JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 10 Law and Social Justice

JAC Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 10 Law and Social Justice

JAC Class 8th Civics Law and Social Justice InText Questions and Answers

Page 121

Question 1.
Why do we need a law on minimum wages?
Answer:
We need a law on minimum wages because the employers usually take advantage of the worker’s poverty and pay them low wages and make them work for extra hours. If there is a law then the workers may get a fair wage for their work.

Question 2.
Find out:
(a) What is the minimum wage for a construction worker in your state?
(b) Do you think the minimum wage for a construction worker is adequate, low or high?
(c) Who sets the minimum wages?
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.
Hint:
(a) The minimum wage rate for unskilled worker in Delhi is ?14,468 per month.
(b) Not to low but not too high as well.
(c) The Ministry of Labour sets the minimum wages.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 10 Law and Social Justice

Page 127

Question 3.
Why do you think enforcement of safety laws is important in any factory?
Answer:
Enforcement of safety laws is important in any factory is important because serious disaster may happen if this law is not present or enforced. Many people work at high risk since they don’t have any other choice, they have to earn their livelihood. It is important in any factory for the security of the workers and people residing near the factory.

Question 4.
Can you point to a few other situations where laws (or rules) exist but people do not follow them because of poor enforcement? (For example, over-speeding by motorists, not wearing helmet/seat belt and use of mobile phone while driving). What are the problems in enforcement? Can you suggest some ways in which enforcement can be improved?
Answer:
Few other situations where laws (or rules) exist but people do not follow them because of poor enforcement are:

  1. Giving bribe to make their own work in illegal way.
  2. Employing children under 14 years of age in roadside dhabas or as domestic help.
  3. Boarding in a running bus.
  4. Giving and taking dowry at the time of marriage.

The problems in enforcement are as follows:

  1. Untrained staff
  2. Irresponsible citizen

Some ways in which enforcement can be improved are as follows:

  1. Deployment of trained and adequate staff for the enforcement of the law.
  2. Strict punishments for those who are not following the law.

Poge 128

Question 5.
A ‘clean environment is a public facility.’ Can you explain this statement?
Answer:
Clean environment is a public facility because it is a right for every citizen, to keep the environment neat and clean. So that the person himself and the surrounding people can take advantage and it will be safe for everyone’s welfare.

Question 6.
Why do we need new laws?
Answer:
For the welfare of people such as to check pollution, banning the use of plastic bags, clean river, etc., we need new laws.

Question 7.
Why are companies and contractors able to violate environmental laws?
Answer:
Companies and contractors are able to violate environmental laws because these laws are not strictly administered by the government.

Page 129

Question 8.
Do you think everyone got justice in the case cited above (See NCERT page 129)?
Answer:
No, everyone didn’t get justice in the case cited above.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 10 Law and Social Justice

Question 9.
Can you think of other ways in which the environment can be protected? Discuss in class.
Answer:
The other ways in which the environment can be protected are:

  1. Afforestation
  2. Banning the use of plastic bags
  3. Disposal of sewage properly
  4. Minimum use of private vehicle.

JAC Class 8th Civics Law and Social Justice Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Talk to two workers (For example, construction workers, farm workers, factory workers, workers at any shop) to find out if they are receiving the minimum wages laid down by law.
Answer:
Farm workers : These workers are receiving below the minimum wages.
Construction workers: These workers are also getting less wages.

Question 2.
What are the advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India?

Answer:
The advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India are as follows:

  1. Availability of very cheap labour.
  2. Longer hours of work at low wages.
  3. Minimum additional expenses such as for housing facilities for workers.
  4. Cost cutting by including lower working conditions that consist of lower safety measures.
  5. Foreign companies can save costs and earn higher profits in India in this way.

Question 3.
Do you think the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got justice? Discuss.
Answer:
No, the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy didn’t get a complete justice. This tragedy was caused due to negligence of safety measures by the factory management. The Indian government represented the people to legally claim compensation for the affected people and demanded 3 billion dollar as a compensation but the company paid only 470 million dollars. Even today, after 36 years of disaster, people are still seeking justice. Financial aid was sufficient for the victim’s but many of them are still fighting for safe drinking water, healthcare facilities and jobs.

Question 4.
law enforcement? Who is responsible for enforcement? Why is enforcement so important?
Answer:
The implementation and execution of law is known as law enforcement. The government is responsible for the laws to be enforced so that the citizens can benefit from the same. The government is responsible for the enforcement of laws. For protecting the rights of the citizens, enforcement is important.

Enforcement is important when the law seeks to protect the weaker section from the stronger section. It is also necessary to control the activities of individuals or private companies so as to ensure a safe working environment and complete social justice.

Question 5.
How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair? Give two examples to support your answer.
Answer:
Laws can ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair in the following ways:

  1. Workers are not exploited and the government should keep a check on the worksites and punish those who violates the law.
  2. The government should also keep a check on the market price of the essential commodities.

Two examples are:

  1. Right against exploitation
  2. Child Labour Prevention Act

Question 6.
Imagine yourself to be a worker working in a chemical factory, which has received orders from the government to move to a different site 100 kms away from the present location. Write about how your life would change? Read out your responses in the classroom.
Answer:
Student need to do it on their own. (Hint: Due to the relocation of the factory, I have to shift to a place nearby the factory. The education of the kids will get affected. Look for a new house. Even if, I shift alone then I have to bear the expenses of two places.)

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 10 Law and Social Justice

Question 7.
Write a paragraph on the various roles of the government that you have read about in this unit.
Answer:
The various roles of the government that we have read in this unit are as follows:

  1. Enforcement of laws regarding safety at workplace.
  2. Fixing minimum wages for workers and revising it from time to time.
  3. Enforcement of laws against child labour.
  4. Enforcement of laws regarding safety of environment.
  5. Protecting the interests of consumers in the market.

Question 8.
What are the sources of environmental pollution in your area? Discuss with respect to (a) air; (b) water and (c) soil. What are the steps being taken to reduce the pollution? Can you suggest some other measures?
Answer:
The sources of environmental pollution in my area with respect to:

  1. Air: Factories, industries and transport emits more dangerous and unsafe gases.
  2. Water: Disposal of industrial waste in Yamuna river, immersion of idols, pouring garbage in river.
  3. Soil: There is no chance of soil pollution as cultivation land is not available.

Suggestions:

  1. Stop the misuse or overuse of resources.
  2. Strict action should be taken against the practices that cause environmental pollutions such as use of plastic bags, disposal of all type of wastes and harmful emissions from industries.
  3. Promoting the use of CNG as fuel in vehicles and banned old vehicles. Diesel vehicles should be prohibited
  4. Pollution checking norms should be followed strictly.
  5. Encourage recycling of used materials.

Question 9.
How was environment treated earlier? What has been the change in perception? Discuss.
Answer:
In the earlier days, the environment was treated as a ‘free entity’. There was no check on the factories and industries which caused the pollution. The government paid no attention to safeguard the environment. Very few laws were applied and executed to protect and conserve the environment. There has been a vast change in perception. Now a days, government is more alert and active towards conserving the nature.

It has implemented various laws and acts to protect the environment. New and amended laws have been imposed by the government according to which the tainted person will be accountable for the harm and destruction done to the environment and shall be liable to punishment.The recent one is Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. Several judgements have been given to uphold the right to a healthy environment as intrinsic to the fundamental right to life.

Question 10.
What do you think the famous cartoonist R.K. Laxman is trying to convey in this cartoon? How does it relate to the 2016 law that you read about on page 123?
JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 10 Law and Social Justice 1
It’s really cruel burdening kids like this. I had to hire that boy to help my son!
Answer:
The famous cartoonist R.K. Laxman is trying to convey in this cartoon that how we treat children of the same age group. One child is from rich family and gets the sympathy of mother whereas, the other child is from poor family and earns for his family hence bearing the load of books, working hard to get paid.

This is injustice. The law says that it banned the employment of children below the age of 14 years in all occupations and of adolescents (14-18 years) in any occ upations and processes. It made employing these children or adolescents a cognizable offence.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 10 Law and Social Justice

Question 11.
You have read about the Bhopal gas tragedy and the on-going struggle. Students from countries across the world have come together to support this struggle for justice. From protest marches to awareness campaigns, you can read about their activities on the website www.studentsforbhopal.com.

The website also has resources such as photos, posters, documentaries, victims’ statements, etc. Use this and other sources to make a wallpaper/exhibition on the Bhopal gas tragedy for your classroom. Invite the whole school to see and talk about it.
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.

JAC Class 8th Civics Law and Social Justice Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Bhopal Gas Tragedy took place in the year……..
(a) December 1980
(b) December 1984
(c) January 1984
(d) March 1985
Answer:
(b) December 1984

Question 2.
……….incident brought the issue of environment to the forefront.
(a) Uttarakhand flood
(b) Bengal famine
(c) Latur earthquake
(d) Bhopal Gas tragedy
Answer:
(d) Bhopal Gas tragedy

Question 3.
The government amended the Child Prevention Act in……..banning children under 14 years of age from working in factories and as domestic help.
(a) October 2006
(b) October 2005
(c) July 2006
(d) June 2005
Answer:
(a) October 2006

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 10 Law and Social Justice

Question 4.
Union Carbide was a/an……
(a) English Company
(b) American Company
(c) Indian Private Company
(d) Government owned Company
Answer:
(b) American Company

Question 5.
The owner of Union Carbide plant at present is…….. .
(a) Indian Government
(b) United Chemical
(c) Dow Chemical
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) Dow Chemical

Question 6.
Union Carbide Bhopal plant produced
(a) fertilisers
(b) pesticides
(c) both a and b
(d) none of these
Answer:
(c) both a and b

Question 7.
Pollution caused by the Bhopal gas tragedy was…….. .
(a) water pollution
(b) air pollution
(c) no pollution
(d) both a and b
Answer:
(d) both a and b

Question 8.
The following industry/ies are hazardous:
(a) Ship-breaking industry
(b) Textile industry
(c) Sugar industry
(d) Both a and c
Answer:
(a) Ship-breaking industry

Question 9.
The gas that leaked from Union Carbide plant was……… .
(a) Ethyl alcohol
(b) Methyl Iscocyanite
(c) Methyl Isocynide
(d) Ethyl Isocyanite
Answer:
(b) Methyl Iscocyanite

Question 10.
Right to a healthy and clean environment is an essential part of the Fundamental Rights of ……
(a) Right to Freedom
(b) Right to Equality
(c) Right to Life
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) Right to Life

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Economically how are the people of working class exploited?
Answer:
Economically the people of working class exploited by making them to work for lower pay and for longer hours.

Question 2.
Why do the workers willingly work in unsafe conditions?
Answer:
The workers willingly work in unsafe conditions because there is so much unemployment and they know that in return they will get wages as they are very poor.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 10 Law and Social Justice

Question 3.
What does the Right Against Exploitation state?
Answer:
The Right Against Exploitation states that no one can be forced to work for low wages or under bondage.

Question 4.
What does Article 21 of the Constitution state?
Answer:
Article 21 of the Constitution is Right to Life which is a Fundamental Right and it states that the right to the life of pollution free air and water for full enjoyment of life.

Question 5.
Who are responsible to set the minimum wages?
Answer:
The Minimum Wages Act 1948 is an Act of Parliament concerning Indian Labour Law that sets the minimum wages must be paid to skilled and unskilled labours.

Question 6.
List the three basic rights of workers.
Answer:
Three basics rights of workers are:

  1. Right to work
  2. Right to a fair wage
  3. Decent work conditions

Question 7.
What is the full form of CNG?
Answer:
The full form of CNG is Compressed Natural Gas.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 10 Law and Social Justice

Question 8.
Which three states have published plans to rescue and rehabilitate children who are working as domestic helps.
Answer:
Three states who have published plans to rescue and rehabilitate children who are working as domestic servants are Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra.

Question 9.
List three South Asian countries which play hosts for industries producing pesticides, asbestos, etc.
Answer:
Three South Asian countries which play hosts for industries producing pesticides, asbestos, etc., are India, Bangladesh and Pakistan.

Question 10:
Why were the textile mills in Ahmedabad closed down during the 1980s and 1990s?
Answer:
The textile mills in Ahmedabad closed down during the 1980s and 1990s because they were facing stiff competition from power looms during the 1980s and 1990s.

Short Answer Type Questions 

Question 1.
Why do you think enforcement of safety laws is important in any factory?
Answer:
Enforcement of safety laws is important in any factory for the safety of the workers and general public. As the lawmaker and enforcer, the government is supposed to ensure that safety laws are implemented. It is also the duty of the government to ensure that the Right to Life guaranteed under Article 21 of the Constitution is not violated.

Question 2.
Why are dvanced countries relocating the toxic and hazardous industries to developing countries?
Answer:
Advanced countries are relocating the toxic and hazardous industries to developing countries to take advantage of the weaker laws in these countries and keep their own countries safe. South Asian countries – particularly India, Bangladesh and Pakistan – play hosts for industries producing pesticides, asbestos or processing zinc and lead.

Question 3.
How can the government meet the challenges where everyone can benefit from the clean environment?
Answer:
One way this can be done is to gradually move to cleaner technologies and processes in factories. The government has to encourage and support factories to do this. It will need to fine those who pollute. This will ensure that the workers livelihoods are protected and both workers and communities living around the factories enjoy a safe environment.

Question 4.
What is the role of government and citizens in establishing a state of law and social justice?
Answer:
A major role of the government is to control the activities of private companies by making, enforcing and upholding laws so as to prevent unfair practices and ensure social justice. While the government has a leading role in this respect, people can exert pressure so that both private companies and the government act in the interests of society.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 10 Law and Social Justice

Question 5.
What are the reasons for the sharp differences in safety standards between the two Union carbide factories in the USA and India?
Answer:
In India, one worker can easily replace another. Since there is so much unemployment, there are many workers who are willing to work in unsafe conditions in return for a wage. Making use of the workers’ vulnerability, employers ignore safety in workplaces. Thus, there were the sharp differences in safety standards between the two Union carbide factories in the USA and India.

Question 6.
In which ways the government certifications such as ISI certification help the consumer?
Answer:
The government certifications such as ISI certification, Hallmark certification help the consumer in following ways:
When the product has a certification mark, then the consumer can be certain that the product is of good quality and safe to use.

It assures the customer that a company has a good Question uality Management System. Consumers might be put to a risk by the poor quality of products such as medicines, electrical goods, etc., if the government has not setup the Bureau of Indian Standards. Hallmark certification assures the purity of the gold when the consumer buys it.

Long Answer Type Questions 

Question 1.
Explain in brief the Bhopal gas tragedy.
Answer:
An American Company started its factory in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India named Union Carbide which produced pesticides. In midnight, on 2nd December 1984, a poisonous gas, methyl isocyanides started leaking from the factory plant. Within three days, the dead people number reached to 8,000. Lakhs of people were maimed. Most of the poor people and working class people were exposed to the poisonous gas.

More than 50,000 people who are sick till date and are not able to perform any task. They are sick. Those who survived this tragedy are alive with many disabilities such as severe respiratory disorders, eye problems and other disorders. Children developed strange and weird abnormalities. Bhopal gas tragedy is considered as one of the worst disaster in the world.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 10 Law and Social Justice

Question 2.
Explain the causes for the Bhopal Gas Tragedy.
Answer:
For almost 4 years, The Union Carbide tank’s alarm did not work. Nothing was in order. The steam boi ler which intended to clean the pipes was not working properly and water sprays designed to knock down gas leaks were very poorly designed. No action plans were made to cope with this type of incidents. Moreover, the local authorities were not informed of the quantities or dangers of chemicals used and manufactured at the factory. These were the major causes for the Bhopal Gas Tragedy.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Public Facilities

JAC Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Public Facilities

JAC Class 8th Civics Public FacilitiesInText Questions and Answers

Page 108

Question 1.
You have seen the four situations illustrated above (See NCERT page 106-107). Based on these, what impression do you get of the water situation in Chennai?
Answer:
From these four situations, we get the impression of the water situation in Chennai is that the water supply is not same for all the areas. There is a shortage of supply and demand is very high. As a result of this, only those who can afford to pay for water have sufficient access and those who can’t faces many difficulties.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Public Facilities

Question 2.
Pick out the various sources of water for household use from the description alongside (See NCERT page 108).
Answer:
The various sources of water for household use from the description alongside are municipal water, water tanker, private borewell.

Question 3.
What, in your view, is similar, and what is different in Subramanian’s and Padma’s experiences.
Answer:
Similarities in Subramanian’s and Padma’s experiences are as follow:

  1. Both use borewell water
  2. Water shortage problem both of them.
  3. Both get water from tankers.

The differences are:

  1. Subramanian gets municipal water once in two days whereas, Padma does not have a tap connection.
  2. Subramanian spends upto ? 500/- on buying water from the tankers.
  3. Subramanian uses borewell water for washing and sanitation purposes whereas, Padma uses borewell water drinking and washing.

Question 4.
Write a paragraph describing the water supply situation in your area.
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.

Question 5.
Why does water flow in a trickle in summer in most places in India? Find out.
Answer:
Water flow in a trickle in summer in most places in India because the demand for water is higher and supply is limited. The underground water level also goes down in summer due to hot weather and yield less water.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Public Facilities

Question 6.
Discuss: Is there a general shortage of water for everyone in Chennai? Can you think of two reasons why different people get varying amounts of water?
Answer:
Yes, there is a general shortage of water for everyone in Chennai. Two reasons why different people get varying amounts of water are as follows:

  1. Different financial status, some are rich, some are poor.
  2. More demand and less supply.

Page 111

Question 7.
As Amu and Kumar ride around Chennai…
Amu:
Did you notice that the roads in Saidapet were so bumpy and without streetlights? / wonder what the place is like at night.

Kumar:
What better can you expect in a slum!

Amu:
Why should slums be like that? Shouldn’t they have public facilities?

Kumar: I think public facilities are for all those who live in proper houses in colonies. They are the people who pay taxes.

Amu: Why do you say that! Slum dwellers are also citizens and they have rights too.

Kumar: Arrey! The government will go bankrupt this way!

Amu: Well, it has to find a way. Can you imagine what it would be like to live in a slum without proper roads, water, electricity?

Kumar: Err….

Amu: Our Constitution recognises many of the public facilities as being a part of the Right to Life. The government must see that these rights are protected so that everyone can lead a decent life. point of view do you agree Whose with?
Answer:
I agree with Amu’s point of view.

Page 114

Question 8.
Discuss:
Do you think this would be a right step? (See NCERT page 114) What do you think would happen if the government withdraws from the task of supplying water?
Answer:
I don’t think it would be a right step. If the government withdraws from the task of supplying water then it would fail to perform its duty and many people will face serious problems. If the private companies take over the task of supplying water then they would look for more profit rather than thinking about the poor people who cannot afford to buy water. Government’s task is to ensure public facilities to all.

Question 9.
Discuss the main ideas in the above section (See NCERT page 115). What do you think can be done to improve water supply?
Answer:
This section dealt with the successful example of public water supply in Brazil and unsuccessful example of water supply in Bolivia. It also gave details about the better conditions of water supply in Mumbai and Hyderabad. Chennai has also taken steps in rain harvesting process. To improve the water supply certain steps can be taken such as afforestation, rain harvesting, repairing of water pipes, etc.

Question 10.
Do you think it is also important to conserve resources like water and electricity, and to use more public transport?
Answer:
Yes, it is also important to conserve resources like water and electricity, and to use more public transport.

Page 116

Question 11.
Do you think that lack of access to proper sanitation facilities affects peoples’ lives? How?
Answer:
Yes, lack of access to proper sanitation facilities affects peoples’ lives. It directly affects the health of the people and will become victims of many diseases like dysentery, cholera, etc. They won’t be able to work efficiently due to poor health conditions.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Public Facilities

Question 12.
Why do you think that this would impact women and girls more acutely?
Answer:
This would impact women and girls more acutely because they are given less attention most of the time.

JAC Class 8th Civics Public Facilities Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Why do you think there are so few cases of private water supply in the world?
Answer:
There are so few cases of private water supply in the world because water is a basic necessity of life and everyone should get access to safe drinking water either free or at affordable rates. It is the government’s responsibility to provide water to everyone. Private companies work towards the only goal of maximising profits. If the responsibility of water supply is handed over to private companies, there would be a steep rise in the price of water, making it unaffordable for many.

Question 2.
Do you think water in Chennai is available to and affordable by all? Discuss.
Answer:
Water in Chennai is not available to and affordable by all. There is an unequal distribution of water in different parts of the city. Certain areas like Anna Nagar receive abundant water while areas like Mylapore get very little water. Municipal supply fails to meet the demand of water in the city.

People from the upper class and middle class buy packaged drinking water or water from tankers. But the situation is different and worst for the poor people as they cannot afford the expense of tankers or packaged water. In the slum areas, water supply runs for barely an hour every day and that too from a single tap that serves over thirty families for all their water needs.

Question 3.
How is the sale of water by farmers to water dealers in Chennai affecting the local people? Do you think local people can object to such exploitation of ground water? Can the government do anything in this regard?
Answer:
Due to the water shortage in Chennai, many private companies have taken it as an opportunity to earn huge profits by selling water in the city. The water is taken from nearby towns and from villages to the north of the city using a fleet of over 13,000 water tankers.

Every month the water dealers pay farmers an advance for the rights to exploit water sources on their land.Due to this trade, the water levels have dropped drastically in all these towns and villages. The water that is taken away from the farms is creating a deficit not only for irrigation but also for drinking water for the villagers.

Yes, the local people can object to such exploitation of ground water because water is a necessity and everyone has equal right to access it. The government should take a strict action against such offensive activities and disallow private companies from buying and supplying water.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Public Facilities

Question 4.
Why are most of the private hospitals and private schools located in major cities and not in towns or rural areas?
Answer:
Most of the private hospitals and private schools located in major cities and not in towns or rural areas because they offer their services at high prices to earn profits and these services are affordable only by the affluent dwellers in the city.

Question 5.
Do you think the distribution of public facilities in our country is adequate and fair? Give an example of your own to explain.
Answer:
No, I don’t think the distribution of public facilities in our country is adequate and fair. For example, people living in cities avail all facilities such as healthcare, electricity, public transport, etc., but these facilities are not available fully in smaller towns and villages. They face major crisis of certain things such as electricity, not have a well developed transport system.

Question 6.
Take some of the public facilities in your area, such as water, electricity, etc. Is there scope to improve these? What in your opinion should be done? Complete the table.
Answer:

Water Is it available? How can it be improved?
Electricity Yes By making its supply available for all the day long and improve the quality of water.
Roads Yes By providing its supply for whole day and keep a check on its theft.
Public Yes Repairing of worn-out roads.
Transport Yes Increasing the frequency of the buses by making more buses on roads available.

Question 7.
Are the above public facilities shared equally by all the people in your area? Elaborate.
Answer:
The above public facilities are not shared equally by all the people in my area. The people living in posh localities avail best facilities. But the people living in slum areas doesn’t have all the facilities. They have crisis of water and electricity. On the other hand, people living in posh areas hardly face any water or electricity crisis.

Question 8.
Data on some of the public facilities are collected as part of the Census. Discuss with your teacher when and how the Census is conducted.
Answer:
The census is conducted in every 10 years. It counts the population of the country means the detailed information are collected. This information is used to measure important things such as ratio of males and females, number of literate people, etc.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Public Facilities

Question 9.
Private educational institutions:
schools, colleges, universities, technical and vocational training institutes are coming up in our country in a big way. On the other hand, educational institutes run by the government are becoming relatively less important. What do you think would be the impact of this? Discuss.
Answer:
The impact of this would be that the weaker sections of the society will be deprived of quality education and the end result of this disparity will be that only the rich will get good education from the private educational institutions while the poor would not be able to afford the same. Education is a basic need and necessity and there should be universal access to education.

The main motive of private education institutes is earning profits, they charge high fees which are affordable only by the affluent section of the society. Thus, the right to quality education is only fulfilled for the rich class. Similarly, if government education institutes are not up to the mark, then weaker sections are again deprived of quality education. This, in turn, results in the disparity of quality education between the rich and the poor.

JAC Class 8th Civics Public Facilities Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
The following is are considered to be a public facilities:
(a) water, health, and education
(b) health, hospital, and gas
(c) water, house, and car
(d) both a and b
Answer:
(a) water, health, and education

Question 2.
The chief feature of the public facilities is:
(a) Once it is provided, its benefits cannot be shared with other people.
(b) Once it is provided, its benefits cannot be taken in the future.
(c) Once it is provided, its benefits can be shared by several people.
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) Once it is provided, its benefits can be shared by several people.

Question 3.
The government gets money from the:
(a) loan from foreign banks.
(b) loan from Indian banks.
(c) tax collected from the people.
(d) all of these
Answer:
(c) tax collected from the people.

Question 4.
The Constitution of India recognises the right to water as being a part of the under Article 21.
(a) Right to Equality
(b) Right to Education
(c) Right to Health
(d) Right to Life
Answer:
(d) Right to Life

Question 5.
The basic needs of human beings is / are ……..
(a) Healthcare
(b) Water
(c) Food
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question 6.
Which of the following is the main source of water for poor people?
(a) Borewell water
(b) Water tanker
(c) Muncipal water
(d) Bottled water
Answer:
(b) Water tanker

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Public Facilities

Question 7.
The is a water borne disease.
(a) Dysentery
(b) Measles
(c) Flu
(d) Polio
Answer:
(a) Dysentery

Question 8.
……… is guaranteed for all children aged between 6-14 years.
(a) Right to Life
(b) Right to Education
(c) Right to Equality
(d) Cultural Right
Answer:
(b) Right to Education

Question 9.
……… is not a source of water in rural areas.
(a) Overhead tanks
(b) Wells
(c) Borewells
(d) Handpumps
Answer:
(a) Overhead tanks

Question 10.
According to the standard set by the urban water commission, the supply of water per person in an urban area should be about .
(a) 120 litres per day
(b) 140 litres per day
(c) 160 litres per day
(d) 135 litres per day
Answer:
(d) 135 litres per day

Very Short Answer Type Questions 

Question 1. Mention few public facilities that are also provided by private companies.
Answer:
Few public facilities that are also provided by private companies are school, colleges, healthcare and transportation.

Question 2.
What is the reason for the maximum death among children in India?
Answer:
The reason for maximum death among children in India is caused by the water¬borne diseases.

Question 3.
Name some public facilities that are provided by the government.
Answer:
Public facilities that are provided by the government are healthcare, sanitation, electricity, public transport, roads, schools and colleges.

Question 4.
Which age group of children should get compulsory education according to ‘Right to Education’?
Answer:
The age group of 6 – 14 years of children should get compulsory education according to ‘Right to Education’?

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Public Facilities

Question 5.
Is right to safe drinking water a fundamental right?
Answer:
Yes. Right to water entitles everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic use.

Question 6.
What is the role of government in public facilities?
Answer:
One of the most important roles of the government is to ensure that these public facilities are made available to everyone.

Question 7.
What do you mean by government budget?
Answer:
Government budget is an account of the expenses the government has made on its programmes and projects in the past year and how much it plans to spend in the coming year.

Question 81.
What is universal access to water?
Answer:
Universal access to water is the right of every person, whether rich or poor to have sufficient amounts of water to fulfill his/her daily needs at a price that he/she can afford.

Question 9.
Which NGO has been working for three decades to address the problem sanitation?
Answer:
The NGO that has been working for three decades to address the problem of sanitisation is Sulabh.

Question 10.
What do you think is regarded as a sign of failure of the government?
Answer:
A shortage of basic public amenities such as water, healthcare, electricity is taken as a sign of failure of the government.

Short Answer Type Questions 

Question l.
What do you mean by sanitation?
Answer:
The provision of facilities for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces is known as sanitation. This is done by construction of toilets and pipes to carry the sewerage and treating the waste water. This is necessary so as to avoid contamination and diseases.

Question 2.
What is Right to Water?
Answer:
The right to water is recognised as being a part of the Right to Life under Article 21 of the Constitution of India. This implies that it is the right of every person whether rich or poor to have sufficient amounts of water to fulfill his/ her daily needs at a price that he/she can afford.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Public Facilities

Question 3.
What do you mean by company?
Answer:
A form of business set up by people or by the government is known as a company. Those that are promoted and owned by individuals or groups are called private companies. For example, Reliance is a private company whereas SAIL is a company run by the government.

Question 4.
From where does the government get money for the public facilities?
Answer:
The main source of revenue for the government is the taxes collected from the people and the government is empowered to collect these taxes and use them for such programmes and projects. Such as to supply water, the government has to incur costs in pumping water, carrying it over long distances, laying down pipes for distribution, treating the water for impurities and finally collecting and treating waste water. It meets these expenses partly from the various taxes that it collects and partly by charging a price for water. This price is set so that most people can afford a certain minimum amount of water for daily use.

Question 5.
Why does a lack of proper sanitation affect women and girls more acutely?
Answer:
Lack of proper sanitation affects women and girls more acutely because they often have to wait until dark to go to the toilet. To avoid the need for such frequent toilet use, women often drink less water which causes severe health impacts.

Question 6.
When there is a shortage of public facilities say water then what type of situation arise?
Answer:
When there is a shortage of public facilities say water then the situation which arises is burden for the poor since the shortfalls which occur falls mostly on the poor. Though the middle class people able to cope with it like buying bottled water from private companies or by digging borewells. People who can afford it have safe drinking water but poor people are left out. The poor people faces the crisis the most.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write in brief the availability of water in different regions of Chennai.
Answer:
The availability of water in different regions of Chennai are:

(i) One of the posh area is Anna Nagar in Chennai. This area looks lush and full with greenery. Then lush greens are maintained by enough spraying of water. Bunglows of rich people have tap water for major part of the day. When the water supply is inadequate, these rich people speak to a senior official whom he knows in the municipal water board and a water tanker is easily arranged for their house.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Public Facilities

(ii) Like most areas of the city, the middle class people, Subramanian’s apartments in Mylapore suffers from water shortage. Once in two days, this area gets municipal water. A private borewell meets some of the resident’s water needs but the water is brackish so the residents use it in their toilets and for washing. For other uses they purchase water from tankers. Water purifiers are installed at homes for drinking purposes.

(iii) Siva lives on a rented house in Madipakkam and gets water once in four days. There is acute shortage of water. For drinking, they buy bottled water.

(iv) Padma lives in the slum area in Saidapet and works as a domestic help. There is a cluster of hutment, which has neither a bathroom nor a tap connection. For 30 such hutments there is a common tap at one comer, in which water comes from a borewell for 20 minutes twice daily.

A family gets to fill a maximum of three buckets within this time. The same water is used for washing and drinking. In summer, the flow becomes a trickle, so that one family gets water only at the cost of another. People have to wait long hours for water tankers. There situation becomes more pathetic during summers.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation

JAC Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation

JAC Class 8th Civics Confronting Marginalisation InText Questions and Answers

Page 97

Question 1.
State one reason why you think reservations play an important role in providing social justice to Dalits and Adivasis?
Answer:
Reservations plays an important role in providing social justice to Dalits and Adivasis because it creates special opportunities for them to come up in the same level as of the mainstream of the soeicty

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation

Question 2.
Complete the table.

List of schemes What is this scheme about? How do you think it will help promote social justice?
Scholarships for students It’s about the financial support to weaker and underprivileged sections of the society such as SCs and STs. It will help them to get education and will bring them equal to others.
Special police stations Police stations specially for SCs and STs. The cases will be solved faster.
Special schemes for girls in government schools Free education and scholarships for girls. It will help to enroll more girls students for education.

 

Page 99

Question 3.
In your opinion does the force put on Rathnam to perform this ritual violate his Fundamental Rights?
Answer:
Yes, it violates Rathnam’s Fundamental Rights.

Question 4.
Why do you think the Dalit families were afraid of angering the powerful castes?
Answer:
The Dalit families were afraid of angering the powerful castes because they would be perished and won’t get work as well.

Page 100

Question 5.
Can you list two different provisions in the 1989 Act?
Answer:
Two different provisions in the 1989 Act are as follows:

  1. To occupy Dalit and Adivasis’s land forcefully and wrongfully.
  2. No forced displacement.

Question 6.
Look up the glossary and write in your own words what you understand by the term ‘morally reprehensible’.
Answer:
Any act which violates the norms and rules of dignity and decency and which goes against the values that society has accepted is termed as ‘morally reprehensible’.

Page 101

Question 7.
What do you understand by manual scavenging?
Answer:
Manual scavenging means the practice of removing human and animal waste or excreta using brooms, tin plates and baskets from dry latrines and carry these waste on their head to the disposal grounds.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation

Page 101

Question 8.
Re-read the list of Fundamental Rights provided on page 14 and list two rights that this practice violates?
Answer:
Two Rights that the practice of manual scavenging violates are as follows:

  1. Right to Freedom
  2. Right to Equality.

Question 9.
Why did the Safai Karamchari Andolan tile a PIL in 2003’? What did they complain about in their petition?
Answer:
The Safai Karamchari Andolan file a PI L in 2003 for the purpose to get manual scavenging banned. In their petition, they complained that manual scavenging still existed and it is happening in government undertakings as well such as railways. They want enforcement of their Fundamental Rights.

Question 10.
What did the Supreme Court do on hearing their case in 2005?
Answer:
The Supreme Court directed every department of the union government and state governments to verify the facts within 6 months after hearing the case in 2005. If it was found to exist, then the government department has to actively take up a time bound programme for their rehabilitation.

JAC Class 8th Civics Confronting Marginalisation Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
List two Fundamental Rights in the Constitution that Dalits can draw upon to insist that they be treated with dignity and as equals. Re-read the Fundamental Rights listed on page 14 to help you answer this question.
Answer:
The fundamental rights in the Constitution that Dalits can draw upon to insist that they be treated with dignity and as equals are as follows:

  1. Right to Equality:
    All persons are equal before the law. No one can be discriminated on the basis of religion, race, caste, gender or place of birth.
  2. Right against Exploitation:
    It prohibits all forms of forced labour, child labour and trafficking of human beings.

Question 2.
Re-read the story on Rathnam as well as the provisions of the 1989 Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act. Now list one reason why you think he used this law to file a complaint.
Answer:
The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes Prevention of Atrocities Act, 1989 seeks to punish those who humiliate or ill-treat the member of dalit or tribal groups. To seek protection against the domination and violence of the powerful castes in the village, Rathnam sought the support of law, filing his complaint under the above Act.

Question 3.
Why do Adivasi activists, including C.K. Janu, believe that Adivasis can also use this 1989 Act to fight against dispossession? Is there anything specific in the provisions of the Act that allows her to believe this?
Answer:
The Adivasi activists, including C.K. Janu, believe that Adivasis can use the 1989 Act to fight against dispossession because this Act guarantees the tribals not to be dispossessed from their land and resources forcibly. This Act confirms that the land owned by any tribal people cannot be sold to or bought by non-tribal people. If this happens, the Constitution guarantees the right of the tribal people to repossess their land.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation

Question 4.
The poems and the song in this Unit allow you to see the range of ways in which individuals and communities express their opinions, their anger and their sorrow. In class, do the following two exercises:
(a) Bring to class a poem that discusses a social issue. Share this with your classmates. Work in small groups with two or more poems to discuss their meaning as well as what the poet is trying to communicate.
(b) Identify a marginalised community in your locality. Write a poem, or song, or draw a poster, etc., to express your feelings as a member of this community.
Answer:
(a) It’s a classroom activity.
(b) Students need to do it on their own.

JAC Class 8th Civics Confronting Marginalisation Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions 

Question 1.
Marginalised groups insist the government to enforce which of the following thing/s, so they can enjoy rights equally?
(a) Laws
(b) Religion
(c) Compulsory education
(d) All of these
Answer:
(a) Laws

Question 2.
………. of the Indian Constitution states that untouchability has been abolished.
(a) Article 11
(b) Article 13
(c) Article 21
(d) Article 17
Answer:
(d) Article 17

Question 3.
Article 17 of the Constitution states that untouchability has been abolished. It means that:
(a) It is wrong to practise untouchability and that this practice will not be tolerated by a democratic government.
(b) No one can henceforth prevent Dalits from educating themselves, entering temples, using public facilities etc.
(c) Untouchability is a punishable crime now.
(d) Both b and c.
Answer:
(b) No one can henceforth prevent Dalits from educating themselves, entering temples, using public facilities etc.

Question 4.
One of the schemes that government implementation in tribal areas or in areas that have a high Dalit population is:
(a) Free or subsidised hostels for students of Dalit and Adivasi communities.
(b) Free or subsidised car for students of Dalit and Adivasi communities.
(c) Free or subsidised air conditioner for students of Dalit and Adivasi communities.
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) Free or subsidised hostels for students of Dalit and Adivasi communities.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation

Question 5.
Which of the following way/s the reservation policy work?
(a) Government across the country have their own list of SCs or Dalits, STs and backward and most backward castes.
(b) For admission to colleges, especially to institutes of professional education, such as medical colleges, governments define a set of ‘cut-off’ marks.
(c) Students applying to educational institutions and those applying for posts in government are expected to furnish proof of their caste or tribe status in the form of caste and tribe certificates.
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question 6.
In addition to policies our country also has specific laws that guard against the discrimination and exploitation of marginalised communities. The Act is
(a) The Adivasi and Dalits Act 1988
(b) The Adivasi and the Scheduled Castes Act 1990
(c) The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989

Question 7.
The names of the manual scavengers in different parts of India is/are
(a) Bhangis in Gujarat
(b) Sikkaliars in Tamil Nadu
(c) Pakhis in Andhra Pradesh
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question 8.
The Central Government passed the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Act in the year
(a) 2005
(b) 2008
(c) 2009
(d) 2010
Answer:
(c) 2009

Question 9.
Dalit means:
(a) To highlight the discrimination of wealth.
(b) Too highlight the discrimination of caste.
(c) To highlight the discrimination of gender.
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Too highlight the discrimination of caste.

Question 10.
The term ‘Assertive’ means:
(a) Those who never express themselves.
(b) Those who oppose every concept.
(c) Those who express themselves strongly.
(d) Both b and c
Answer:
(a) Those who never express themselves.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
The force is put on Ratham to perform the ritual of washing the feet of the priest and then bathing in that water’. Which fundamental right is being violated in the case?
Answer:
The Fundamental Right which is being violated is Right to Freedom.

Question 2.
What do you mean by the ‘Reservation Policy’?
Answer:
Reservation Policy is the policy which reserve seats in education and government employment for Dalits and Adivasis.

Question 3.
What did the marginal groups rely on to protect themselves from continued exploitation by other groups?
Answer:
Marginal groups relied on Constitution to protect themselves from continued exploitation by other groups.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation

Question 4.
How have the marginalised communities drawn on the fundamental rights?
Answer:
The marginalised communities have drawn on these rights in two ways: First, by insisting on their Fundamental Rights, they have forced the government to recognise the injustice done to them. Second, they have insisted that the government enforce these laws.

Question 5.
To which caste did the Bhakti poet Chokhamela from fourteenth century Maharashtra belong?
Answer:
The Bhakti poet Chokhamela from fourteenth century Maharashtra belonged to the Mahar caste, which was at that time considered untouchable.

Question 6.
W ho is questioning the idea of purity and arguing that since every human is born in the same manner, there is nothing that makes one body less or more pure than the other?
Answer:
Soyrabai, the wife of Bhakti poet, Chokhamela is questioning the idea of purity and arguing that since every human is bom in the same manner, there is nothing that makes one body less or more pure than the other.

Question 7.
Who was Kabir?
Answer:
Kabir was a fifteenth century poet and weaver who also belonged to the Bhakti tradition.

Question 8.
How many people are working as manual scavengers in government and private sectors?
Answer:
There are one lakh persons from Dalit communities who continue to be employed in this job in the country and who work in 26 lakh private and community dry latrines managed by municipalities.

Question 9.
In the year 1993, which Act was passed?
Answer:
In the year 1993, the government passed the Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation

Question 10.
What does the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act means?
Answer:
The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act meant to undo the historical injustices meted out to forest dwelling populations in not recognising their rights to land and resources.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
In what manner government tried to eradicate manual scavenging?
Answer:
In 1993, the government passed the Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act. This law prohibits the employment of manual scavengers as well as the construction of dry latrines.

Question 2.
Discuss in brief the 1989 Act made in context to Adivasi demands.
Answer:
The 1989 Act confirms what has already been promised to tribal people in the Constitution, that land belonging to tribal people cannot be sold to or bought by non-tribal people. In cases where this has happened, the Constitution guarantees the right of tribal people to re-possess their land.

Question 3.
What is manual scavenging? How is it harmful for people who practice it?
Answer:
Manual scavenging refers to the practice of removing human and animal waste/ excreta using brooms, tin plates and baskets from dry latrines and carrying it on the head to disposal grounds some distance away. Manual scavengers are exposed to subhuman conditions of work and face serious health problems. They are constantly exposed to infections that affect their eyes, skin, respiratory and gastro-intestinal systems.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation

Question 4.
Explain in brief the reservation policy.
Answer:
The laws which reserve seats in education and government employment for Dalits and Adivasis are based on an important argument that in a society like ours, where for centuries sections of the population have been denied opportunities to learn and to work in order to develop new skills or vocations, a democratic government needs to step in and assist these sections.

Question 5.
Express the ideas of C.K. Janu, an Adivasi activist on violation of constitutional rights by the government of various Indian states.
Answer:
C.K. Janu, an Adivasi activist has pointed out that one of the violators of Constitutional rights guaranteed to tribal people are governments in the various states of India. It is they who allow non- tribal encroachers in the form of timber merchants, paper mills, etc., to exploit tribal land and to forcibly evict tribal people from their traditional forests in the process of declaring forests as reserved or as sanctuaries. She has also said that in cases where tribals and adivasis have already been evicted and cannot go back to their lands, they must be compensated.

Question 6.
In which way the reservation policy work?
Answer:
Governments across India have their own list of Scheduled Castes or Dalits, Scheduled Tribes and backward and most backward castes. The central government too has its list. Students applying to educational institutions and those applying for posts in government are expected to furnish proof of their caste or tribe status, in the form of caste and tribe certificates. If a particular Dalit caste or a certain tribe is on the government list, then a candidate from that caste or tribe can avail of the benefit of reservation.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation

Question 7.
Mention the important features of Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006.
Answer:
The important features of Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 are as follows:

  1. It meant to undo the historical injustices meted out to forest dwelling populations in not recognising their rights to land and resources.
  2. This Act recognises their right to homestead cultivable and grazing land and to non-timber forest produce.
  3. The Act also points out that the rights of forest dwellers includes conservation of forests and bio-diversity.

Question 8.
Dalits asserted themselves. How?
Answer:
Dalits asserted themselves in the following ways:

  1. During 1970s and 1980s, in parts of southern India, a number of assertive Dalit groups came into being and asserted their rights. They refused to perform their so-called caste duties and insisted on being treated equally.
  2. These groups demanded new laws that would list the various sorts of violence against dalits and prescribe stringent punishment for those who indulge in them.
  3. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s Adivasi people successfully organised themselves and demanded equal rights and for their land and resources to be returned to them.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Discuss few crimes listed in Prevention of Atrocities Act, 1989.
Answer:
Few crimes which are listed in Prevention of Atrocities Act, 1989 are as follows:
(i) Firstly, it lists modes of humiliation that are both physically horrific and morally reprehensible and seeks to punish those who:

  • force a member of a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe to drink or eat any inedible or obnoxious substance.
  • forcibly removes clothes from the person of a member of a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe or parades him or her naked or with painted face or body or commits any similar act which is derogatory to human dignity.

(ii) Secondly, it lists actions that dispossess Dalits and Adivasis of their meagre resources or which force them into performing slave labour. Thus, the Act sets out to punish anyone who wrongfully occupies or cultivates any land owned by, or allotted to, a member of a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe or get the land allotted to him transferred.

(iii) At another level, the Act recognises that crimes against Dalit and tribal women are of a specific kind and, therefore, seeks to penalise anyone who assaults or uses force on an woman belonging to a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe with intent to dishonour her.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation

JAC Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation

JAC Class 8th Civics Understanding Marginalisation InText Questions and Answers

Page 83

Question 1.
Explain at least three different reasons why groups may be marginalised.
Answer:

  1. Three different reasons for groups may be marginalized are as follows:
  2. They are poor.
  3. They speak different languages.
  4. They follow different customs and traditions.

Question 2.
Why was Dadu forced to leave his village in Odisha?
Answer:
The company wallahs took Dadu’s land for mining iron ore there. For this reason, Dadu was forced to leave his village in Odisha.

Question 3.
In your own city or village, who would you think are the marginalised groups? Discuss.
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation

Question 4.
Can you name some Adivasi communities that live in your state? Answer: Students need to do it on their own. (Hint: Jharkhand: santhalis are there, etc).

Question 5.
What languages do they speak?
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own. (Hint: Santhals speak santhali in Jharkhand)

Question 6.
Do they live close to the forest?
Answer:
Yes, they live close to the forest.

Question 7.
Do they migrate to other regions looking for work?
Answer:
Yes, they migrate to other regions looking for work.

Question 8.
What metals are important in present-day India? Why? Where do they come from? Are there Adivasi populations there?
Answer:
The metals which are important in present day India are copper, iron, aluminum, manganese. They are important because they are mostly used in household works, industries. Iron, aluminum, copper are mainly found in Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand. Manganese mainly found in Odisha, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh. Yes, there are Adivasi populations present.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation

Question 9.
List five products that you use at home that come from the forest.
Answer:
Five products that we use at home which come from forest are:

  • Honey
  • Fruit
  • Lac
  • Gum
  • Timber

Question 10.
By whom were the following demands being made on forest land?

  • timber for construction of houses and railways
  • forest land for mining
  • forest land for agriculture by non- tribal people
  • reserved by government as wildlife parks

In what ways would this affect tribal people?
Answer:
The British government made those demands. This would affect the establishment of the tribal people. They would not get the work easily as they would be displaced to other places.

Question 11.
What do you think this poem is trying to convey?
Come Mini, let’s go to Assam
Our country has so much suffering
The country of Assam, oh Mini Has tea gardens full of greenery…
The Sardar says work, work
The Babu says catch and bring them in
The Saheb says I’ll take off the skin of your back
Hey Jaduram, you deceived us by sending us to Assam.
Answer:
The poem is trying to convey the hopes of the migrants and reality of hardship they faced.

Page 87

In your opinion, why is it important that Adivasis should have a say in how their forests and forest lands are used?
Answer:
It is important that Adivasis should have a say in how their forests and forest lands are used because government’s decision on these crucial matters affect their lives and livelihood directly.

Page 88

Why do we need safeguards for minorities?
Answer:
We need to safeguard for minorities in order to protect them from any discriminations done by majorities.

Question 14.
I. Access to Basic Amenities, 20082009

Religious Community Pucca House Electricity Tap N Water
Hindu 65.4 75.2 43.7
Muslim 63.8 67.5 35.8
Christian 69.3 86.2 48.0
JSikh 91.3 96.0 49.3

Which of these communities have the most and the least access to basic amenities?
Answer:
The communities which have the most and the least access to basic amenities are Sikh and Muslim.

Page 89

Question 15.
II. Literacy Rate by Religion, 2011 (percentages)

All Hindus Muslims Christians Sikhs Buddhists Jains
74 63 57 74 67 71 86

Which of these communities have the highest and the lowest literacy rate?
Answer:
The communities which have the highest and the lowest literacy rate are Jains and Muslims.

Question 16.
III. Public Employment of Muslims (percentages)

Population IAS IPS 1FS Central Public State PSU Banks & RBI
Sector Unit (PSU)
13.5 3 4 1.8 3.3 10.8 2.2

What do these figures convey?
Answer:
It conveys that they do not have equal representation in public employment.

Question 17.
Read the data related to schooling provided by the Sachar Committee Report:
25 per cent of Muslim children in the 6-14 years age group have either never been enrolled in school or have dropped out. This percentage is much higher than that of any other socio-religious community (page 58). Do you think special measures are required to address this situation?
Answer:
Yes, I think special measures are required to address this situation.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation

Page 90

Question 18.
live in a Muslim-dominated area. Some days back during Ramzan there was some disturbance that started taking a communal outlook. My b rother and 1 had gone for an Iftar party in theneighbourhood and were dressed in traditional clothes, that was sherwani and salwar-kameez respectively.

On returning home, my brother and I were asked to change our clothes to jeans and T-shirt. Now when eveiything is fine l wonder what was the reason that we were asked to change our clothes and why 1 didn’t find it odd. Were our clothes giving away our identity and is that identity linked to all kinds of fears and discrimination? The above essay has been written by a child around your age. What do you think she is trying to convey?
Answer:
In societies, people are hiding their identity to avoid tensions. Some traditional dresses signify particular communities. Such dresses become their identity and create communal tension sometimes. Hence, they can be targeted by the opposing groups.

JAC Class 8th Civics Understanding Marginalisation Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write in your own words two or more sentences of what you understand by the word ‘marginalisation’.
Answer:
The process of being confined to a lower social standing is called as marginalisation. People are being denied of their fundamental rights that results in lowering their social and economic status. This situation occurs when a particular social group is forced to live on the edges rather than in the conventional society.

Question 2.
List two reasons why Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalised.
Answer:
Adivasis are being increasingly marginalised for the following two reasons:

  1. Changes in forest laws disposes the Adivasis from their natural territory and livelihood due to which they turned into marginal and powerless communities.
  2. People consider Adivasis as exotic, primitive and backward communities that has led to their marginalisation.

Question 3.
Write one reason why you think the Constitution’s safeguards to protect minority communities are very important?
Answer:
The Constitution’s safeguards to protect minority communities are necessary to protect the minority communities because they are usually dominated by the maj ority and becoming marginalised. It focuses on protecting India’s cultural diversity and promoting equality as well as justice.

Question 4.
Re-read the section on Minorities and Marginalisation. What do you understand by the term minority?
Answer:
A community that is numerically small in relation to the rest of the population in terms of race, religion, language or political persuasion is known as minority.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation

Question 5.
You are participating in a debate where you have to provide reasons to support the following statement: ’Muslims are a marginalised community’. Using the data provided in this chapter, list two reasons that you would give.
Answer:
Two reasons are as follows:

  1. The literacy rate of Muslim population in India is only 57% which is the lowest compared to others.
  2. They lag behind the other communities even in access to the basic communities.

Question 6.
Imagine that you are watching the Republic Day parade on TV with a friend and she remarks, “Look at these tribals. They look so exotic. And they seem to be dancing all the time”. List three things that you would tell her about the lives of Adivasis in India.
Answer:
Three things that tells about the lives of Adivasis in India are as follows:

  1. Adivasis were hunters and gatherers and lived like nomads. They practised both shifting agriculture as well as cultivated at a single place.
  2. Adivasis have a deep knowledge of forests which made them indispensable and crucial to the rulers of various empires during the pre-colonial period in India.
  3. Adivasis have their own languages which have influenced the formation of Indian languages.

Question 7.
In the storyboard you read about how Helen hopes to make a movie on the Adivasi story. Can you help her by developing a short story on Adivasis?
Answer:
Student needs to do it on their own.

Question 8.
Would you agree with the statement that economic marginalisation and social marginalisation are interlinked? Why?
Answer:
Yes, economic marginalisation and social marginalisation are interlinked because of the following reasons:

(i) Social marginalisation is based on religion, culture, tradition, etc. Marginalised sections do not get proper access to anything such as jobs, education and health facilities due to which they are unable to become financially stable. This creates economic marginalisation.

(ii) When there is no economic development, the minorities do not develop socially. They remain backward. And hence, they become socially marginalised.

JAC Class 8th Civics Understanding Marginalisation Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Adivasis are generally portrayed in:
(a) royal dress and crown.
(b) colourful costumes and headgear.
(c) black and white dresses.
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(b) colourful costumes and headgear.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation

Question 2.
Adivasis slowly and steadily began to migrate because:
(a) of economic changes and forest policies, they lost their access to forest.
(b) they got free admission in schools and colleges.
(c) of economic changes and forest policies, they got new houses in city area.
(d) all of these
Answer:
(a) of economic changes and forest policies, they lost their access to forest.

Question 3.
Adivasi means:
(a) the original inhabitants.
(b) people who live in rural areas.
(c) people who live in deserts.
(d) none of these
Answer:
(a) the original inhabitants.

Question 4:
…….. state in India is like home to more than 60 different tribal groups?
(a) Rajasthan
(b) Andhra Pradesh
(c) Mizoram
(d) Odisha
Answer:
(d) Odisha

Question 5:
During the nineteenth century, substantial numbers of Adivasis converted to……which has emerged as a very important religion in modern Adivasi history.
(a) Buddhist
(b) Vaishnav
(c) Christianity
(d) Jainism
Answer:
(c) Christianity

Question 6.
One of the Adivasi languages is ……..
(a) Bengali
(b) Santhali
(c) Kannad
(d) All of these
Answer:
(b) Santhali

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation

Question 7.
Big empires heavily depended on Adivasis for the important access to forest resources, they were
(a) metal ores
(b) medicinal herbs
(c) animal products
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question 8.
Adivasis migrated to cities in search of work. But eventually this happened to them:
(a) Many tribal children are malnourished.
(b) They get caught in a cycle of poverty and deprivation.
(c) They have no access to education.
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question 9.
Tribals are referred to as………
(a) Untouchables
(b) Adivasis
(c) Dalits
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Adivasis

Question 10:
In…… state we won’t find Adivasis.
(a) Jharkhand
(b) Gujarat
(c) Kerala
(d) Odisha
Answer:
(c) Kerala

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who are the marginalised groups in India?
Answer:
Some of the marginalised groups of India are the Adivasis, the Muslims and the Dalits.

Question 2.
What are the outcomes of marginalisation?
Answer:
The outcome of marginalisation results in having a low social status and not having equal access to education and other resources.

Question 3. Name the person who headed committee set up by the government to examine the social, economic, and educational status of Muslim community in India.
Answer:
Justice Rajindar Sachar headed committee set up by the government to examine the social, economic, and educational status of Muslim community in India.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation

Question 4.
How are Adivasis represented today?
Answer:
Adivasis are invariably represented in very stereotypical ways such as in colourful costumes, headgear and through their dancing. Often Adivasis are blamed for their lack of advancement as they are believed to be resistant to change or new ideas.

Question 5.
From which state the Adivasis moved in large numbers to various plantations in India and world?
Answer:
From Jharkhand and nearby places, the Adivasis moved in large numbers to vatious plantations in India and world.

Question 6.
What is the population of Adivasis in Assam in present day?
Answer:
The population of Adivasis in Assam in present day is around 70 lakh.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation

Question 7.
Where is Niyamgiri Hill located?
Which Adivasi community inhabits the place?
Answer:
Niyamgiri Hill is located in Kalahandi district of Odisha. The Adivasi community which inhabited the place is Dongarria Konds.

Question 8.
Why the Adivasi community have resisted the proposed development whose case is pending in the Supreme Court?
Answer:
The Adivasi community have resisted the proposed development whose case is pending in the Supreme Court because a major aluminium company was planning to set up a mine and a refinery which will displace the Adivasis.

Question 9.
How many plant species Adivasis used?
Answer:
Around 10,000 plant species Adivasis used.

Question 10.
According to the Report, the average years of schooling for which community children between what ages is much lower than that of other socio-religious communities?
Answer:
According to the Report, the average years of schooling for Muslim community children between the ages of 7-16 is much lower than that of other socio-religious communities.

Short Answer Type Questions 

Question 1.
What was the conclusion reached by the Justice Rajindar Sachar Committee?
Answer:
The committee which was headed by Justice Rajinder Sachar came to the conclusion that on a range of social, economic and educational indicators the situation of the Muslim community is comparable to that of other marginalised communities like Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

Question 2.
Why groups may be marginalised?
Answer:
Group’s marginalisation can be because they speak a different language, follow different customs or belong to a different religious group from the majority community. They may also feel marginalised because they are poor, considered to be of low social status and viewed as being less human than others.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation

Question 3.
How can we tackle Marginalisation?
Answer:
Marginalisation is a complex phenomenon which requires a variety of strategies, measures and safeguards to redress this situation. All of us have a stake in protecting the rights defined in the Constitution and the laws and policies framed to realize these rights. Without these, we will never be able to protect the diversity that makes our country unique nor realize the State’s commitment to promote equality for all.

Question 4.
How marginalisation affect the community?
Answer:
Sometimes, marginalised groups are viewed with bitterness, antagonism and fear. This sense of difference and exclusion leads to communities not having access to resources and opportunities and in their inability to assert their rights. They experience a sense of disadvantage and powerlessness and more powerful and dominant sections of society who own land are wealthy better educated and politically powerful.

Question 5.
Write a brief about the plant species used by the Adivasis.
Answer:
Adivasis use around 10,000 plant species in which approximately 8,000 species are used for medicinal purposes, 325 are used as pesticides, 425 as gums, resins and dyes, 550 as fibres; 3,500 are edible. They have vast knowledge about the plant species. This got wiped out as they lost their rights over the forest land.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation

Question 6.
What do you mean by Scheduled Tribes? Write in brief.
Answer:
Adivasi are also called as Scheduled Tribes. Indian Government use this term in official documents. When the government formulates any policy or programme for Scheduled Tribes then all the designated tribes are entitled for it.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the hardships faced by the Adivasis?
Answer:
Hardships and deprivation faced by the Adivasis were as follows:

  1. Forest lands have been cleared for timber and to get land for agriculture and industry.
  2. Adivasis have also lived in areas that are rich in minerals and ores and other natural resources. These are taken over for mining and other large industrial projects.
  3. Dams that have been built in independent India has taken large tracts of their lands.
  4. In the north-east, their lands remain highly militarised and war-tom.
  5. There are areas where tribals originally lived but were evicted from there to build sanctuaries and parks. India has 54 national parks and 372 wildlife sanctuaries.
  6. Losing their lands and access to the forest means that tribals lose their main sources of livelihood and food.
  7. Adivasis have migrated to cities in search of work where they are employed for very low wages in local industries or at building or construction sites.
  8. They got caught in a cycle of poverty, deprivation and marginalisation.

Question 2.
Write a brief note on Adivasis.
Answer:
Adivasis, the term means original inhabitants. The communities who lived and often continue to live in close association with forests. Around 8 per cent of India’s population is Adivasi and many of India’s most important mining and industrial centres are located in Adivasi areas such as Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaro and Bhilai among others. Adivasis are not a homogeneous population. There are over 500 different Adivasi groups in India. A state like Orissa is home to more than 60 different tribal groups.

Adivasis practise a range of tribal religions that are different from Islam, Hinduism and Christianity. These often involve the worship of ancestors, village and nature spirits. During the nineteenth century, substantial numbers of Adivasis converted to Christianity, which has emerged as a very important religion in modem Adivasi history. Adivasis have their own languages, which have often deeply influenced the formation of ‘mainstream’ Indian languages, like Bengali.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Understanding Our Criminal Justice System

JAC Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Understanding Our Criminal Justice System

JAC Class 8th Civics Understanding Our Criminal Justice System InText Questions and Answers

Page 71

Question 1.
Why do you think there is a rule that confessions made during police custody cannot be used as evidence against the accused?
Answer:
There is a rule that confessions made during police custody cannot be used as evidence against the accused because there is always a possibility and probability that the police may create pressure around the accused to prove to make confessions.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Understanding Our Criminal Justice System

Page 72

Question 2.
Now let us return to the story of Shanti and answer the following questions:

(a) When Shanti was arrested for theft, S.I. Rao also kept her brother Sushil in the police lock up for two days. Was it legal for the police to detain him? Does it violate the D.K. Basu guidelines?

(b) Did S.I. Rao do enough to question witnesses and compile evidence before arresting Shanti and filing a case against her? In keeping with the duties of the police as stated above, what else do you think S.I. Rao could have done as part of his investigation?
Answer:
(a) No, it was not legal for the police to detain him. Yes, it violates D.K. Basu guidelines.

(b) No, S.I. Rao didn’t do enough to question witnesses and compile evidence before arresting Shanti and filing a case against her. S.I. Rao could have done the following things as part of his investigation:

  1. Investigation should have been in large scale involving many people from the locality.
  2. His decision was one-sided as he arrested Shanti on the basis of what the Mr. Shinde told.
  3. He has done the investigation in hurry and hence, got wrong conclusion.

Question 3.
Now let us take a slightly different scenario. Shanti and her brother Sushil go to the police station to complain that Mr. Shinde’s 20-year old son had stolen ? 15,000 that they had been saving up. Do you think that the officer in charge of the Police Station will promptly lodge a FIR? List a few factors that in your opinion may influence the decision of the police to register or not register an FIR.
Answer:
No, I don’t think that the officer in charge of the Police Station will promptly lodge a FIR. Few factors that in my opinion that may influence the decision of the police to register or not register a FIR are social and political status.

Page 73

Question 4.
What did the judge say in Shanti’s case after hearing the testimony of all the witnesses?
Answer:
The judge said that in Shanti’s case after hearing the testimony of all the witnesses that the police didn’t investigate in a fair manner and it was one sided. Hence, prosecution failed to prove that Shanti was guilty. This proved Shanti was innocent and the gang who did was arrested. Hence, the judge showed enough evidence in favour of Shanti and acquitted her.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Understanding Our Criminal Justice System

Page 75

All of the processes, written in bold on page 74, are crucial to a fair trial. Write in your own words what you understand of the following processes based on the above description of Shanti’s case.
a. Open Court
b. Basis of Evidence
c. Cross-examination of Prosecution Witnesses
Answer:
(a) Open Court:
The trial is held in front of everyone, publicly.

(b) Basis of Evidence:
Witnesses are produced in court and questioned in the court. Also discuss about the case which becomes the basis of evidence and judgement.

(c) Cross examination of Prosecution Witnesses:
The defence lawyer and the Public Prosecutor are allowed to ask questions to witnesses in court.

Question 6.
Discuss in class what might have happened in Shanti’s case if the following procedures had not been observed.
(a) If she were not defended by a lawyer.
(b) If the court had not assumed her to be innocent.
Answer:
In both the cases, she would have not got justice.

JAC Class 8th Civics  Understanding Our Criminal Justice System Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
In a town called Peace Land, the supporters of the Fiesta football team learn that the supporters of the Jubilee football team in the nearby city about 40 km away have damaged the ground on which the Final between both teams is to be held the following day. A crowd of Fiesta fans armed with deadly weapons attacks the homes of the supporters of the Jubilee football team in the town. In the attack, 10 men are killed, 5 women are gravely hurt, many homes are destroyed and over 50 people injured. Imagine that you and your classmates are now part of the criminal justice system. First divide the class into the following four groups of persons:

1. Police

2. Public Prosecutor

3. Defence lawyer

4. Judge The column on the right provides a list of functions. Match these with the roles that are listed on the left. Have each group pick the functions that it needs to perform to bring justice to those who were affected by the violence of the Fiesta fans. In what order, will these functions be performed?

Roles                       Functions
Police hear the witnesses
record the statements of witnesses
Public Prosecutor cross examine the witnesses
take photographs of burnt homes
Defence Lawyer record the evidence
arrest the Fiesta fans
Judge writes the judgment
argue the case for the victims
decide for how many years the accused will be put in jail
examine the witnesses in court
pass the judgment
get the assaulted women medically
examined
conduct a fair trial
meet the accused persons

Answer:

Roles Functions
Police record the statements of witnesses
arrest the Fiesta fans
get the assaulted women medically examined
take photographs of burnt homes
Public Prosecutor cross examine the witnesses
argue the case for the victims
Defence Lawyer meet the accused persons
examine the witnesses in court
Judge hear the witnesses
record the evidence
writes the judgment
decide for how many years the accused will be put in jail
pass the judgment
conduct a fair trial

No. I don’t think that the victims would get justice if only one person performed all of the functions of the criminal justice system because he could get influenced by various prejudices or get biased. He can also be overpowered by any person which may affect the process of investigation. Hence, a separation of power is necessary within a judicial system too, since absolute power can lead to unfairness. Two reasons why different people need to play different roles as part of the criminal justice system are as follows:

  1. All the aspects of trial and investigation cannot be conducted by a single person, since it requires a diverse range of work including arresting, recording the statements of witnesses, defending the victim and accused parties, passing a fair trial and judicially correct judgment.
  2. If all the powers are vested on one person alone, it might be misused and exploit and thereby violate the laws based on just and equal decision

JAC Class 8th Civics  Understanding Our Criminal Justice System Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
There are four people who play a key role in our criminal justice system. These are the police, the Public Prosecutor, the defence lawyer, and the .
(a) army
(b) criminal
(c) judge
(d) victim
Answer:
(c) judge

Question 2.
The role of the police begins with the lodging of an…….in the police station. After the registration of the it, the police starts investigation.
(a) FIR
(b) IFR
(c) PIL
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) FIR

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Understanding Our Criminal Justice System

Question 3.
Article 22 of the Constitution and criminal law guarantees right/s to every arrested person is / are:

(a) The Right to be informed at the time of arrest of the offence for which the person is being arrested and to be presented before a magistrate within 24 hours of arrest.

(b) The Right not to be ill treated or tortured during arrest or in custody and to be informed at
the time of arrest of the offence for which the person is being arrested.

(c) Confessions made in police custody cannot be used as evidence against the accused and a boy under 15 years of age and women cannot be called to the police station only for questioning.

(d) All of these
Answer:
(c) Confessions made in police custody cannot be used as evidence against the accused and a boy under 15 years of age and women cannot be called to the police station only for questioning.

Question 4.
Witness means:
(a) Person harmed, injured, or killed as a result of a crime, accident, or other event or action.
(b) Person or animal that attacks someone or something.
(c) A public officer appointed to decide cases in a law court.
(d) Person who is called upon in court to provide a first-hand account of what he/she has seen, heard or knows.
Answer:
(d) Person who is called upon in court to provide a first-hand account of what he/she has seen, heard or knows.

Question 5.
Detention means:
(a) Any act that the law defines as a crime.
(b) Act of being kept in illegal custody by the police.
(c) Act of being fair or just and not favouring one side over another.
(d) All of these
Answer:
(b) Act of being kept in illegal custody by the police.

Question 6.
Offences means:
(a) Act of being fair or just and not favouring one side over another.
(b) Act of being kept in illegal custody by the police.
(c) Any act that the law defines as a crime.
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) Any act that the law defines as a crime.

Question 7.
…….. represents the interests of the State in court.
(a) Judge
(b) Public Prosecutor
(c) Victim
(d) Defense lawyer
Answer:
(b) Public Prosecutor

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Understanding Our Criminal Justice System

Question 8.
…….. acts on behalf of the accused and also produces witnesses and evidence before the court in favour of his client.
(a) Victim Defense Lawyer
(b) Victim Judge
(c) Victim Public Prosecutor
(d) Victim Panel of Jury
Answer:
(a) Victim Defense Lawyer

Question 9.
Every person has a fundamental Right to be defended by a lawyer under the act……..
(a) Act 42
(b) Act 67
(c) Act 45
(d) Act 22
Answer:
(d) Act 22

Question 10.
Police file a charge sheet in the court:
(a) If a person is suspected for anything.
(b) If investigation proved the person is accused.
(c) If a person commits a crime.
(d) If police arrest a person.
Answer:
(b) If investigation proved the person is accused.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who hears all the witnesses and other evidence presented by the prosecution and the defense and afterwards he decides whether the accused person is guilty or innocent?
Answer:
The judge hears all the witnesses and other evidence presented by the prosecution and the defense and afterwards he decides whether the accused person is guilty or innocent.

Question 2.
What the judge pronounces if the accused is convicted?
Answer:
The judge pronounces the sentence if the accused is convicted.

Question 3.
Is judiciary in India is less powerful than USA?
Answer:
Yes, judiciary in India is less powerful than USA.

Question 4.
When you see someone violating the law, whom we should inform immediately?
Answer:
When we see someone violating the law, we should inform the police immediately.

Question 5.
What is the role of the police in the Criminal Justice System?
Answer:
In the Criminal Justice System the police play the role of investigating the case and arresting the accused.

Question 6.
Who is a prosecutor?
Answer:
Aprosecutor is an official who puts people on trial on behalf of the government and people of a particular country.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Understanding Our Criminal Justice System

Question 7.
Why is the Prosecutor called a Public Prosecutor?
Answer:
The Prosecutor who represents the State is called a Public Prosecutor as a criminal offence is regarded as a public wrong, which has been committed not only against the victim, but also against the society as a whole.

Question 8.
What do you mean by Rights? How can we practice our Rights?
Answer:
Rights means a declaration of a person recognised by society and approved by law. We can practice our Rights when we claim that is equally possible for others. We cannot have a Right that can harm or hurt others.

Question 9.
Article 39A of the Constitution assign duty to the State. What is it?
Answer:
Article 39A of the Constitution assign duty to the State. The duty is that the State shall provide a lawyer to any citizen who is unable to engage one for him due to monetary issues or other disability.

Question 10.
What does the Article 21 state?
Answer:
Article 21 states that a person’s life or liberty can be taken away only by following a reasonable and just legal procedure.

Short Answer Type Questions 

Question 1.
What is the role of the judge in the Criminal Justice System?
Answer:
The judge conducts the fair trial and in an open court. The judge hears properly all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the prosecution and the defense. The judge decides whether the accused person is guilty or innocent on the basis of the evidence presented and in accordance with the law. If the accused is convicted, then the judge pronounces the sentence. He may send the person to jail or impose a fine or both depending on what the law prescribes.

Question 2.
What do you mean by ‘Criminal Justice System’?
Answer:
Criminal Justice System is the system of law enforcement that is directly involved in apprehending, detaining, prosecuting, defending, sentencing and punishing those who are suspected or convicted of criminal offenses.

Question 3.
What are the guidelines that the police have to follow during investigation?
Answer:
The Supreme Court has laid down guidelines that the police must follow at the time of arrest, detention and interrogation. The police are not allowed to torture or beat or shoot anyone during investigation. They cannot inflict any form of punishment on a person even for petty offences.

Question 4.
What is the role of the police in investigating a crime?
Answer:
The role of the police in investigating a crime of any complaint is about the commission of a crime. An investigation includes recording statements of witnesses and collecting different kinds of evidence. On the basis of the investigation, the police are required to form an opinion. If the police think that the evidence points to the guilt of the accused person, then they file a charge sheet in the court.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Understanding Our Criminal Justice System

Question 5.
Write a note on Public Prosecutor.
Answer:
The Public Prosecutor who represents the interests of the State in court. The role of the Prosecutor begins once the police has conducted the investigation and filed the chargesheet in the court. He/she has no role to play in the investigation. The Prosecutor must conduct the prosecution on behalf of the State. As an officer of the court, it is his/her duty to act impartially and fairly and present the full material facts, witnesses and evidence before the court to enable the court to decide the case of the accused is guilty or not.

Question 6.
Write a brief note on the criminal procedure in the Criminal Justice System in India.
Answer:
A crime is first reported by the victim to the police and the police file a FIR which is First Information Report. Then the police begin the investigation and arrest the suspected person or persons. Then, the police file a chargesheet in the Magistrate’s Court. The trial begins in an open court. The Public Prosecutor represents the victim and the accused can defend themselves with the help of lawyer. Once the trial is over the accused is either convicted or acquitted. If convicted, the accused can appeal to the higher court.

Question 7.
Mention the procedures that have to be followed if the criminal trial has to be a fair trial.
Answer:
The procedures that have to be followed if the criminal trial has to be a fair trial are:

  • A copy of the chargesheet and all other evidence that the prosecution presented has to be given to the accused.
  • The trial has to be held in an open court means in public view and in the presence of the accused.
  • The accused has to be given a lawyer to defend himself in case he cannot afford to employ a lawyer.
  • The prosecution has to prove beyond reasonable doubt of guilty of the accused.
  • The judge decides the matter only on the basis of the evidence before the court.

Question 8.
What do you understand by chargesheet?
Answer:
Chargesheet is a formal and important document of accusation prepared by the police. It is a final report in which it is mentioned that a crime has been committed. Once it is submitted in the court, prosecution proceeds against the accused.

Question 9.
What do you mean by fair trial?
Answer:
A fair trial means that the accused has the access to the service of the lawyer and his or her case conducted in the court properly and after detailed enquiry, the verdict is passed by the judge, A person is said to be accused and not a criminal until the person’s crime is provided beyond doubt.

Long Answer Type Questions 

Question 1.
Write briefly on FIR.
Answer:
FIR stands for First Information Report. The police can begin their investigations into a crime with the registration of an FIR. The law states that it is compulsory for an officer in charge of a police station to register a FIR whenever a person gives information about a cognizable offence. This information can be given to the police either orally or in writing.

The FIR usually mentions the date, time and place of the offence, details the basic facts of the offence, including a description of the events. If known, the identity of the accused persons and witnesses are also mentioned. The FIR also states the name and address of the complainant. There is a prescribed form in which the police register a FIR and it is signed by the complainant. The complainant also has a legal right to get a free copy of the FIR from the police.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 6 Understanding Our Criminal Justice System

Question 2.
Explain D.K. Basu Guidelines.
Answer:
D.K. Basu guidelines are the guideline which the Supreme Court of India has laid down with specific requirements and procedures that the police and other agencies have to follow for the arrest, detention and interrogation of any person. Some of these guidelines include:

The police officials who carry out the arrest or interrogation should wear clear, accurate and visible identification and name tags with their designations. A memo of arrest should be prepared at the time of arrest and should include the time and date of arrest. It should also be attested by at least one witness who could include a family member of the person arrested.

The arrest memo should be counter-signed by the person arrested. The person arrested, detained or being interrogated has a right to inform a relative, friend or a known person. When a friend or relative lives outside the district, the time, place of arrest and venue of custody must be notified by police within 8 to 12 hours after arrest.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Judiciary

JAC Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Judiciary

JAC Class 8th Civics Judiciary InText Questions and Answers

Page 56

Question 1.
Do you think that any ordinary citizen stands a chance against a politician in this kind of judicial system? Why not?
Answer:
Yes, I think that any ordinary citizen stands a chance against a politician in this kind of judicial system. There is a protection against this kind of situation by the constitution of India for the independence of the judiciary.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Judiciary

Page 57

Question 2.
List two reasons why you believe an independent judiciary is essential to democracy.
Answer:
Two reasons to be believed that an independent judiciary is essential to democracy are as follows:

  1. It protects the Fundamental Rights of the citizen. Any person can approach the court if they think that there rights are violated.
  2. An independent judiciary provides impartial judgment which is an important aspect of democracy.

Page 59

Question 3.
Write two sentences of what you understand about the appellate system from the given case.
Answer:
We understood about the appellate system from the given case is that a person can appeal to a higher court against the judgment of the lower court. The Supreme Court, the highest judicial authority has the power to review the decisions of the lower courts and give its own judgments.

Page 63

Question 4.
Discuss the impact of the shortage of judges on the delivery of justice to the litigants.
Answer:
The impact of the shortage of judges on the delivery of justice to the litigants is that it takes too much time and people have to wait for longer period. It costs heavily as well.

JAC Class 8th Civics Judiciary Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
You read that one of the main functions of the judiciary is ‘upholding the law and Enforcing Fundamental Rights’. Why do you think an independent judiciary is necessary to carry out this important function?
Answer:
An independent judiciary is necessary to carry out the function of ‘upholding the law and enforcing Fundamental Rights’ because it plays a major role in the functioning of India’s democracy. It helps to protect the judicial process from external influences. It is the independence of the judiciary that allows the courts to play a central role in ensuring that there is no misuse of power by the legislature and the executive. It also plays a crucial role in protecting the Fundamental Rights of citizens because anyone can approach the courts if they believe that their rights have been violated.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Judiciary

Question 2.
Re-read the list of Fundamental Rights provided in Chapter 1. How do you think the Right to Constitutional Remedies connects to the idea of judicial review?
Answer:
The Right to Constitutional Remedies connects to the idea of judicial review in its capacity of protecting and shielding the rights of the citizens against the working of the State legislature or executive. It allows citizens to move to the court if they feel that their fundamental rights are being violated by the State administration. In the Constitution, every citizen has equal rights and none can be discriminated against. Hence, judicial review and the Right to Constitutional Remedies are inter-connected because the judicial review is practiced when any fundamental Right has gone wrong by the State. In this case, a higher court can repeal the judgments of a lower court based on its own investigation.

Question 3.
In the following illustration, fill in each tier with the judgments given by the various courts in the Sudha Goel case. Check your responses with others in class.
JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Judiciary 1
Answer:

  • In Fower Court:
    Laxman. his mother Shakuntala and his brother-in-law Subhash Chandra were sentenced to death.
  • In High Court:
    Laxman, Shakuntala and Subhash Chandra were all acquitted and set free.
  • In Supreme Court:
    Laxman and Shakuntala were found guilty and given life imprisonment while Subhash Chandra was acquitted for lack of sufficient proofs against him.

Question 4.
Keeping the Sudha Goel case in mind, tick the sentences that are true and correct the ones that are false.
(a) The accused took the case to the High Court because they were unhappy with the decision of the Trial Court.
(b) They went to the High Court after the Supreme Court had given its decision.
(c) If they do not like the Supreme Court verdict, the accused can go back again to the Trial Court.
Answer:
(a) True
(b) False
(c) False

Question 5.
Why do you think the introduction of Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in the 1980s is a significant step in ensuring access to justice for all?
Answer:
The introduction of Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in the 1980s is a significant step in ensuring access to justice for all because of the following reasons: Any person or organization is allowed to file a PIL in the High Court or the Supreme Court on behalf of those whose rights were being violated. The poor and illiterate people got more access to justice. The legal process was greatly simplified. A letter addressed to the Supreme Court or the High Court could be treated as a PIL.

Question 6.
Re-read excerpts from the judgment on the Olga Tellis vs Bombay Municipal Corporation case. Now write in your own words what the judges meant when they said that the Right to Livelihood was part of the Right to Life.
Answer:
In the Olga Tellis vs. Bombay Municipal Corporation case, the judges stated that the Right to Livelihood was part of the Right to Life because no person can live without the means of living. In the Olga Tellis vs. BMC case, people were poor and lived in slums. For them, the eviction of their slum means deprivation of their livelihood which consequently means deprivation of life. This is how the judges connected Right to Livelihood to the Right to Life.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Judiciary

Question 7.
Write a story around the theme, ‘Justice delayed is justice denied’.
Answer:
Students need to write their own story. Sample story:
My friend was a bank worker on his retirement he came back to his father’s house which was in a different city. In that house the tenants were living he told them to clear the place so that his family can live as he had no other house but the tenant refused to leave and took a stay order and fded a case due to which my friend had to start living in a rented house. It took five years in the court for the decision at last the decision was in his favour. Next morning we came to know that the tenant has done an appeal in the upper tribunal which lead to another 5 years so in total he got justice after ten years but wasted a lot of money on rent to live for ten years. So, it is true justice delayed is justice denied.

Question 8.
Make sentences with each of the glossary words given on the next page.
Answer:

  • Acquit:
    Ramesh and Dinesh has acquitted themselves well and they can take comfort in that fact.
  • To appeal:
    Smt. Sita Devi approached the High Court to appeal against the District Court.
  • Compensation:
    The court awarded the victims a good amount of money in compensation.
  • Eviction:
    The shopkeeper faced eviction for not paying the rent and electricity bills.
  • Violation:
    My friend’s uncle was fined heavily for violating the traffic rules.

Question 9.
The following is a poster made by the Right to Food campaign.
JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Judiciary 2

Read this poster and list the duties of the government to uphold the Right to Food.
How does the phrase “Hungry stomachs, overflowing godowns! We will not accept it!!” used in the poster relate to the photo essay on the Right to Food on page 61?
Answer:
The Constitution provides Fundamental Rights under this Right to Food is present. If this is affected by any reason then the government is responsible for it. If someone dies out of hunger, the government will be responsible for this. The government has to keep control and check on some of the happenings such as the suicide cases of farmers. Sometimes a crisis of food is created by hoarders and government must find these traders and hoarders and strictly punish them.

JAC Class 8th Civics Judiciary Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions 

Question 1 .
………..cases usually begin with the lodging of FIR with the police who investigate the crime after which a case is filed in the court.
(a) Criminal
(b) Civil
(c) Special
(d) Personal
Answer:
(a) Criminal

Question 2.
Which of the following situation of violence comes under the civil case?
(a) A group of girls are persistently harassed by a group of boys while walking to school.
(b) A tenant murdered the house owner to loot the house.
(c) A tenant who is being forced to move out files a case in court against the landlord.
(d) All of these
Answer:
(c) A tenant who is being forced to move out files a case in court against the landlord.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Judiciary

Question 3.
Poor people often avoid to go to the courts to get justice because:
(a) Legal procedures involve a lot of money, and paperwork takes up a lot of time.
(b) Poor people are not allowed to hire layer.
(c) Poor people never reach to the court on time.
(d) Judges do not listen to the poor people because of lack of trust.
Answer:
(a) Legal procedures involve a lot of money, and paperwork takes up a lot of time.

Question 4.
The mid-day meal that children now receive in government and government-aided schools is also because of:
(a) Public International Litigation (PIL).
(b) Public Interest Litigation (PIL).
(c) Pacific International Lines (PIL).
(d) Interest Litigation (PIL).
Answer:
(b) Public Interest Litigation (PIL).

Question 5.
The work that the judiciary does can be divided into which of the following?
(a) Dispute resolution
(b) Judicial review
(c) Upholding the law and enforcing fundamental rights
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question 6:
……..provides a mechanism for resolving disputes between citizens, between citizens and the government, between two state governments and between the centre and state governments.
(a) The dispute system
(b) The control system
(c) The judicial system
(d) The police system
Answer:
(c) The judicial system

Question 7.
The judiciary has the power to strike down particular laws passed by the Parliament if it believes that these are a violation of the basic structure
of the Constitution. It is known as…..
(a) judicial review
(b) justice review
(c) control review
(d) objection review
Answer:
(a) judicial review

Question 8.
There are …….. different levels of courts in India.
(a) 10
(b) 3
(c) 12
(d) 7
Answer:
(b) 3

Question 9.
The Supreme Court of India is located in……
(a) Kolkata
(b) Mumbai
(d) Hyderabad
Answer:
New Delhi

Question 10.
Civil cases deals with:
(a) cases of theft, robbery, money, property, and inheritance.
(b) cases of theft, robbery, physical injury, and murder.
(c) matters like physical injury, marriage disputes, and murder.
(d) matters like money, property, inheritance, marriage disputes.
Answer:
(d) matters like money, property, inheritance, marriage disputes.

Very Short Answer Type Questions 

Question 1.
What do you mean by law?
Answer:
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behaviour.

Question 2.
What do you mean by judiciary?
Answer:
The judiciary is the branch of authority in a country which is concerned with law and the legal system.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Judiciary

Question 3.
Name the branches of the legal system.
Answer:
The legal system in India is divided into two branches: Criminal Law and Civil Law.

Question 4.
What is the appellate system?
Answer:
This means that a person can appeal to a higher court if they believe that the judgment passed by the lower court is not just.

Question 5.
The work of the judiciary is categorised in how many ways?
Answer:
The work that the judiciary does can be divided into the following:

  1. Dispute Resolution
  2. Judicial Review
  3. Upholding the Law and Enforcing Fundamental Rights.

Question 6.
By which court most people interact?
Answer:
By Subordinate Courts, people mostly interact.

Question 7.
Who appoints the judges of High Court?
Answer:
The President of India appoints the judges of High Court.

Question 8.
In Delhi, which year the High Court came? How many High Courts are there in India?
Answer:
In the year 1966, the High Court in Delhi came. There are 24 High Courts in India.

Question 9. How many judges are there in the Supreme Court?
Answer:
There are 30 judges and Chief Justice in the Supreme Court.

Short Answer Type Questions 

Question 1.
Can we say that Indian Judiciary is independent? How?
Answer:
Yes, Indian judiciary is considered an independent institution because of the following reasons:

  1. The other branches of government that is the legislature and the executive cannot interfere in the work of the judiciary.
  2. The courts are not under the government and do not act on their behalf.

Question 2.
India has an integrated judicial system. Discuss.
Answer:
In India, we have an integrated judicial system, it means that the decisions made by higher courts are binding on the lower courts. In other words, we can say that this integration is through the appellate system that exists in India. This means that a person can appeal to a higher court if they believe that the judgment passed by the lower court is not just.

Question 3.
What do you understand by Public Interest Litigation in India?
Answer:
The Supreme Court in the early 1980s devised a mechanism of Public Interest Litigation or PIL to increase access to justice. It allowed any individual or organisation to file a PIL in the High Court or the Supreme Court on behalf of those whose rights were being violated. The legal process was greatly simplified and even a letter or telegram addressed to the Supreme Court or the High Court could be treated as a PIL.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Judiciary

Question 4.
Describe briefly on the independence of the judiciary.
Answer:
One aspect of this independence is the ‘separation of powers’. This means that other branches of government – the legislature and the executive cannot interfere in the work of the judiciary. The courts are not under the government and do not act on their behalf. All judges are appointed with very little interference from these other branches of government in the High Court as well as the Supreme Court. Once appointed to this office, it is also very difficult to remove a judge.

Question 5.
What is the structure of courts in India?
Answer:
In our country, there are three different levels of courts. There are several courts at the lower level while only one at the apex level. The courts that most people interact with subordinate or district courts. These are usually at the district or Tehsil level or in towns and they hear many kinds of cases. Each state is divided into districts that are presided over by a District Judge. Each state has a High Court which is the highest court of that state. And, at the top is the Supreme Court which is located in New Delhi and is presided over by the Chief Justice of India. The decisions made by the Supreme Court are binding on all other courts in India.

Question 6.
What do you understand by apex court? Who presides over the Supreme Court?
Answer:
In the Indian judicial system, Apex court relates to the court at the highest level means the Supreme Court. The Chief Justice of India presides over the Supreme Court.

Question 7.
How are the Supreme Court and High Court Judges appointed?
Answer:
The Supreme Court and High Court judges are appointed by the President of India by the advice and consultation with the Prime Minister and the Chief Justice of India.

Question 8.
How the Supreme Court and High Court judges are removed?
Answer:
Once the person is appointed as a judge in Supreme Court or in High Court, it is very difficult to remove from his position. It can only be done by the impeachment motion passed by the two-third members of the Houses of parliament present and by voting.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Judiciary

Question 9.
Explain in brief the evolution of courts in India.
Answer:
In 1862, during the British rule, the first High Courts were established and setup in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras (now Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai). In 1937, the Federal Court of India was established by the British rule. The Supreme Court that we have at present was preceded by the Federal Court of India. Till 1949, it was operational from the Chamber of Prince in the Parliament House. The Supreme Court at present replaced that. In 1966, Delhi High Court was established. At present, we have one Supreme Court at the top most level and 24 High Courts.

Question 10.
In what ways do you think the Supreme Court is the guardian of Fundamental Rights?
Answer:
Supreme Court acts as a guardian of fundamental rights as it ensures that people are able to practice their rights in the required manner. Every citizen of India can approach the Supreme Court or the High Court if they believe that their Fundamental Rights have been violated.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the Role of the Judiciary.
Answer:
The work or role of the judiciary can be divided into the following:

Dispute Resolution:
The judicial system provides a method for resolving disputes between citizens, between citizens and the government, between two state governments and between the centre and state governments.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 5 Judiciary

Judicial Review:
As the final interpreter of the Constitution, the judiciary also has the power to strike down particular laws passed by the Parliament if it believes that these are a violation of the basic structure of the Constitution.

This is known as judicial review. Upholding the Law and Enforcing Fundamental Rights:
Every citizen of India can approach the Supreme Court or the High Court if they believe that their Fundamental Rights have been violated.

Question 2.
What are the different branches of the legal system? Distinguish between Criminal Law and Civil Law.
Answer:
The different branches of the legal system are:

  • Criminal Law
  • Civil Law

Difference between Criminal Law and Civil Law:

Criminal Law Civil Law
Deals with conduct or acts that the law defines as offences. Such as theft, harassing a woman to bring more dowry, murder. Deals with any harm or injury to rights of individuals. Such as disputes relating to sale of land, purchase of goods, rent matters, divorce cases.
First Information Report (FIR) has to be lodged with the police who investigate the crime after which a case is filed in the court. Before the relevant court a petition has to be filed by the affected party only. Such as in a rent matter, either the landlord or tenant can file a case.
The accused can be sent to jail and also fined if found guilty. The court gives the specific relief asked for. Such as in a case between a landlord and a tenant, the court can order the fiat to be vacated and pending rent to be paid.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Understanding Laws

JAC Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Understanding Laws

JAC Class 8th Civics Understanding Laws InText Questions and Answers

Page 45

Question 1.
The word ‘arbitrary’ has been used earlier in this book and you’ve read what the word means in the Glossary of Chapter 1. The word ‘sedition’ has been included in the Glossary of this chapter. Read the Glossary descriptions of both words and then answer the following questions: State one reason why you think the Sedition Act of 1870 was arbitrary? In what ways does the Sedition Act of 1870 contradict the rule of law?
Answer:
The Sedition Act of 1870 was arbitrary because according this act, English people could arrest and detain any person they want. It contradicts the rule of law as they in rule of law, they can’t arrest anyone without proof.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Understanding Laws

Page 48

Question 2.
What do you understand by ‘domestic violence’? List the two rights that the new law helped achieve for women who are survivors of violence.
Answer:
Domestic violence refers to the injury or harm or threat caused by an adult male, usually the husband against his wife. Injury can be caused by physically beating up or emotionally abusing her which includes verbal, sexual and emotional abuse.

Question 3.
Can you list one process that was used to make more people aware of the need for this law?
Answer:
One process that was used to make more people aware of the need for this law was public discussions and meetings.

Question 4.
From the above storyboard, can you list two different ways in which people lobbied Parliament? (See NCERT pg 46 – 48)
Answer:
Two different ways in which people lobbied Parliament are as follows:

  • Submission of Demand
  • Debating and arguing.

Question 5.
In the following poster, what do you understand by the phrase ‘Equal Relationships are Violence Free’? F aual Relationships are Violence Free
JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Understanding Laws 1
Answer:
The phrase ‘Equal Relationships are Violence Free’ means equal rights are enjoyed by both husband and wife in the family. Neither of them should suppress each other. Such relationships are always violence free since they care for each other.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Understanding Laws

Page 50

Question 6.
Read the newspapers/watch news onTV for a week and find out if there are any unpopular laws that people in India or around the world are currently protesting.
JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Understanding Laws 2
JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Understanding Laws 3

List the three forms of protest that you see in the above photos.
Answer:
In first part of the question, students need to answer on their own. The three forms of protest that you see in above photos are

  • Strike – hunger strike
  • Dhama
  • Rally

JAC Class 8th Civics Understanding Laws Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write in your own words what you understand by the term the ‘rule of law’. In your response include a fictitious or real example of a violation of the rule of law.
Answer:
The rule of law means that all laws apply equally to all citizens of the country and no one can be above the law. Neither a government official nor a wealthy person nor even the President of the country is above the law. All persons in independent India are equal before the law. The law cannot discriminate between persons on the basis of their religion, caste or gender. There is a specific punishment for every crime or violation of law and also a specific process through which the guilt of the person has to be established.

The punishment for any crime committed will be the same for every person, irrespective of his power or position. For example, there are many businessmen who own property worth crores but they do not even pay tax for the same. While filing the tax return, they show only a part of their total property and wealth. However, they are not questioned for this by the ordinary income tax officials because the officials have the fear of losing their jobs as the businessmen are very powerful. This shows how people in power can easily violate the laws.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Understanding Laws

Question 2.
State two reasons why historians refute the claim that the British introduced the rule of law in India.
Answer:
Two reasons – historians refute to claim that the British introduced the rule of law in India are as follows:

  1. The colonial law was arbitrary. As for example of the arbitrariness of British law is the Sedition Act of 1870. According to this act any person protesting or criticising the British government could be arrested without due trial.
  2. The Indian nationalists played a prominent role in the development of the legal sphere in British India. They protested against the arbitrary use of authority by the British. They also fought for equality of all.

Question 3.
Re-read the storyboard on how a new law on domestic violence got passed. Describe in your own words the different ways in which women’s groups worked to make this happen.
Answer:
Many women’s groups worked hard to get the bill against domestic violence passed by the Government. For this they made the following efforts:

  1. The groups reported multiple cases of domestic violence to various forums like public protests, hearings, meetings with other organisations, press conferences and petitions to the government.
  2. A group of lawyers, law students and activists worked together for drafting the Domestic Violence Bill. The Bill was first introduced in Parliament in 2002, but it was not to the satisfaction of all.
  3. Several women’s organisations and National Commission for Women made submissions to the Parliamentary Standing Committee requesting certain changes in the Bill.
  4. In December 2002, the recommendations of the Standing Committee were submitted to the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.
  5. A new bill was reintroduced in Parliament in 2005. After being passed in both houses of Parliament, it was sent to the President for his assent.
  6. Hence, the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act came into effect in 2006.

Question 4.
Write in your own words what you understand by the following sentence on page 44-45: They also began fighting for greater equality and wanted to change the idea of law from a set of rules that they were forced to obey, to law as including ideas of justice.
Answer:
Indians were being discriminated and biased in their own country by the British government, during the British period. They were forced to follow the set of rules and laws that were arbitrary and tyrannical. One example of the arbitrary law is that The Sedition Act of 1870 came to be a turning point in the struggle for freedom in India.

According to the Sedition Act any person protesting or criticising the British government could be arrested without due trial. Indian nationalists began to protest and criticise this arbitrary use of authority by the British. They began to fight for their rights and wanted a set of rules that were equal for all.

JAC Class 8th Civics Understanding Laws Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions 

Question 1.
The most important provision in the Constitution is:
(a) Laws are different for different caste.
(b) Some persons in independent India are equal before the law.
(c) All persons in independent India are equal before the law.
(d) AH senior citizen in independent India are equal before the law.
Answer:
(c) All persons in independent India are equal before the law.

Question 2.
………….. is in charge of making laws in India.
(a) The High Court
(b) The Parliament
(c) Supreme Court
(d) The Prime Minister
Answer:
(b) The Parliament

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Understanding Laws

Question 3.
In ancient India, law was different from today as:
(a) Punishments to lower castes were more harsh.
(b) Brahmins were being more harshly penalised.
(c) There was no punishment for Shudhras.
(d) Punishments were same as today.
Answer:
(a) Punishments to lower castes were more harsh.

Question 4.
The Sedition Act of 1870 means that:
(a) Any British person protesting or criticising the British government could be arrested without due trial.
(b) Any person protesting or criticising the British government could be arrested without due trial.
(c) Any Indian protesting or criticising the British government could be arrested with due trial.
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Any person protesting or criticising the British government could be arrested without due trial.

Question 5.
The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, was came in the year…… .
(a) 2000
(b) 2009
(c) 2008
(d) 2006
Answer:
(d) 2006

Question 6.
The Hindu Succession Amendment Act 2005 says that………..
(a) along with sons and daughters, father can also get an equal share of family property.
(b) grandparents, sons, daughters, and their mothers can get an equal share of family property.
(c) sons, daughters, and their mothers can get an equal share of family property.
(d) all of these
Answer:
(c) sons, daughters, and their mothers can get an equal share of family property.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Understanding Laws

Question 7.
The mediums through which voice of people can be heard through is/ are……. .
(a) local meetings
(b) radio broadcasts
(c) TV reports
(d) all of the above
Answer:
(d) all of the above

Question 8.
The Rowlett Act was passed on………
(a) 10th March 1919
(b) 19th April 1919
(c) 10th March 1920
(d) 10th May 1921
Answer:
(a) 10th March 1919

Question 9.
Domestic violence means ………
(a) injury and abuse
(b) threat of injury
(c) physical beating
(d) all of these
Answer:
(d) all of these

Question 10.
In a democratic government, in case of unpopular laws, people might………
(a) hold public meetings
(b) write in media such as newspaper, journal, etc.
(c) show reports in TV
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Very Short Answer Type Questions 

Question 1.
What was Sedition Act of 1870?
Answer:
Sedition Act of 1870 states that any person protesting or criticising the British government could be arrested without due trial.

Question 2.
When was the Hindu Succession Act revised?
Answer:
The Hindu Succession Act was revised in 2005.

Question 3.
hich year of Jallianwala Bagh massacre happened? Who gave the order to shoot the protestors?
Answer:
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre which is also known as the Amritsar massacre took place on 13 April 1919. General Dyer gave the order to shoot the protestors.

Question 4.
What are the important changes introduced by the Hindu Succession Amendment Act 2005?Answer: According to this new law, sons,daughters and their mothers can get an equal share of family property.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Understanding Laws

Question 5.
Who submits its report regarding any Bill to Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha?
Answer:
Parliamentary Standing Committee submits its report regarding any Bill to Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha.

Question 6.
What Article 14 of the Indian constitution says?
Answer:
Article 14 belongs to Equality before law. It states that the State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.

Question 7.
What do you mean by controversial law?
Answer:
Controversial law is the law whichfavours one group and disregards the other.

Question 8.
Who introduced the rule of law in India?
Answer:
The Indian nationalists introduced the rule of law in India.

Question 9.
Which type of law is ‘Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act’?
Answer:
‘Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act’ is a civil law.

Question 10.
What do you think citizens do when they disagree with a law?
Answer:
The citizens hold public meetings, write articles and journals in newspaper, report to TV channels to express there disagreement with a law.

Short Answer Type Questions 

Question 1.
Where and in what form is the law introduced?
Answer:
In Parliament all legislative proposals are brought in the forms of Bills. A Bill is a draft statute which becomes law after it is passed by both the Houses of Parliament and assented to by the President.

Question 2.
What are the common laws that govern us?
Answer:
Some of the common laws that govern us are as follows:

  1. Specific age of marriage
  2. The age at which a person can vote
  3. The laws dealing with buying and selling of property.

Question 3.
Explain the provisions of Rowlatt Act. How did Indians react to it?
Answer:
Rowlatt Act allowed the British government to arrest people without due trial. Indian nationalists including Mahatma Gandhi were vehement in
their opposition to the Rowlatt bills. Despite the large number of protests, the Rowlatt Act came into effect on 10 March 1919.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Understanding Laws

Question 4.
How was the system of law during ancient times in India?
Answer:
In ancient India, there were innumerable and often overlapping local laws. Different communities enjoyed different degrees of autonomy in administering these laws among their own. In some cases, the punishment that two persons received for the same crime varied depending on their caste backgrounds, with lower castes being more harshly penalised.

Question 5.
Explain in brief the ‘Rule of Law’.
Answer:
Rule of law means that all laws apply equally to all citizens of the country and no one can be above the law. Neither a government official, nor a wealthy person nor even the President of the country is above the law. Any crime or violation of law has a specific punishment as well as a process through which the guilt of the person has to be established.

Question 6.
Explain the ways in which the citizens can express their views in relation to laws made in the Parliament.
Answer:
Citizens can express their views in relation to laws made in the Parliament in the following ways:

  1. by holding public meetings and addressing them,
  2. by writing about it in newspapers and magazines,
  3. by reporting to TV news channels etc.

Question 7.
What is Domestic Violence?
Answer:
Domestic violence is the violence which refers to the injury or harm or threat of injury caused by an adult male, usually the husband, against his wife. Injury may be caused by physically beating up the woman or by emotionally abusing her which includes verbal, sexual and economic abuse. The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 extends the understanding of the term ‘domestic’ to include all women who ‘live or have lived together in a shared household’ with the male member who is perpetrating the violence.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Understanding Laws

Question 8.
What are the different categories under which law can be classified?
Answer:
Some of the categories under which law can be classified are as follows:

  1. Criminal law
  2. Contract Law
  3. Property Law
  4. International law
  5. Equity and Trust Laws

Question 9.
Explain in brief on Lady Justice.
Answer:
Lady Justice or Justitia is the Roman Goddess of Justice. It is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system. Her blindfolded eyes symbolise equality under the law and impartiality towards all the people who are governed by it. The weighing scales represent the balancing of people’s interests under the law and her sword denotes the law’s force of reason.

Long Answer Type Questions 

Question 1.
Explain the controversial law and unpopular law with the help of an example.
Answer:
Sometimes a law can be constitutionally valid and hence legal but it can continue to be unpopular and unacceptable to people because they feel that the intention behind it is unfair and harmful. For example, various municipal laws on the use of space within municipal limits often make hawking and street vending illegal. No one will dispute the necessity for some rules to keep the public space open so that people can walk on the pavements easily.

However, one also cannot deny that hawkers and vendors provide essential services cheaply and efficiently to the millions living in a large city. This is their means of livelihood. Hence, if the law favours one group and disregards the other it will be controversial and lead to conflict. This ultimately brings lots of chaos in day to day life of common people.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 4 Understanding Laws

Question 2.
Mention the ways in which the Indians played an important role in the evolution of rule of law during colonial period.
Answer:
There were several ways in which Indians played a major role in the evolution of the rule of law during the colonial period. They are as follows:

(i) Indian nationalists began protesting and criticising this arbitrary use of authority by the British. They also began fighting for greater equality and wanted to change the idea of law from a set of rules that they were forced to obey, to law as including ideas of justice.

(ii) By the end of the nineteenth century, the Indian legal profession also began emerging and demanded respect in colonial courts. They began to use law to defend the legal rights of Indians.

(iii) Indian judges also began to play a greater role in making decisions.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 7 Civilising the Native, Educating the Nation

JAC Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 7 Civilising the Native, Educating the Nation

JAC Class 8th History Civilising the Native, Educating the Nation InText Questions and Answers

Page 85

Question 1.
Imagine you are living in the 1850s. You hear of Wood’s Despatch. Write about your reactions.
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.
Hint:

  1. As an Indian one would be quite as¬tonished to reject knowledge of the east in total.
  2. Wood’s Despatch identified grave errors in our education system.
  3. The British believed that by learn¬ing English education we would be more rational, scientific but they have failed to understand our most reversed spiritual text.

Page 88

Question 2.
Imagine you were born in a poor fam¬ily in the 1850s. How would you have responded to the coming of the new system of government regulated path- shalas?
Answer:
I would have responded against the new system of government regulated pathshalas because children from poor families like me were able to attend the pathshala as the time table was flexible but the new system don’t have flexibility and have strict rules.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 7 Civilising the Native, Educating the Nation

Question 3.
Did you know that about 50 per cent of the children going to primary school drop out of school by the time they are 13 or 14? Can you think of the various possible reasons for this fact?
Answer:
The various possible reason for this fact are:

  1. Poverty
  2. Unemployment
  3. Child labour
  4. Unavailability of schools in villages and backward areas
  5. Due to lack of knowledge and illiteracy, people don’t give importance to education.

Question 4.
Imagine you were witness to a debate between Mahatma Gandhi and Macaulay on English education. Write a page on the dialogue you heard.
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own with the help of teacher.
Hints:
Mahatma Gandhi:
In. the minds of millions of Indians, English education has created a feeling of inferiority.

Macauley:
People need to be more civilized and this can be done only by English education.

Mahatma Gandhi:
Education should be such that could help Indians to restore their self-respect and sense of dignity.

Macauley:
A single shelf of a good European Library is worth than the whole native Indian literature. And so on….

JAC Class 8th History Civilising the Native, Educating the NationTextbook Questions and Answers

(LePsRecair)

Question 1.
Match the following:

William Jones promotion of English education
Rabindranath Tagore respect for ancient cultures
Thomas Macaulay gurus
Mahatma Gandhi learning in a natural environment
Pathshalas critical of English education

Answer:

William Jones respect for ancient cultures
Rabindranath Tagore learning in a natural environment
Thomas Macaulay promotion of English education
Mahatma Gandhi critical of English education
Pathshalas gurus

Question 2.
State whether true or false:
(a) James Mill was a severe critic of the Orientalists.
(b) The 1854 Despatch on education was in favour of English being introduced as a medium of higher education in India.
(c) Mahatma Gandhi thought that promotion of literacy was the most important aim of education.
(d) Rabindranath Tagore felt that children ought to be subjected to strict discipline.
Answer:
(a) True
(b) True
(c) False
(d) False

(Let’s Discuss)

Question 3.
Why did William Jones feel the need to study Indian history, philosophy and law?
Answer:
William Jones felt the need to study Indian history, philosophy and law because only those texts could reveal the real ideas and laws of the Hindus and Muslims and only a new study of these texts could form the basis of future development in India.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 7 Civilising the Native, Educating the Nation

Question 4.
Why did James Mill and Thomas Macaulay think that European education was essential in India?
Answer:
James Mill and Thomas Macaulay thought that European education was essential in India because the education should be useful and practical. They also thought that Indians are need to be civilized and should be made familiar with the Western culture and modernisation.

Question 5.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi want to teach children handicrafts?
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi wanted to teach children handicrafts because he felt that education ought to develop a person’s mind and soul. Literacy to read and write by itself did not count as education. People had to work with their hands, team a craft, and know how different things operated This would develop their mind and their capacity to understand.

Question 6.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi think that English education had enslaved Indians?
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi thought that English education had enslaved Indians because of the following reasons:

  1. British education created a sense of inferiority in the minds of Indians.
  2. It made them see Western civilisation as superior and destroyed the pride they had in their own culture.
  3. Indians educated in these institutions began admiring British rule.

(let’s Do)

Question 7.
Find out from your grandparents about what they studied in school.
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.

Question 8.
Find out about the history of your school or any other school in the area you live.
Answer:
Students need to do it on their own.
(Hint: Can write about as when the school was built and who built it. How many students are there? How the ‘ students make the school proud?)

JAC Class 8th History Civilising the Native, Educating the NationImportant Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
William Jones, a junior judge in Supreme court arrived in Calcutta in the year .
(a) 1785
(b) 1783
(c) 1789
(d) 1790
Answer:
(b) 1783

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 7 Civilising the Native, Educating the Nation

Question 2.
……….. started the Asiatic Society of Bengal.
(a) William Jones
(b) Henry Thomas Colebrooke
(c) Nathaniel Halhed
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question 3.
………. felt that the Indian languages should be the medium of teaching.
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Rabindranath Tagore
(c) Subhash Chandra Bose
(d) William Jones
Answer:
(a) Mahatma Gandhi

Question 4.
The poet who reacted against the introduction of Western education in India was………
(a) Premchand
(b) Rabindranath Tagore
(c) Sarojini Naidu
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(b) Rabindranath Tagore

Question 5.
William Carey was a…..
(a) Teacher
(b) British Officer
(c) Scottish missionary
(d) Merchant
Answer:
(c) Scottish missionary

Question 6.
In 1781, a madrasa was set up in ………to promote the study of Arabic, Persian and Islamic law.
(a) Calcutta
(b) Delhi
(c) Bombay
(d) Surat
Answer:
(a) Calcutta

Question 7.
The English Education Act was introduced in the year.
(a) 1855
(b) 1846
(c) 1875
(d) 1835
Answer:
(d) 1835

Question 8.
Charles Wood was the:
(a) President of the Board of Control of the Company.
(b) Governor General in India.
(c) Viceroy.
(d) English Professor.
Answer:
(a) President of the Board of Control of the Company.

Question 9.
In Shantiniketan, school was started by
(a) Aurobindo Ghose
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel
(d) Rabindranath Tagore
Answer:
(d) Rabindranath Tagore

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 7 Civilising the Native, Educating the Nation

Question 10.
Adam found that there were over ….. pathshalas in Bengal and Bihar.
(a) 2 lakhs
(b) 3 lakhs
(c) 1 lakhs
(d) 4 lakhs
Answer:
(c) 1 lakhs

Very Short Answer Type Question 

Question 1.
What do you mean by linguist?
Answer:
A linguist is a person who knows and studies several languages.

Question 2.
William Jones was a linguist as well. What languages he knew?
Answer:
William Jones knew Greek, Latin, French, English, Arabic, Persian and Sanskrit.

Question 3.
Who sharply attacked the orientalists?
Answer:
James Mill and Thomas Babington Macaulay attacked the Orientalists.

Question 4.
Who had the opinion that Colonial education created sense of inferiority in the minds of Indians?

Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi had the opinion that Colonial education created sense of inferiority in the minds of Indians.

Question 5.
In which places the universities were first established by the company in India?
Answer:
Calcutta, Madras and Bombay were the places where the universities were first established by the company in India.

Question 6.
Which year did the East India Company decide to improve the system of vernacular education?
Answer:
After 1854 the Company decided to improve the system of vernacular education.

Question 7.
What do you mean by Orientalists?
Answer:
Orientalists are those who had a scholarly knowledge of the language and culture of Asia.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 7 Civilising the Native, Educating the Nation

Question 8:
In pathshalas, what kind of education was given to the children?
Answer:
In pathshalas, teaching was oral and the guru decided what to teach in accordance with the needs of the students.

Question 9.
What type of task was assigned to the pandit by the Company?
Answer:
The type of task was assigned to the pandit by the Company was to visit the pathshalas and try to improve the standard of teaching.

Question 10.
In which way were Oriental institutions like the Calcutta Madrasa and Benaras Sanskrit College viewed by the British?
Answer:
The Oriental institutions like the Calcutta Madarsa and Benaras Sanskrit College were viewed as ‘temples of darkness that were falling of themselves into decay’.

Short Answer Type Question

Question 1.
What was the reason for the establishment of the Hindu College in Benaras?
Answer:
The reason for the establishment of the Hindu College in Benaras in 1791 was to encourage the study of ancient Sanskrit texts that would be useful for the administration of the country.

Question 2.
In which way Mahatma Gandhi view literacy?
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi viewed literacy as not the end of education nor even the beginning. It is only one of the means whereby men and women can be educated Literacy in itself is not education.

Question 3.
What did Thomas Macaulay urge the British government in India?
Answer:
Thomas Macaulay urged that the British government in India stop wasting money in promoting Oriental learning as it was of no practical use.

Question 4.
The East India Company opposed to missionary activities in India. Why?
Answer:
Until 1813, the East India Company was opposed to missionary activities in India because it feared that missionary activities would provoke reaction amongst the local population and make them suspicious of British presence in India.

Question 5.
What do you understand by Wood’s Despatch?
Answer:
The Court of Directors of the East India Company in London in 1854 sent an educational dispatch to the Governor General in India. This was issued by Charles Wood, the President of the Board of the Company and hence, it has come to be called as Wood’s Despatch.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 7 Civilising the Native, Educating the Nation

Question 6.
What were the provisions of English Education Act of 1835?
Answer:
The provisions of English Education Act of 1835 were as follows:

  1. English was made the medium of instruction for higher education.
  2. Promotion of Oriental institutions such as the Calcutta Madrasa and Benaras Sanskrit College was stopped These institutions were seen as ‘temples of darkness that were falling of themselves into decay’.
  3. English textbooks began to be produced for schools.

Question 7.
Explain the measures introduced by the British following the 1854 Wood’s Despatch.
Answer:
Following the 1854 Wood’s Despatch, several measures were introduced by the British as follows:

  1. Education departments of the government were set up to extend control over all matters regarding education.
  2. Steps were taken to establish a system of university education. Universities were established in Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.
  3. Attempts were also made to bring about changes within the system of school education.

Question 8.
Many British officials criticised the Orientalists. Why?
Answer:
From the early nineteenth century many British officials criticized the Orientalist vision of learning because they said that knowledge of the East was full of errors and unscientific thoughts. Eastern literature was non-serious and light-hearted Hence, they argued that it was wrong on the part of the British to spend so much effort in encouraging the study of Arabic and Sanskrit language and literature.

Question 9.
William Jones discover many things in Calcutta. What were they?
Answer:
William Jones mainly discovered the ancient Indian heritage. He discovered through his studies on ancient Indian texts on law, religion, arithmetic, medicine, science, philosophy. Soon he discovered that the interests were shared by many British officials living in Calcutta that time.

Question 10.
List the main features of educational method followed in pathshalas.
Answer:
The main features of educational method followed in pathshalas were as follows:

  1. There were no formal schools.
  2. Teaching was oral and guru decided what to teach.
  3. The system of education was flexible.
  4. In some places, classes were held in open spaces.
  5. There were no fixed school fees, no books, no annual exams, no regular time-table.

Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
Describe in brief the irregularities of pathshalas which were checked by the Company.
Answer:
Steps taken by the Company to check the irregularities of pathshalas were:

  1. It appointed a number of government pandits. Each incharge of four to five schools. The task of the pandit was to visit the pathshalas and try to improve the standard of teaching.
  2. Each guru was asked to submit periodic reports and take classes according to a regular timetable.
  3. Teaching was now to be based on textbooks and learning was to be tested through a system of annual examination.
  4. Students were asked to pay a regular fee, attend regular classes, sit on fixed seats and obey the new rules of discipline.

Question 2.
Which type of education did Mahatma Gandhi want in India?
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi’s views on education was as follows:

  1. Mahatma Gandhi wanted an education that could help Indians recover their sense of dignity and self-respect.
  2. Mahatma Gandhi strongly felt that Indian languages should be the medium of teaching. Education in English crippled Indians, distanced them from their own social surroundings, and made them ‘strangers in their own lands’.
    Civilising the “Native”, Educating the Nation
  3. Speaking a foreign tongue, despising local culture, the English educated did not know how to relate to the masses.
  4. He argued that education ought to develop a person’s mind and soul. Literacy to read and write by itself did not count as education.
  5. People had to work with their hands, learn a craft, and know how different things operated This would develop their mind and their capacity to understand.

Question 3.
Explain about Rabindranath Tagore and his school Shantiniketan.
Answer:
Rabindranath Tagore like many, also did not approve Western education wholeheartedly. At the time when several Indians urged the British to open more and more schools, colleges and universities in order to spread English education in India, Rabindranath Tagore reacted strongly against such education. He was a great educationist though he hated going to school because he saw it oppressive. In fact, he wanted to establish a school where the children were happy and were free to explore their thoughts and desires without feeling any suppression.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 7 Civilising the Native, Educating the Nation

He advocated for giving children natural surroundings where they would be able to cultivate their natural creativity. In the year 1901, Rabindranath Tagore established Shantiniketan. He regarded it as an ‘abode of peace’. He set up his school 100 kilometres away from Calcutta in a rural setting in order to provide children a very peaceful environment. Here, they could develop their imagination and creativity. Tagore had the opinion that existing schools were killing the natural desires of the children to be creative. Hence, it was necessary to help them develop their curiosity by providing them good teachers who could understand them. By establishing an institution like Shantiniketan he did a great job in the field of education.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Why Do We Need A Parliament?

JAC Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Why Do We Need A Parliament?

JAC Class 8th Civics Why Do We Need A Parliament? InText Questions and Answers

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Why Do We Need A Parliament- 1
Question 1:
What do you think the artist is trying to convey through the image of Parliament?
Answer:
The artist is trying to convey through the image of Parliament is that it is based on people’s strength and power. These people come from various background and shows unity is strength.

Page 32

Question 2.
Give one reason why you think there should be universal adult franchise.
Answer:
There should be universal adult franchise because it will help to establish equality in the society.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Why Do We Need A Parliament?

Question 3.
Do you think there would be any difference if the class monitor was selected by the teacher or elected by the students? Discuss.
Answer:
Yes, there would be a difference if the class monitor was selected by the teacher or elected by the students. If the
class monitor is chosen by the teacher then it will not be a democratic process. But, if the students of the class elect the monitor then he will be representative of the class and this shows a democratic process.

Page 35

Question 4.
Use the table to answer the questions below: Results of the 16th Lok Sabha Elections, (May 2014) Political Party No. of MPs National Parties

  • Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 282
  • Communist Party of India (CPI) 1
  • Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPM) 9
  • Indian National Congress (INC) 44
  • Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) 6
  • State Parties (Regional Parties)
  • Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) 4
  • All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 37
  • All India Trinamool Congress 34
  • All India United Democratic Front 3
  • Biju Janata Dal (BJD) 20
  • Indian National Lok Dal (INLD) 2
  • Indian Union Muslim League (IUML) 2
  • Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party 3
  • Janata Dal (Secular) 2
  • Janata Dal (United) 2
  • Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) 2
  • Lok Jan Shakti Party 6
  • Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) 4
  • Samajwadi Party (SP) 5
  • Who will be present for discussions in the Lok
  • Shiromani Akali Dal 4
  • Shiv Sena 18
  • Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) 11
  • Telugu Desam (TDP) 16
  • Other Regional Parties 7
  • Registered Unrecognised Parties 16
  • Independents 3

Grand Total 543

  1. Who will form the government? Why? Sabha?
  2. Is this process similar to what you have read about in Class VII?

Answer:

  1. BJP will form the government because they have the majority.
  2. The MPs will be present for discussions in the Lok Sabha.
  3. Yes, this process similar.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Why Do We Need A Parliament?

Question 4.
The photograph on page 28 shows results from the 3rd Lok Sabha elections held in 1962.
JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Why Do We Need A Parliament- 2
Use the photograph to answer the following questions:
(a) Which state has the highest number of MPs in the Lok Sabha? Why do you think this is so?
(b) Which state has the least number of MPs in the Lok Sabha?
(c) Which political party has won the most seats in all states?
(d) Which party do you think will form the government? Give reasons why.
Answer:
(a) Uttar Pradesh. This state has the largest population as compared to other states.
(b) Manipur.
(c) The Congress Party
(d) The Congress Party will form the government because they have won in majority.

Page 38

Question 5.
Lok Sabha Unstarred Question uestion No: 48 Answered On: 15.12.2017 Converge of Schemes for Children Manoj Rajoria Will the Minister of Women and Child Development be pleased to state:
(a) whether the Government proposes to converge various schemes and policies for children in the country;
(b) if so, the details thereof; and;
(c) if not, the reasons therefor?
Answer:
Minister of State in the Ministry of Women and Child Development (Dr. Virendra Kumar). (a) to (c) The Ministry has developed the National Plan of Action for Children 2016 which largely draws upon the existing programmes and schemes of various Ministries/Departments.

It provides a framework for convergence and co-ordination between Ministries/Departments and State/ UTs Governments and encourages collective action from all stakeholders to address multi dimensional vulnerabilities experienced by children. The National Plan of Action for Children 2016 categorizes children’s rights under four key priority areas.

(i) Survival, Health and Nutrition,

(ii) Education and Development,

(iii) Protection and

(iv) Participation. It identifies key programmes, schemes and policies as well as stakeholders for the implementation of different strategies. In the above question, what information is being sought information from the Minister of Women and Child Development? If you were a Member of Parliament (MP), list two questions that you would like to ask.
Answer:
The information which is being sought from the Minister of Women and Child Development were:

  1. whether the Government proposes to converge various schemes and policies for children in the country;
  2. if so, the details thereof; and;
  3. if not, the reasons therefore.

If I were a MP, then I would have asked the following questions:

  1. What is the government doing for women to bring at the level of men?
  2. What is the government doing to give education to every child?

Page 39

Lok Sabha Election Years Voter Turnout (%)
1st 1951-52 61.16
4th 1967 61.33
5th 1971 55.29
6th 1977 60.49
8th 1984-85 64.01
10th 1991-92 55.88
14th 2004 57.98
15th 2009 58.19

Looking at this table would you say that people’s participation during the past 65 years has: decreased/increased/been stable after initial increase?
Answer:
After initial increase, it decreased and then increased again. It has been fluctuating.

Page 40

Question 7.
Why do you think there are so few women in Parliament? Discuss.
Answer:
People don’t want to accept women as rulers as our society is still a male dominating society. Hence, they avoid giving crucial roles to women. But, now, slowly perceptions are changing and women are coming in politics

JAC Class 8th Civics Why Do We Need A Parliament? Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Why do you think our national movement supported the idea that all adults have a right to vote?
Answer:
Our national movement supported the idea that all adults have a right to vote because the British government did not allow all adults to vote nor could people participate in decision making. Hence, in the struggle for independence people from all walks of life participated. They came from various backgrounds and were united in their aspirations for a free, equal and independent nation where decision-making would be in the hands of the people. The only way in which this would be possible through elections which will allow common people to have consent to and approve of a government that they have a right to choose.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Why Do We Need A Parliament?

Question 2.
In this 2004 map of Parliamentary constituencies alongside, roughly identify the constituencies in your State. What is the name of the MP from your constituency? How many MPs does your state have? Why are certain constituencies coloured green while others are coloured blue?
JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Why Do We Need A Parliament- 3
Answer:

  1. Students need to do it on their own.
  2. Certain constituencies are coloured green while others are coloured blue because they are reserved constituencies for SC and ST respectively.

Question 3.
You have read in Chapter 1 that the ‘Parliamentary form of government’ that exists in India has three tiers. This includes the Parliament (centra! government) and the various Sta Legislatures (state governments). Fill in the following table with information on the various representatives from your area:

Objective State Government CentralGovernment
Which political party/parties is/ are currently in power?
Who (name) is the current representative from your area?
Which political parties currently form the Opposition?
When were elections last held?
When will the next elections be held?
How many women representatives are there (from Question ‘our state)?

Answer:
Students need to do it on their own with the help of teacher.

JAC Class 8th Civics The Why Do We Need A Parliament? Important Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
In democratic India, people elect their representatives to the Parliament, then, one group from among elected representatives forms the government. How long members are elected for?
(a) Five years
(b) Eight years
(c) Seven years
(d) Ten years
Answer:
(a) Five years

Question 2.
In which year Indian Parliament came to existence?
(a) 1952
(b) 1949
(c) 1950
(d) 1947
Answer:
(d) 1947

Question 3.
The election for Lok Sabha is usually occur once every five years. The elected candidates are known as
(a) Ministers of State
(b) Members of Parliament
(c) Members of Constitution
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Members of Parliament

Question 4.
Which of the following function/s the Parliament needs to perform?
(a) To make law
(b) To select the national government
(c) To control, guide and inform the government
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question 5.
It may happen that one political party does not get a clear majority in election. In such a situation a group of parties come together to form a government. This type of government known as a……..
(a) coalition government
(b) admission government
(c) commission government
(d) opposition government
Answer:
(a) coalition government

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Why Do We Need A Parliament?

Question 6.
……. functions primarily as the representative of the states of India in the Parliament.
(a)The Prime Minister
(b) The Judiciary
(c) The Rajya Sabha
(d) The President
Answer:
(c) The Rajya Sabha

Question 7.
Who is the leader of the ruling party in the Lok Sabha?
(a) The President
(b) The Vice President
(c) The Prime Minister
(d) The Chief Minister
Answer:
(c) The Prime Minister

Question 8.
There are elected members plus members nominated by the President.
(a) 233; 12
(b) 133; 15
(c) 233; 15
(d) 123; 20
Answer:
(a) 233; 12

Question 9.
The Parliament keeps a heck on the ministers and their work. MPs have the right to question the ministers about the working of their department. This is usually done during .
(a) the answering hour
(b) the question hour
(c) the listening hour
(d) the analysis hour
Answer:
(b) the question hour

Question 10.
The seats are reserved in Parliament for…….
(a) the people from the army
(b) the royal family members
(c) SCs and STs
(d) both a and c
Answer:
(c) SCs and STs

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by EVM?
Answer:
EVM means Electronic Voting Machine.

Question 2:
When were EVMs used for the first time?
Answer:
EVMs were used throughout the country for the first time in the 2004 general elections.

Question 3.
Name the two Houses of Parliament.
Answer:
The two houses of Parliament are the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.

Question 4.
How does the Parliament session begins?
Answer:
The Parliament, session begins with a question hour.

Question 5.
What do you mean by constituency?
Answer:
Constituency is an area whose voters elect a representative to a legislative body.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Why Do We Need A Parliament?

Question 6.
What is the main purpose of parliament?
Answer:
Parliament enables citizens of India to participate in decision making and control the government.

Question 7.
Who presides over Lok Sabha?
Answer:
Lok Sabha (House of the People), with a total membership of 545, is presided over by the Speaker.

Question 8.
How many members does the President nominates in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
The President nominates 2 members to the Lok Sabha and 12 members to the Rajya Sabha.

Question 9.
What is the principle of universal adult franchise?
Answer:
The principle of universal adult franchise means that all adult citizens of the country have the right to vote.

Question 10
Who makes the opposition party?
Answer:
The opposition in Parliament is formed by all the political parties that oppose the majority party/coalition formed. The largest amongst these parties is called the Opposition

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Which house of parliament is more powerful with regard to financial matters and how?
Answer:
Lok Sabha is more powerful with regard to financial matters because money bills can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha. Hence, it controls the finances of the government.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Why Do We Need A Parliament?

Question 2.
Why do you think that there are reservation of seats in Parliament for SCs and STs?
Answer:
Some seats are reserved in Parliament for SCs and STs. This has been done so that the MPs elected from these constituencies will be familiar with and can represent Dalit and Adivasi’s interests in Parliament.

Question 3.
What is the role of opposition in’ democracy?
Answer:
The opposition parties play a crucial and important role in the healthy functioning of a democracy. They highlight drawbacks in various policies and programmes of the government and mobilise popular support for their own policies.

Question 4.
What are the basic ideals of democracy?
Answer:
The basic ideals of democracy are:
(i) The ideas of participation in decision-making.
(ii) The need for all democratic governments to have the consent of their citizens.

Question 5.
What are the major functions of the parliament?
Answer:
The major functions of the parliament are:

  1. To select the National Government
  2. To control, guide and inform the government
  3. Law-Making for the people of the country.

Question 6.
What are the main components of Indian Parliament?
Answer:
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It is a two chambered legislature composed of the President of India and the two houses- the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People).

Question 7.
Which are the three categories of ministers that assist the Prime minister?
Answer:
The three categories of Council of Ministers are:

  1. The Cabinet Ministers:
    The Cabinet Ministers hold important portfolios like Home, Defence, Finance, External Affairs, Railways, etc.
  2. Ministers of State:
    They may or may not hold an independent charge of any portfolio.
  3. Deputy Ministers:
    They assist the Cabinet Ministers and the Council of Ministers.

Question 8.
‘With the coming of Independence we are going to be citizens of a free country’. What did it imply?
Answer:
With the coming of independence, we were going to be citizens of a free country. This implies that the government could not do what it felt like and the government had to be sensitive to people’s needs and demands. The dreams and aspirations of the freedom struggle were made concrete in the Constitution of Independent India that laid down the principle of universal adult franchise, i.e., that all adult citizens of the country have the right to vote.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 3 Why Do We Need A Parliament?

Question 9.
What were the demands of the Indian National Congress in 1885?
Answer:
The nationalists began to openly criticise the British government and make demands. The Indian National Congress in 1885 demanded that there be elected members in the legislature with a right to discuss the budget and ask questions.

Question 10.
What do you mean by reserved constituencies? What is the purpose behind such constituencies?
Answer:
Reserved constituencies are those constituencies in which seats are reserved for SCs and STs on the basis of their population. This has been done so that the MPs elected from these constituencies will be familiar with and can represent Dalit and Adivasi’s interests in Parliament.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How the political party forms the government? How are the representatives elected to the Parliament in India?
Answer:
After the Lok Sabha elections, a list is prepared showing how many MPs belong to each political party. For a political party to form the government, they must have a majority of elected MPs. Since there are 543 elected (plus 2 Anglo-Indian nominated) members in Lok Sabha and to have a majority a party should have at least half the number, i.e., 272 members or more. The Parliament in our system has immense powers because it is the representative of the people.

Elections to the Parliament are held in a similar manner as they are for the state legislature. The Lok Sabha is usually elected once every five years. The country is divided into numerous constituencies. Each of these constituencies elect one person to the Parliament. The candidates who contest elections usually belong to different political parties. Once elected, these candidates become Members of Parliament or MPs. These MPs together make up the Parliament.

Question 2.
Why do you think our national movement supported the idea that all adults have a right to vote?
Answer:
Our national movement supported the idea that all adults have a right to vote because in our struggle for independence people from all walks of life participated. They came from various backgrounds and were united in their aspirations for a free, equal and independent nation where decision-making would be in the hands of the people. The only way in which this would be possible would be through elections-allowing common people advantage point from where they can consent to and approve of a government that “they” have a right to choose.

JAC Class 8 Social Science Solutions