JAC Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India
JAC Class 10th History Nationalism in India InText Questions and Answers
Read the text carefully. What did Mahatma Gandhi mean when he said satyagraha is active resistance?
Mahatma Gandhi on Satyagraha ‘It is said of “passive resistance ” that it is the weapon of the weak, but the power which is the subject of this article can be used only by the strong. This power is not passive resistance; indeed it calls for intense activity. The movement in South Africa was not passive but active … ‘Satyagraha is not physical force. A satyagrahi does not inflict pain on the adversary; he does not seek his destruction …In the use of satyagraha, there is no ill-will whatever. ‘ Satyagraha is pure soul-force.
Truth is the very substance of the soul. That is why this force is called satyagraha. The soul is informed with knowledge. In it burns the flame of love. … Nonviolence is the supreme dharma … ‘It is certain that India cannot rival Britain or Europe in force of arms. The British worship the war-god and they can all of them become, as they are becoming, bearers of arms. The hundreds of millions in India can never carry arms. They have made the religion of non-violence their own… ’
Gandhiji strongly defended that satyagraha requires an active resistance. It emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for the truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, and then would be no need for physical force. People should be persuaded to see the truth and not be forced. This method would appeal to the people and ultimately truth would be the winner. This could unite all Indians.
The year is 1921. You are a student in a government-controlled school. Design a poster urging school students to answer Gandhiji’s call to join the Non-Cooperation Movement.
- Research on the activities and happenings of that p*eriod.
- What did satyagrahis encourage the school students to follow?
- How did the school students and teachers react to the Non-Cooperation Movement?
- What were the positive and negative outcomes of it on the school students?
- Also, share how you would have reacted to the situation or what suggestions would you give as school student during that period.
If you were a peasant in Uttar Pradesh in 1920, how would you have responded to Gandhiji’s call for Swaraj? Give reasons for your response.
If I were a peasant in Uttar Pradesh in 1920,1 would have responded actively to Gandhiji’s call for swaraj and followed his teachings and methods. I would have peacefully tried to negotiate with the landlords or talukdars to reduce the exorbitant rents and other cesses. I would have requested for a secured tenure and refused to do begar. Swaraj to me would mean to break myself free from the reigns of the landlords.
Find out about other participants in the National Movement who were captured and put to death by the British. Can you think of a similar example from the national movement in Indo-China?
- Find out about the extremists Lai, Bal, Pal; Aurobindo Ghosh.
- Who were the moderates? Study about Badruddin Tyabji, S.N. Banerjee, Dadabhai Naoroji, etc.
- How were the moderates and extremists different from each other in their ideals and methods of dealing with the British?
- Discuss about revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh, Chandrashekhar Azad, Sukhdev, Khudiram Bose, Batukeshwar Dutt, etc.
- Find out how the lives of some of these personalities ended. How were they tortured by the British?
- Who was Huynh Phu So? Who was Ho Chi Minh? Can they be compared to the revolutionaries and extremsists of India?
Why did various classes and groups of Indians participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Different social groups participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement, each with purposes of their own.
- In the countryside, the rich peasants, like the Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of Uttar Pradesh participated as they were hit hard by trade depression and falling prices.
- Poor peasants participated because they wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted.
- Business classes were involved in Civil Disobedience Movement to gain protection against imports of foreign goods, and oppose foreign policies that restricted business activities.
- Women participated in the movement in large scale as they thought it was their sacred duty towards the nation.
Read the Source D carefully. Do you agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism? Can you define communalism in a different way?
Source D In 1930, Sir Muhammad Iqbal, as president of the Muslim League, reiterated the importance of separate electorates for the Muslims as an important safeguard for their minority political interests. His statement is supposed to have provided the intellectual justification for the Pakistan demand that came up in subsequent years.
This isfvhat he said:
7 have no hesitation in declaring that if the principle that the Indian Muslim is entitled to full andfree development on the lines of his own culture and tradition in his own Indian home-lands is recognised as the basis of a permanent communal settlement, he will be ready to stake his all for thefreedom of India. The principle that each group is entitled to free development on its own lines is not inspired by any feeling of narrow communalism … A community which is inspired by feelings of ill-will towards other communities is low and ignoble.
I entertain the highest respect for the customs, laws, religions and social institutions of other communities. Nay, it is my duty according to the teachings of the Question: uran, even to defend their places of worship, if need be. Yet I love the communal group which is the source of life and behaviour and which has formed me what I am by giving me its religion, its literature, its thought, its culture and thereby its whole past as a living operative factor in my present consciousness …‘Communalism in its higher aspect, then, is indispensable to the formation of a harmonious whole in a country like India.
The units of Indian society are not territorial as in European countries … The principle of European democracy cannot be applied to India without recognising the fact of communal groups. The Muslim demand for the creation of a Muslim India within India is, therefore, perfectly justified…‘The Hindu thinks that separate electorates are contrary to the spirit of true nationalism, because he understands the word “nation ” to mean a kind of universal amalgamation in which no communal entity ought to retain its private individuality.
Such a state of things, however, does not exist. India is a land of racial and religious variety. Add to this the general economic inferiority of the Muslims, their enormous debt, especially in the Punjab, and their insufficient majorities in some of the provinces, as at present constituted and you will begin to see clearly the meaning of our anxiety to retain separate electorates. ’
No, I cannot completely agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism. He believed that communal group is the source of life and behaviour of people. This helps in developing religion, literature, the thoughts and culture. And therefore, there should be Muslim India within India.
Our country is an amalgamation of various religions, culture, tradition, language, customs, etc. India has always welcomed people from different backgrounds.
Having a complete different entity according to religion would break the spirit of nationalism and unity. A nation can flourish if there is unity in diversity. It enriches our culture, tradition, history, art, etc. It teaches us tolerance and widens our views. Spread of communalism is not a very positive approach to growth of society as it leads to hatred, discrimination and ultimately
Look at Figs. 12 and 14. Do you think these images will appeal to all castes and communities? Explain your views briefly.
The images in question may not appeal to all castes and communities. These images represent Hindu goddesses. However, India is a multi-cultural and multi-religious country, so it will appeal to majority of the population. These images are symbols of strength and power, so people from other religion may also gain strength and will power from these images.
JAC Class 10th History Nationalism in India Textbook Questions and Answers
(a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement?
(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India?
(c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act?
(d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?
(a) The growth of modem nationalism is intimately connected to the anti-colonial movement because of:
- People, began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism.
- The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together.
- Each class and group felt the effects of colonialism differently, their experiences were varied, and their notions of freedom were not always the same. The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groups together within one movement.
(b) The war created a new economic and political situation. It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes. Custom duties were raised and income tax introduced. Through the war years prices increased, doubling between 1913 and 1918, leading to extreme hardship for the common people.
Villagers were called upon to supply soldiers and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger. Then in 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, resulting in acute food shortage, accompanied by epidemic. According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people died due to famines and epidemics. People thought their hardships would end after the war, but it did not happen. All this helped in the growth of national movement in India.
(c) The Rowlatt Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members. It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against such unjust.laws as proposed in Rowlatt Act (1919)
(d) In 1922, at Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur, a peaceful demonstration in a bazaar turned into a violent clash with the police. Gandhiji wanted people to follow a non¬violent approach to achieve freedom
from the British. Hearing of this incident, Mahatma Gandhi decided to halt the Non-Cooperation Movement. He felt the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles.
What is meant by the idea of satyagraha?
- The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
- Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence. This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor.
- People, including the oppressor had to be persuaded to see the truth and not be forced to accept the truth through use of violence.
- By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi thought that this dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.
Write a newspaper report on:
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
(b) The Simon Commission
(a) 13 April, 1919: On this day, large crowds of people had gathered in the enclosed arena of Jallianwala Bagh. Few had come to make a peaceful non-violent protest against the government’s new repressive policies. Few had come to attend the annual Baisakhi fair. As many were from outside the city, they were not aware of the martial law imposed in the city by General Dyer. Dyer entered the area, closed all the exits and opened fire on the innocent, unaware crowd. Hundreds of people, including women and children were killed. It led to nationwide outrage.
(b) Under the new Tory Government in Britain, a Statutory Commission was constituted under Sir John Simon in November 1927. It was set up in response to nationalist movement and was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. However, all the members were British; there was not a single Indian member in the Commission. Therefore, when the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, they were greeted with resistance and the slogan ‘Go back Simon’. All parties, including the Congress and the Muslim League, participated in the demonstrations.
Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.
The identity of the nation is most often symbolised in a figure or an image, ft was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. There were two images of Bharat Mata one by Abanindranath Tagore and the second by another artist. Abanindranath Tagore, in his painting, portrayed Bharat Mata as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. In another painting, she is shown with a trishul, standing beside a lion and an elephant both symbols of power and uthority.
Germania became the allegory of the German nation. Germania wore crown of oak leaves, as the oak leaves stand for heroism. The broken chains mean being freed. The breastplate with eagle symbolises the strength of German empire. Sword presents the readiness to fight while the olive branch around the sword represents the willingness to make peace. Black, red and gold tricolour is the flag of the liberal-nationalists in 1848. Rays of the rising sun represents the beginning of a new era.
NCERT ‘Discuss’ Questions
List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.
Various social groups participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement, but each had their own aspirations and interpretation of swaraj. The teachers and students, lawyers, peasants, tribal peasants, plantation workers joined the movement.
In Awadh, a sanyasi, named Baba Ramchandra organised the peasants against the oppressive talukdars and landlords for demanding exorbitantly high rents and variety of other cesses. Peasants were forced to do begar and had no secured tenure. Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and few others by October, 1920. Over 300 branches opened in the region within a month.
The aim of Congress was to integrate Awadh peasant struggle into the wider struggle. As the movement spread, talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted and grain hoards were taken over. In many places, local leaders told that Gandhiji declared that
taxes need not be paid and land was to be redistributed among the poor.
(ii) Tribal peasants:
In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, the tribal peasants revolted as they were forbidden by the colonial government from entering the forest areas to graze their cattle, collect fuelwood and fruits. Their livelihoods were affected and traditional rights were being denied. They were forced to contribute begar to build roads.
Alluri Sitaram Raju, who was inspired by Mahatma Gandhi, encouraged people to wear Khadi and give up drinking. However, he also asserted that India could be liberated only through the use of force, and not non-violence.Raju was captured and executed in 1924 and became a folk hero.
(iii) Plantation workers:
For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of confined space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come. When they heard about the Non-Cooperation Movement, they defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home. However, stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
(i) Mahatma Gandhi declared that the most oppressive face of British rule was the tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production. On 31 January 1930, Gandhiji sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands. These demands were wide-ranging so that all classes within the Indian society could identify with them and they could be brought together in a united campaign.
(ii) One of the most stirring demands was the abolition of the salt tax. When their demands were not met, Gandhiji launched the Civil Disobedience Movement with the famous Salt March.
(iii) Along with his volunteers, he walked from Sabarmati Ashram to the coastal town of Dandi. On his way, he explained his followers the meaning of Swaraj and asked them to peacefully defy the British.
(iv) On 6 April 1930, he reached Dandi and ceremoniously violated the law by manufacturing salt.
Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.
- It was a moment of great pride for me to be able to be a part of the Civil Disobedience Movement. To serve the nation, is our greatest and foremost duty.
- Thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to Gandhiji. I participated in the protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops with many women like me.
- I was confined at home as was the role of all women to be good mothers, wives, daughters and to fulfil the duties at home.
- I was inspired by Gandhiji’s swaraj and with Civil Disobedience Movement.
- Several women from high-caste families in urban areas and rich peasant households participated in freedom movement.
- Spirit of nationalism grew in me and I came out of the walls and got involved in the movement. I was imprisoned for a short while with the other leaders and followers. It was a significant phase of my life.
Why did the political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
The political leaders differed sharply over the question of separate electorates.
(i) Dr B.R. Ambedkar organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930. At the Second Round Table Conference he demanded separate electorates for dalits. When the British conceded to the demands, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of integration of dalits into society. Ambedkar finally accepted Gandhiji’s position and Poona Pact of September 1932 was signed. This gave the Depressed Classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by general electorate.
(ii) The Congress and Muslim League madeefforts to negotiate an alliance and in 1927 it appeared that such unity could be forged. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, one of the leaders of the Mbslim League was ready to give up the demand for separate electorates, if Muslims were assured reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in Muslim- dominated provinces. This issue could not be resolved as M.R. Jayakar of Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed any efforts at compromise. .
NCERT ‘Project’ Work
Find out about the anti-colonial movement in Indo-China. Compare and contrast India’s national movement with the ways in which Indo-China became independent.
Anti-colonial movement in Indo-China:
The Nationalist Movement in Vietnam
(i) Religion had a contradictory relationship with the mainstream nationalism. On the one hand, religion played an important role in strengthening the control of the colopial rule. On the other hand, religion also provided strong ways of resistance.
(ii) Strengthening the Control of the Colonial Rule: Vietnamese religious beliefs were a mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism and local practices. Many of the rituals were based on superstitions which simply worked to retard the growth of the Vietnamese society.
(iii) Moreover, Confucianism that formed the basis of many religious beliefs in Vietnam taught the people that the relationship between the ruler and the people was the same as that between children and parents.
(iv) The colonial power was quick to seize the opportunity. Christianity began to be pushed as an alternative religion. Christianity had a relatively more modem outlook and appealed to large sections of the population. Similarly, there were many popular religions in Vietnam, that were spread by people who claimed to have seen a vision of God. Some of these supported the French. This in turn helped to strengthen the colonial rule.
(v) Resistance to the Colonial Rule: It was religion again that provided strong resistance to the colonial role. The Vietnamese had strong beliefs in Buddhism and Confucianism. Anything different from these was not acceptable to them.
(vi) They began to look down on Christianity as a danger to their religion. Similarly, there were many popular movements that inspired emotions against the colonial rule.
An early movement against French control and the spread of Christianity was the Scholars Revolt in 1868. The revolt was led by officials at the imperial court who were against the spread Catholicism and French power. They led a general uprising in NGU and Ha Tine provinces where over a thousand Catholics were killed.
The French crushed the movement but this uprising served to inspire other patriots to rise up against them. Hoa Hao Movement: The movement was launched by Huynh Phu in 1939 and gained great popularity in the fertile Mekong delta area. Most of his followers were Vietnamese nationalists.
His criticism against useless expenditure had a wide appeal. He also opposed the sale of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol and opium. The movement played a major role in arousing anti-imperialist sentiments, The French tried to suppress the movement inspired by Huynh Phu So. They declared him mad, called him the mad bonze, and put him in a mental asylum. The French authorities exiled him to Laos and sent many of his followers to concentration camps.
Nationalist movement in India:
(i) India came under the British rule gradually after British East India Company was set up and’trade permissions were taken by the British to trade with India.
(ii) Mahatma Gandhi spearheaded the nationalist movement in India.
(iii) He followed and encouraged a non¬violent method of satyagraha.
(iv) He organised a nationwide Non¬Cooperation Movement against the British, which involved people from many walks of life.
(v) When the British did not adhere to the demands of the Indians, Gandhiji launched the Civil Disobedience Movement where all British authorities, British goods, rules and laws were defied, but in a non-violent manner.
(vi) Whenever, Gandhiji felt matters were becoming violent, he stopped all movements.
(vii) India became independent on 15 August,’ 1947 Difference was that colonisation of Kenya happened much later than India and therefore, it gained independence later. Also, while India was a rich country and British arrived to trade and have trade control over Indian markets, Kenya was a poor, backward and an illiterate nation. Violent methods to gain freedom were the main tactics used in Kenya. In India non-violent methods and talks were held to gain freedom.