JAC Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Geography Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife
I. Objective Type Questions
1. Which of the following terms is being used to denote the species pf animals of a particular region or period?
(d) All of these.
2. Which type of forests are restricted to heavy rainfall areas of the Western Ghats and the island groups of Lakshadweep and Andaman-Nicobar?
(a) Mangrove forests
(b) Tropical deciduous forests
(c) Tropical evergreen forests
(d) all of these.
(c) Tropical evergreen forests
3. Which type of forest is also known as monsoon forests?
(a) Mangrove forests
(b) Tropical deciduous forests
(c) Tropical evergreen forests
(d) None of these.
(b) Tropical deciduous forests
4. Red panda is a rare animal found in:
(a) Montane forests
(b) Tropical evergreen forests
(c) Mangrove forests
(d) all of these.
(a) Montane forests
5. How many biosphere reserves have been set up by the government of India?
II. Very Short Answer Type Questions
What are the three forms of natural vegetation?
How many countries of the world having mega bio-diversity?
What place does India hold in the world in plant diversity?
What place does India hold in Asia in plant diversity?
Distinguish between indigenous species and exotic species.
The natural vegetation, which are purely Indian, are known as endemic or indigenous species, but those which have come from outside India are termed as exotic plants.
How does land affect the natural vegetation?
Land affects the natural vegetation directly and indirectly. The fertile plain level is generally devoted to agriculture. The undulating and rough terrains are areas where grassland and woodlands develop and give shelter to a variety of wild life.
What affects the variation in duration of sunlight?
The variation in duration of sunlight at different places is due to differences in latitude, altitude, season and duration of the day. Due to longer duration of sunlight, trees grow faster in summer.
How does precipitation affect the vegetation?
In India, almost the entire rainfall is received by the advancing south-west monsoon (June to September) and retreating north-east monsoons. Areas of heavy rainfall have denser vegetation as compared to other areas of less rainfall.
Which type of forests found in areas having more than 200 cm of rainfall?
Tropical evergreen forests.
Name the commercially important trees of tropical evergreen forests.
Ebony, Mahogany, Rosewood, Rubber and Cinchona.
Which are the most widespread forests of India?
Which forests are also called monsoon forests?
Tropical deciduous forests.
How are the tropical deciduous forests divided on the basis of availability of water?
- Moist deciduous forests,
- Dry deciduous forests.
Write any two finding areas of moist deciduous forests.
- West Odisha.
Which are the important trees of dry deciduous forests?
Teak, Sal, Peepal and Neem.
Name the common animals of tropical deciduous forests.
Lion, tiger, pig, deer, elephant, lizard, snake and tortoise.
In what amount of rainfall the thorn forests are found?
Less than 70 cm of rainfall.
In which areas of India, the scrubs are found?
In the north-western part of the country including semi-arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana.
What are the main plant species of the thorny forests?
Acacias, palms, euphorbias and cacti.
State any two characteristics of the thorny trees and scrubs.
- The stems are succulent to conserve water,
- Leaves are mostly thick and small to minimize evaporation.
What type of trees are found between the height of 1500 metres and 3000 metres?
Give any four examples of coniferous trees.
Pine, deodar, silver fir and spruce.
Name the common animals found in the montane forests.
The common animals found in these forests are-Kashmir stag, spotted deer, wild sheep, jack rabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, shaggy horn wild ibex, bear and rare red panda, sheep and goats with thick hair.
By which nomadic tribes, the Alpine grasslands are used?
The Gujjars and the Bakarwals.
Where does the mangrove vegetation found in India?
Mangrove forests are found in the deltas of the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Krishna, the Godavari and the Kaveri.
Name the most famous tree of mangrove forests.
Name the famous animal of mangrove forests.
Royal Bengal Tiger.
In which state is Gir forest located?
Gir forest is located in Gujarat state of India.
How many plants have been described in Ayurveda?
About 2000 plants.
How many medicinal plants have named by the World Conservation Union’s Red List?
The World Conservation Union’s Red List has named 352 medicinal plants, of which 52 are critically threatened and 49 are endangered.
Which medicinal plant is used to treat blood pressure?
Where are the one-horned rhinoceros found in India?
In swampy and marshy lands of Assam and West Bengal.
In which place of India wild asses are found?
Arid areas of Rann of Kachchh.
Name the only country in the world that has both tigers and lion.
When was the Wildlife Protection Act of India implemented?
Name any four biosphere reserves in India where wildlife is protected.
- Nanda Devi,
- Gulf of Mannar,
In which season, the Siberian crane comes in India?
During the winter season.
Name any two National parks.
- Ranthambore National Park,
- Kanha National Park.
Write the names of any two wildlife sanctuaries.
- Sariska and
- Chandra Prabha.
How do the human beings influence the ecology of a region?
Human beings utilise the vegetation and wildlife. The greed of man leads to exploitation of these resources. They insensibly cut the trees and kill the animals, creating ecological imbalance. As a result, some of the plants and animals have reached the verge of extinction.
Write any three developmental projects introduced by government to protect the endangered species of India.
- Project Tiger,
- Project Rhino,
- Project Great Indian Bustard.
How many national parks and wildlife sanctuaries have been set up to conserve our natural heritage?
104 National Parks and 543 Wildlife Sanctuaries.
III. Short Answer Type Questions
Write a notes on bio-diversity in India.
India is rich in biodiversity. It is one of the twelve mega bio-diverse countries of the world. It has 47,000 species of plants including 15000 flowering plants. India also has many species of non-flowering plants. Besides its floral diversity, India also has about 90,000 species of animals. India also has rich variety of fishes in its fresh and marine water.
How does the land have an impact on flora and fauna?
Land affects the natural vegetation directly and indirectly. The nature of the land i.e., plain, hilly or a plateau, determines the kind of vegetation which will grow in it. Fertile lands are used for growing crops, vegetables and fruits.
Undulating and rough surfaces generally develop either into grasslands and woodlands (forests) and give shelter to a variety of wildlife.
How does the soil have an impact on flora and fauna? Explain with examples.
The soils also vary from place to place. Different types of soils provide different types of vegetation. For example, deltaic or alluvial soil at a river delta near the sea will sustain mangrove forests, while slopes of hills have conical trees. The sandy soils of the desert support cactus and thorny bushes.
How does the temperature have an impact on flora and fauna?
The character and extent of vegetation are mainly determined by temperature along- with humidity in the air. As the climate gets colder, either by increase in altitude (above 915 metres) or by moving away from the equator, the vegetation will change from tropical to sub-tropical, temperate and then alpine. For example, on the slope of the Himalayas and hills of the Peninsula, the fall in temperature affects the type of vegetation and its growth.
Explain the uses of forests.
The uses of forests are as follows:
- Forests are renewable resources and play a major role in enhancing the quality of environment.
- They modify the local climate, control soil erosion, regulate stream flow and support a variety of industries.
- They provide livelihood for many communities and offer panoramic and scenic view for recreation.
- They control the force of winds and temperature and cause rainfall.
- They provide humus to the soil and natural habitat to the wildlife.
Distinguish between moist deciduous and dry deciduous forests.
Differences between moist deciduous and dry deciduous forests are as follows:
|Moist deciduous forests||Dry deciduous forests|
|1. These types of forests are found in areas with annual rainfall of 100 to 200 cm.||1. This types of forests are found in areas with annual rainfall of 70 to 100 cm.|
|2. Teak, bamboo, sal, shisham, sandalwood, khair, kusum, aijun and mulberry trees are prominent in these forests.||2. Teak, sal, neem and peepal trees are prominent in these forests.|
|3. These forests have not been cleared much.||3. Large areas of these forests have been cleared to cultivative and grazing.|
What are the differences between thorn forests and mangrove forests?
Differences between thorn forests and mangrove forests are as follows:
|Thom forests||Mangrove forests|
|1. These types of forests are found in areas with annual rainfall less than 70 cm.||1. These types of forests are found in the delta regions of rivers and are not depen¬dent on amount of rainfall.|
|2. These types of forests are mainly found in most of Rajasthan, Gujarat and in some areas of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana.||2. These types of forests are mainly found in the coastal delta regions.|
|3. Babool, kikar, palm, cactus, acacia trees and bushes are found here.||3. Sundari, palm, coconut, keora and agar trees are found here.|
Why is it necessary to conserve our natural resources of forests and wildlife?
The natural resources are a common heritage which we have inherited from our forefathers, and in turn, we will pass them over to our future generations. Conservation does not mean that we should not use the natural resources, but it means that we should use them wisely. All the plants and animals in a given area are so closely interlinked and interdependent, that they cannot survive without each other.
The large-scale poaching (killing) of wild animals, residing in the forests by man is a serious threat to the survival of many animal and bird species. This also disturbs the food chains in which these animals occur, resulting in undesirable consequences for the whole ecosystem. Thus to avoid these consequences, special efforts of their conservation are required.
What are the major objectives to set up the Biosphere Reserves in India?
9 Biosphere Reserves have been set up in India to protect flora and fauna. The major objectives of these Biosphere Reserves are:
- To conserve and maintain diversity and integrity of the natural heritage in its full form, i.e., physical environment, the flora and the fauna.
- To provide facilities for education, awareness and training. The major goal of setting up such reserves is to preserve the genetic diversity in crucial natural ecosystems.
What are the names of bio-reserves regions in India?
The following are the bio-reserves regions in India: Sundarbans, Simplipal, Gulf of Mannar, Dihang-Dibang, Nilgiri, Dibru-Saikhoula, Nanda Devi, Agasthyamalai, Nokrek, Kangchen- dzonga, Great Nicobar, Pachmarhi, Manas, Achanakmar- ‘ Amarkantak, Kachchh, Cold Desert, Seshachalam Hill, Panna.
III. Long Answer Type Questions
The distribution of flora and fauna is mainly determined by the climate in India. Justify this statement by giving relevant facts.
This is true that the distribution of flora and fauna is mainly determined by the climate. Climatic factors like temperature, photoperiod and precipitation highly affect the climate of a region in India. The given points state how climatic factors affect climate and determines distribution of flora and fauna.
The character and extent of vegetation and distribution of fauna is mainly determined by temperature alongwith humidity in the air, precipitation and soil. On the slopes of the Himalayan mountains and the hills of the peninsula above the height of 915 m, the fall in the temperature affects the types of vegetation, its growth, and changes it from tropical to sub-tropical, temperate and alpine vegetation. Along with this, they affect the distribution of wildlife too.
2. Photoperiod (Sunlight):
The variation in duration of sunlight at different places is due to differences in altitude, latitudes, season and duration of the day.
Due to longer duration of sunlight, trees grow faster in summers.
In India, almost the entire rainfall is brought in by the advancing south-west monsoon (June to September) and retreating north-east monsoon. Area of heavy rainfall have more dense vegetation and fauna as compared to other areas of less rainfall.
Explain the important characteristics of tropical evergreen forests.
The main characteristics of tropical evergreen or tropical rain forests are:
- These forests are found in areas with an annual rainfall of about 200 cm.
- These forests grow in the areas of high temperature and high rainfall.
- In these forests, trees grow very vigorously, reaching height of 60 m and above.
- These forests yield hardwood trees.
- There is no definite time for trees to shed their leaves. As such, these forests appear green all the year round.
- Rainy parts of Western Ghats, Assam, West Bengal, island groups of the Lakshadweep and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Odisha have these type of forests.
- Ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber, cinchona and shisham are some of the commercially-important trees.
Explain the important features of the thorn forests.
The important features of the thorn forests are:
- The areas having rainfall less then 70 cm support this type of vegetation.
- Due to lack of moisture, the trees growing here have very small leaves and they bear thorns.
- The common species found here include babool, kikar and palm in the areas of moderate rainfall. In areas of more scanty rainfall, they consist of scrubs, shrubs and thorny bushes.
- The main features of thorny forests are that the trees are scattered and have long plant roots penetrating deep into the soil and spreading in a radial pattern to get water. Leaves are mostly thick and small to minimize loss of water,
- Rajasthan, Gujarat, parts of Punjab, Haryana and dry parts of Madhya Pradesh and the Deccan plateau alongwith the rain-shadow area have this type of vegetation.
Describe the principal features of the montane forests.
The principal features of the montane forests are as follows:
- In mountainous areas, the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude leads to the corresponding change in the natural vegetation. As such there is a succession of natural vegetation belts in the same order as we see from the tropical to the tundra region.
- The wet temperate type of forests are found between a height of 1,000 and 2,000 metres. Evergreen broad-leaf trees such as oaks and chestnuts predominate.
- Between, 1,500 and 3,000 metres, temperate forests containing coniferous trees like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar, are found. These forests cover mostly the southern slope of the Himalayas and places having high altitude in southern and north-east India.
- At high altitudes, generally more than 3,600 metres above sea level, temperate forests and grasslands give way to Alpine vegetation. Silver fir, junipers, pines and birches are the common trees of these forests.
- They get progressively stunted as they approach the snow-line. Ultimately, through shrubs and scrubs, they merge into the Alpine grasslands. At higher altitudes, mosses and lichens form part of the tundra vegetation.
- The common animals found in these forests are the Kashmir stag, spotted deer, wild sheep, jack rabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, shaggy horn wild ibex, bear and rare red panda, sheep and goats with thick hair.
Write the important characteristics of mangrove forests.
The important characteristics of mangrove forests are:
- These forests occur in and around the deltas, estuaries and creeks prone to tidal influences and as such are also known as deltaic or tidal forest.
- White littoral forests occur at several places along the coast. Swamp forests are
confined to the deltas of the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri. ‘
- The most peculiar feature of these forests is that they can survive and grow both in fresh as well as salt water.
- In the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta, the most important tree is the Sundari tree, after which Sunderban has been named. Palm, coconut, keora and agar also grow in some parts of the delta.
- Royal Bengal Tiger is the prominent animal in these forests. Turtles, crocodiles, gharials and snakes are also found in these forests.
Write a note on the commonly-used plants in India.
India is known for its herbs and spices from ancient times. Some 2,000 plants have been described in Ayurveda. The commonly-used plants in India are :
- Sarpagandha: It is found only in India and is used to treat blood pressure.
- Jamun: The juice from its ripe fruit is used to prepare vinegar which is carminative and diuretic and has digestive properties. The powder of the seeds is used for controlling diabetes.
- Aijun: The fresh juice of leaves is a cure for earache. It is also used to regulate blood pressure.
- Babool: Leaves are used as a cure for eye sores. Its gum is used as a tonic.
- Neem: It has high antibiotic and anti-bacterial properties.
- Tulsi: It is used to cure cough and cold.
- Kachnar: It is used to cure asthma and ulcers. The buds and roots are good for curing digestive problems.
Write a detailed note on wildlife in India.
India has a varied fauna due to great diversity of the relief and climate. There are approximately 90,000 different species of fauna. The fresh water and marine species of fish amount to 2,546. It constitutes 12 per cent of the world’s total fish stock. India is a home to about 2,000 mammals species of birds, which account for around 13 per cent of the world’s total species of birds. India has about 5 to 8 per cent of the world’s amphibians, reptiles and mammals.
The elephants are the most magestic animals among the mammals. As they prefer hot wet forests, so they are found in the dense rainy forests of Assam in the north-east and in Kerala and Karnataka in the south. Camels are found mainly in hot and arid Thar Desert of Rajasthan. Wild asses dominate the arid areas of Rann of Kachchh One-homed rhinoceros also fall in the category of mammals.
They live in swampy and marshy land of Assam and West Bengal. The other animals included in the category of mammals are the Indian bison, Indian buffalo, nilgai (blue bull), chausingha (four-homed antelope), black buck, gazel and deer.
1. Animals of prey:
Among the animals of prey, Indian lion and tiger are remarkable. Lion’s natural habitat is confined to the Gir forests of Saurashtra in Gujarat. The famous Bengal tiger has its natural habitat in the Sunderban in the tidal forests occupying the edge of the Ganga delta. The other animals belonging to cat family are leopards, clouded leopards and snow leopards.
2. Animals of the Himalayan Regions:
Snow leopards, sheep, mountain goats, the ibex, the shrew bear and the red panda are the important animals of the Himalayas. Ladakh’s freezing high altitudes are home to yak, the shaggy horned wild ox, the Tibetan antelope, the bharal (blue sheep), wild sheep and the kiang (Tibetan wild ass). .
Indian forests are homes of several species of monkeys. The most famous is the langur.
India has a rich variety of beautiful and colourful birds. They include pheasants, geese, ducks, mynahs, parakeets, pigeons, cranes, hombills and sun birds. Most bird species inhabit forests, but some have their natural habitats in swamps and wet lands.
5. Water animals:
In the rivers, lakes and coastal areas, turtles, crocodiles and gharials are found.
What steps have been taken by the government of India to protect the flora and fauna of the country ?
Flora and fauna are essential for the survival of human beings and to maintain the ecological balance. Due to excessive exploitation of the plants and animal resources by human beings some of them are on the verge of extinction and some have already become extinct.
To stop the indiscriminate destruction of flora and fauna, the following steps have been taken by the government of India :
1. Eighteen biosphere reserves have been establish in the country to protect flora and fauna. Four out of these, the Sundarbans in the West Bengal, Nanda Devi in Uttarakhand, the Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu, the Nilgiris (Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu) have been included in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves.
2. Financial and technical assistance is provided to various botanical gardens by the government since 1992.
3. 104 National Parks, 543 Wildlife Sanctuaries and Zoological Gardens have been established to take care of this natural heritage.
For identification only:
Vegetation Type: Tropical Evergreen Forests, Tropical Deciduous Forests, Thorn Forests, Montane Forests and Mangrove Forests.
For Locating and Labelling:
1. National Parks: Corbett, Kaziranga, Ranthambore, Shivpuri, Kanha, Simlipal and Manas.
2. Wildlife Sanctuaries: Sariska, Mudumalai, Rajaji, Dachigam.
3. National Parks: Tadoba, Sanjay Gandhi, Keloadeo, Rajgir, Bendipur, Guindy.