over the years. In 1991, there were 11,174 hospitals but in 2000, the number grew to 18,218.
  • India is the fourth largest producer of medicines in the world and is also a large exporter of medicines.
  • India gets a large number of medical tourists from many countries. In
  • India, they come for treatment in some of the hospitals which compare with the best in the world.

Question 10.
What is the work or functions of Medical Council of India?
Answer:
The work or functions of Medical Council of India are as follows:

  • Registering the medical professionals or practitioners.
  • Granting acknowledgement and recognition of medical qualification.
  • Monitoring the medical practice in the country.
  • Maintaining uniform and good standards of medical education in India.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
We should pay taxes to the government. Why?
Answer:
We should pay taxes to the government because:

  • Government uses the tax money for providing many public services such as for healthcare, defence, police, judicial system, highways, etc. for i
    the benefit of all citizens.
  • Taxes fund developmental programmes and services such as education, health care, employment, social welfare, vocational training, etc. required for needy and the disadvantaged citizens.
  • Tax money is utilised for relief and rehabilitation in case of natural disasters such as flood, epidemic, drought.
  • Space, nuclear and missile programmes are also funded from the revenues collected as the taxes from the citizens.
  • Government provides some services especially for the poor who cannot afford to purchase them from the market.
  • In healthcare system as well medicines and other facilities are in the government hospitals. This is done by the revenues which are collected from tax.

Question 2.
Distinguish between public health services and private health services.
Answer:
The difference between public health services and private health services are:

Public health services Private health sen ices
The public health . service is a series of health centres and hospitals run by the government. Private health services are not owned or controlled by the government. It runs privately.
It is meant to provide quality healthcare services either free or at a low cost so that even the poor can get proper treatment. These services are run for profit, the cost of these services is very high and expensive.
Public health services are present in rural as well as in urban areas. Private health services are concentrated mainly in urban areas.
Patients usually have to wait in long queues in public hospita People do not face such problem in private hospitals.

Question 3.
Discuss the healthcare policy of Kerala government in 1996. Did they succeeded fully?
Answer:
The healthcare policy of Kerala government in 1996 were as follows:

  • Forty per cent of the entire state budget was given to panchayats so that they could plan and provide for their requirements.
  • Now the villages could make sure proper planning for water, food, women’s development and education.
  • This meant that water supply . schemes were checked, the working . of schools and anganwadis were
    ensured and specific problems of the village were taken up.
  • Health centres were also improved. No they didn’t succeeded fully though the situation improved a lot. There were loopholes such as shortage of medicines, hospital beds and less number of doctors and workers.

JAC Class 7 Social Science Solutions