# JAC Class 9 Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 2 People as Resource

## JAC Board Class 9th Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 2 People as Resource

JAC Class 9th Economics People as Resource InText Questions and Answers

Page No. 17

Question 1.
Looking at the photograph can you explain how a doctor, teacher, engineer and a tailor are an asset to the economy?
In the given picture a doctor is providing healthcare service to a woman. These types of serivces are essential for a healthier population. The teachers provide essential services in the field of education. They make people literate, imparting them good education and increasing their mental skill. A healthy and literate person helps in the growth of GDP of the nation.

An engineer provides his services in the field of infrastructure. He manufactures various types of machines, engines, builds roads and bridges which contribute in the development of the economy. The tailor stitches clothes and mends it. From the above, we can see that doctor, engineer, teacher and tailor are an asset to the economy because all are helpful in strengthening the nation.

Page No. 18

Question 1.
Do you notice any difference between the two friends ? What are those?
Yes, we noticed some differences between the two friends. These differences are as follows:

1. Sakai’s parents gave him higher education while Vilas was unable to get education as he lost his father at the age of 2 years.
2. Sakai was an active boy while Vilas lost his health due to his inactive approach.
3. Sakai provided his services for a computer firm while Vilas sold fish like his mother to earn his livelihood.

Page No. 21

Study the graph and answer the following questions:

[Source : Economic survey, 2017-18.]

Question 1.
Have the literacy rates of the population increased since 1951?
Yes, the literacy rates of the population have increased since 1951.

Question 2.
In which year India has the highest literacy rates?
In the year 2011, India has the hightest literacy rates.

Question 3.
Why literacy rate is high among the males of India?
Literacy rate is high among the males of India because the opportunity to get education is more for males as compared to females due to male-dominated society in India.

Question 4.
Why are women less educated than men?
Women are less educated then man due to gender inequality and some social boundations in India. Parents do not send their girls to schools because they feel that they should look after the domestic work while boys should go to school.

Question 5.
How would you calculate literacy rate in India?
The literacy rate can be calculated on the basis of the number of literate people divided by the population multiplied by 100.
Literacy Rate = $$\frac { Number of literate people in India }{ Population of India }$$ = 100

Question 6.
My projection about India’s literacy rate in 2020 is approximately 90 per cent.

Page No. 23

Discuss this table in the classroom and answer the following questions:
Table Number of Institutions of higher Education, Enrolment and faculty

 Year Number of colleges Number of Universities Students & Colleges Teachers in University 1950-51 750 30 2,63,000 24,000 1990-91 7,346 177 49,25,000 2,72,000 1998-99 11,089 238 74,17,000 3,42,000 2010-11 33,023 523 186,70,050 8,16,966 2012-13 37,204 628 228,02,938 9,25,396 201-15 40,760 711 265,85,437 12,61,350 2015-16 41,435 753 284,84,741 14,38,000 2016-17 42,338 795 294,27,158 14,70,190

Source: UGC Annual Report 2010-11, 2012-13, 2013-14, 2015-16 and selected educational statistics, Ministry of HRD, www.ugc. ac. in (Anual Report. 2016-17 pdf).

Question 1.
Is the increase in the number of colleges adequate to admit the increasing number of students?
No, the increasing number of colleges is not adquate to admit the increasing number of students.

Question 2.
Do you think we should have more number of Universities?
Yes, I think, we should have more number of Universities to encourage higher education in India.

Question 3.
What is the increase noticed among the teachers in the year 1998-99?
In the year 1998-99, the increase noticed is 70,000 teachers since 1990-91.

Question 4.
My idea about future colleges and universities is that there should some more professional colleges and Universities with more job-oriented and vocational courses offered to the students.

JAC Class 9th Economics People as Resource Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What do you understand by ‘people as a resource’?
‘People as a resource’ is a way of referring to a country’s working people in terms of their existing productive skills and abilities. It emphasises the ability of people to contribute to the creation of the Gross National Product. Population is a resource which also called Human Resource.

Question 2.
How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical capital?
Human resource is different from other resources like land and physical capital in the following ways :

1. Human resource is an active and living resource.
2. Human resource is an indispensable resource.
3. Human resource makes use of other resources like land, physical capital, etc.
4. There are many forms of human resource as they work as manager, entrepreneur, worker, etc.

Question 3.
What is the role of education in human capital formation?
Education plays an important role in human capital formation. It helps the people to make better use of economic opportunities available before them. It increases the quality of labour and helps to enhance the total productivity. This results in the growth of the economy.

Question 4.
What is the role of health in human capital formation?
Health has a vital role in human capital formation. The health of a person helps him to realise his full potential. Health is an indispensable basis for realising one’s well being. Economic growth can be achieved at a faster rate, if population of the country is healthy and competent. Only a healthy person can do full justice to his job. So, we can say that health has an important role in human capital formation.

Question 5.
What part does health play in the individual’s working life?
Health is a very important aspect of life. It includes the physical, mental, social, emotional and economic well-being of an individual. It is rightly said that ‘a sound mind lives in a sound body’. An unhealthy person is a liability for his family, organisation and country. No organisation will employ such a person who cannot work efficiently due to ill-health.

Question 6.
What are the various activities undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector?
Following activities are undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector :

1. Primary Sector: Farming, forestery, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming, mining, quarrying, etc.
2. Secondary Sector: Manufacturing, processing, etc.
3. Tertiary Sector: Trade, Transport, Communication, Banking, Education, Health, Tourism, Services, Insurance, etc.

Question 7.
What is the difference between economic activities and non-economic activities?
Activities which are performed to earn money are called economic activities. These activities add value to the National Income.
On the other hand, activities which are not performed to earn money are called non-economic activities. These activities are performed only for self-consumption. Example: If a father is a teacher in a school he gets salary for it. This is an economic activity. But when he teaches his own children, he is performing a non-economic activity.

Question 8.
Why are women employed in low-paid work?
Answer: Women are employed in low paid work due to the following reasons :

1. A majority of women have lesser education and low skill sets.
2. Generally, women are considered physically and emotionally weak.
3. Most women work in the unorganised sector.
4. Women are generally unaware of their legal right.

Question 9.
How will you explain the term unemployment?
Unemployment is a term referring to individuals who are employable and seeking a job but are unable to find a job. Furthermore, it is those people in the workforce or pool of people who are available for work who do not have an appropriate job. Usually measured by the unemployment rate, which is dividing the number of unemployed people by the total number of people in the workforce, unemployment serves as one of the in¬dicators of an economy’s status.

Question 10.
What is the difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment?
Disguised Unemployment: In disguised unemployment people appear to be employed but their productivity is zero. Such kind of unemployment is mostly found in agriculture. Seasonal Unemployment : In seasonal unemployment people get jobs during some months of the year. For the rest months of the year they do not get jobs and sit idle. People dependent upon agriculture usually face this kind of unemployment.

Question 11.
Why is educated unemployed, a peculiar problem of India?
Educated unemployment is posing a great threat to our country. It has become a common phenomenon in India. Lakhs of educated persons are unemployed. This is a peculiar problem of India in the following ways:

1. It leads to wastage of educated manpower resource.
2. The youth feel hopeless and dejected.
3. It tends to increase economic overload.
4. The quality of life of an individual as well as of society is adversely affected.
5. Unemployment has a detrimental impact on the overall growth of an economy.

Question 12.
In which field do you think India can build the maximum employment opportunity?
I think, India can build the maximum employment opportunity in the service
sector or say tertiary sector. In this sector, various new services are now emerging like biotechnology, IT (information technology) and so on.

Question 13.
Can you suggest some measures in the education system to mitigate the problem of the educated unemployed?
The following measures can help to mitigate the problem of the educated unemployed :

1. The education system should be job-oriented.
2. Education should be planned and executed properly.
3. Higher education should be restricted to meritorious students only.
4. Education should encourage people to become self-reliant.

Question 14.
Can you imagine some village which initially had no job opportunities but later came up with many?