JAC Board Class 7 Social Science Notes History Chapter 3 The Delhi Sultans
→ Delhi became an important city in the twelfth century.
- It was under the Tomara Rajputs and Chauhans that Delhi became an important commercial centre.
- Many rich Jaina merchants lived in the city and constructed several temples. Coins minted here, called dehliwal, had a wide circulation.
- In the beginning of the thirteenth century, the transformation of Delhi into capital started with the foundation of Delhi Sultanate.
→ The rulers of Delhi Table 1:
|Rajput Dynasties Tomaras Early twelfth century||1165|
|Ananga Pala||1130 – 1145|
|Chauhans||1165 – 1192|
|Prithviraj Chauhan||1175 – 1192|
|Early Turkish Rulers||1206 to 1290|
|Qutbuddin Aybak||1206 – 1210|
|Shamsuddin Iltutmish||1210 – 1236|
|Raziyya||1236 – 1240|
|Ghiyasuddin Balban||1266 – 1287|
|Khalji Dynasty||1290 to 1320|
|Jalaluddin Khalji||1290 – 1296|
|Alauddin Khalji||1296 – 1316|
|Tughlaq Dynasty||1320 to 1414|
|Ghiyasuddin Tughluq||1320 – 1324|
|Muhammad Tughluq||1324 – 1351|
|Firuz Shah Tughluq||1351 – 1388|
|Sayyid Dynasty||1414 to 1451|
|Khizr Khan||1414 – 1421|
|Lodi Dynasty||1451 to 1526|
|Bahlul Lodi||1451 – 1489|
→ Finding out about the Delhi Sultans
- Inscriptions, coins and architecture gives us a lot of information.
- Tarikh (singular) / tawarikh (plural), were written in Persian, the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans.
- Tawarikh were written by learned men: secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers who lived in Delhi and advised rulers on governance, stressing the significance of just rule based on gender and birthright distinctions.
- Sultan Iltutmish’s daughter, Raziyya, became Sultan in 1236. But she was dethroned in 1240 as nobles were not satisfied to have a queen as a ruler.
→ From Garrison Town to Empire: The Expansion of the Delhi Sultanate
- The control of the Delhi Sultans rarely went beyond heavily fortified towns occupied by garrisons in the early thirteenth century.
- During the reigns of Ghiyasuddin Balban, Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughluq expansion occurred in the Delhi Sultanate.
- Expansions occurred along the ‘internal frontier’ and ‘external frontier’ of the Sultanate.
- The armies of the Delhi Sultanate had defeated rival armies and seized cities. The Sultanate collected taxes from the peasantry and dispensed justice in its kingdom.
→ A Closer Look: Administration and Consolidation under The Khaljis and Tughluqs
- To administer the vast kingdom or Sultanate it required reliable administrators and govemers.
- Iltutmish, favoured their special slaves purchased for military service, called bandagan in Persian. They were trained and Sultan could rely and trust upon them.
- The Khaljis and Tughluqs continued to use bandagan and raised people of humble birth, who were often their clients, to high political positions in their kingdom.
- In Persian tawarikh, the Delhi Sultans were criticised for appointing the “low and base- born” to high offices.
- Military commanders were appointed as governors of territories of different sizes. These lands were called iqta and their holder was called iqtadar or muqti by the Khalji and Tughluq monarchs.
- There were three types of taxes
- on cultivation called kharaj and amounting to about 50 percent of the peasant’s produce,
- on cattle and
- on houses under the reign of Alauddin Khalji.
- Genghis Khan, a Mongol ruler increased its attacks on Delhi which forced Khaljis and Tughluqs to mobilise large standing army in Delhi.
→ The Sultanate in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries
- The Sayyid and Lodi dynasties ruled Delhi and Agra until 1526 after the Tughluqs. This period saw the emergence of groups like the Afghans and the Rajputs.
- Many independent rulers flourished and became prosperous as well in Bengal, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Malwa, Jaunpur and whole south India.
- Sher Shah Suri established his own Suri Dynasty from 1540-1555. Sher Shah’s administration became a model which was followed by Akbar as well. He took some segment from Alauddin Khalji and made them more efficient and powerful.