JAC Board Class 9th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 1 The French Revolution
JAC Class 9th History The French Revolution InText Questions and Answers
Activity (Page No. 5)
Explain why the artist has portrayed the nobleman as the spider and the peasant as the fly.
The artist has depicted the nobleman as the spider and the peasant as the fly showing that flies work hard to get their food, they roam around here and there, whereas the spider creates a trap and catches the flies and receives food without any hard work.
In the same way, the nobleman had developed such a monarchy in the French society, in which the peasants used to arrange for livelihood with hard work and the nobleman used to get it as a tax without any hard work. Such depiction by the artist represents the exploiting class and the legal system created by him in the erstwhile French society.
Activity (Page No. 6)
Fill in the blank boxes in figure 4 with appropriate terms from among the following: Food riots, scarcity of grain, increased number of deaths, rising food prices, weaker bodies.
Activity (Page No. 7)
What message is Young trying to convey here? Whom does he mean when he speaks of ‘slaves’? Who is he criticising? What dangers does he sense in the situation of 1787?
- Here Young is trying to convey the message that any social system based on in justice will not last long and its consequences can be disastrous for the exploiters.
- The ‘Slaves’ mentioned by him are the peasants, servants and landless labourers who were the underprivileged and deprived sections of French society at that time.
- He is criticising the complete social system and especially the noblemen and the clergy.
- The danger sensed by him is violence from the underprivileged section on the noblemen, clergy and their families.
Activity (Page No. 8)
Representatives of the Third Estate take the oath raising their arms in the direction of Bailly, the President of the Assembly, standing on a table in the centre. Do you think that during the actual event Bailly would have stood with his back to the assembled deputies? What could have been David’s intention in placing Bailly (fig.5) the way he has done?
- No, I think that during the actual event, Bailly would not have stood with his back to the assembled deputies.
- Placing Bailly in this way, David has showed his intention to support the assembled deputies towards Bailly.
Activity (Page No. 13)
Identify the symbols in Box 1 which stand for liberty, equality and fraternity.
Liberty: The broken chain, Red Phrygian cap.
Equality: The winged woman, The law tablet.
Fraternity: The bundle of rods or fasces, National colours of France such as Blue-White-Red.
Explain the meaning of the painting of the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen, (Fig. 8) by reading only the symbols.
in Fig. 8 a woman is shown wearing a blue, white and red dress. These colours are the national colours of France. The lady carrying the broken chain symbolises the freedom of the French citizens. On the other side, a winged woman is also shown which is a symbol of personification of the law. It expresses that all French citizens are law-abiding. Both pictures of women are shown on the Law Tablet which conveys the message that all are equal before the law.
Compare the political rights which the Constitution of 1791 gave to the citizens with Articles 1 and 6 of the Declaration (Source C). Are the two documents consistent? Do the two documents convey the same idea?
The two documents are consistent and convey the same idea that human beings are born equal and all citizens are equal in front of the law. However, the constitution of 1791 did not give practical form to these ideas.
Which groups of French society would have gained from the Constitution of 1791? Which groups would have had reason to be dissatisfied? What developments does Marat (Source B) anticipate in the future?
- The Third Estate of French society would have gained the maximum benefit from the Constitution of 1791.
- The First and Second Estates or the Aristocratic group would have the reason to be dissatisfied. They were forced to give up their privileges and a common tax was levied in return of all services.
- Marat anticipates another revolution in which the poor will rebel against the rich persons of the third estate and overthrow them, just like they had done to the noblemen and clergy.
Imagine the impact of the events in France on neighbouring countries such as Prussia, Austria-Hungary or Spain, all of which were absolute monarchies. How would the kings, traders, peasants, nobles or members of the clergy here have reacted to the news of what was happening in France?
The shadow of the events of France must also have fallen on the absolute monarchy countries of the neighbourhood such as Prussia, Austria-Hungry or Spain etc. These autocratic monarchy countries may have reduced the exploitation of citizens by reducing their autocracy. Because they may have feared that the incident in France may be repeated here as well.
The kings, noble, clergy and other privileged sections of these countries would become fearful that what has happened in France can happen in their country also. The peasant’s traders would welcome the developments in France and sympathise with the peasants and underprivileged sections of that country.
Activity (Page No. 15)
Look carefully at the painting and identify the objects which are political symbols you saw in Box 1 (broken chain, red cap, fasces, Charter of the Declaration of Rights). The Pyramid stands for equality, often represented by a triangle. Use the symbols to interpret the painting. Describe your impressions of the female figure of liberty.
- A red cap and the Charter of the Declaration of Rights in the lady’s hand are the political symbols.
- The triangle shape of pyramid stands for equality because its three equal sides represent the three Estates of the French society and signifies that their rights and powers are equal. She is holding in the other hand – The Torch of Freedom.
- The female figure of liberty signifies the true idea of freedom that women are equal to men. So, they should enjoy the same basic rights.
Activity (Page No. 16)
Compare the views of Desmoulins and Robespierre. How does each one understand the use of state force? What does Robespierre mean by ‘the war of liberty against tyranny’? How does Desmoulins perceive liberty? Refer once more to Source C. What did the constitutional laws on the rights of individuals lay down? Discuss your views on the subject in class.
1. Desmoulins was all for a humanitarian view of democracy. He argued that a true democracy means that all persons should enjoy equal rights; everyone should enjoy the fruits of liberty. He condemned the use of force even against those who opposed the views of a democratic government.
2. Robespierre was trying to find justification for his tyranny against all resistance, by posing to be the saviour of the ideals of the revolution and the republic. For him, terror is nothing but justice and is used to meet the most urgent needs of the fatherland.
3. Desmoulins perceive liberty as happiness, reason, equality and Justice. It is the declaration of rights.
4. The constitutional laws on the rights of individuals lay down the following rights:
(a) Right to freedom,
(b) Right to equality,
(c) Right to protection of property
(d) Right against exploitation, and
(e) Right to expression.
Activity (Page No. 18)
Describe the persons represented in Fig. 12 their actions, their postures, the objects they are carrying. Look carefully to see whether all of them come from the same social group. What symbols has the artist included in the image? What do they stand for? Do the actions of the women reflect traditional ideas of how women were expected to behave in public? What do you think: does the artist sympathise with the women’s activities or is he critical of them? Discuss your views in class.
- The persons represented in Fig 12 are women of Paris (France). Most of them came from the Third Estate. Their actions, their postures represent a rebellious violent mood.
- The artist included the following symbols in the image :
(a) Hoes, swords and pitchforks to indicate power and rebellion.
(b) A balance scale on top to indicate equality among men and women.
(c) A drum to indicate announcement.
- No, the actions of the women do not reflect traditional ideas of how women were expected to behave in public.
- Yes, the artist sympathises with the women.
Activity (Page No. 20)
Compare the manifesto drafted by Olympe de Gouges (Source F) with the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (Source C).
The Declaration of the Rights of Men and citizens declares only the rights of Men and Citizens. Rights of women are not discussed in any article of this Declaration. On the other hand, the Declaration prepared by Olympe de Gouges discusses the rights of both men and women on the basis of equality.
Imagine yourself to be one of the women in Fig. 13. Formulate a response to the arguments put forward by Chaumette (Source G.)
The arguments given by Chaumette are not justifiable. He has mentioned only the biological role of women. As individual, women have equal rights to men and so they must be treated equal to men. They would of course, continue their traditional roles like feeding and nurturing children, things of the household etc. but women are equally capable as men to carry out the other duties of human society also.
Activity (Page No. 21)
Record your impression of this print (Fig. 14). Describe the objects lying on the ground. What do they symbolise? What attitude does the picture express towards non-European slaves?
- This print shows the bad condition of slaves during seventeenth century. The tri-colour banner on the top carries the slogan“The rights of man” and an inscription below says“The freedom of the unfree.”
- The symbols of power sword, gun etc. are lying on the ground. It shows that slavery has been abolished.
- The picture expresses the racial behaviour of a French woman towards non-European slaves. She is giving European clothes to them as a mark of superior culture.
Activity (Page No. 22)
Describe the picture in your own words. What are the images that the artist has used to communicate the following ideas: greed, equality, justice, takeover by the state of the assets of the church?
- Greed: Protested by a fat man.
- Equality: Man and woman standing together.
- Justice: Two persons are going with off mood, which signifies that they did not get proper justice.
- Assets of the church taken over by the state. A man is shown pressed in between the force machine which signifies the confiscation of assets of the church by the state.
Activity (Page No. 24)
Find out more about anyone. of the revolutionary figures, you have read about in this chapter. Write a short biography of this person.
Olympe de Gouges (1748-1793): Olympe de Gouges was one of the most important of politically active women in revolutionary France. She protested against the Constitution and the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen as they excluded women from basic rights that each human being was entitled to.
So, in 1791, she wrote a Declaration of Rights of Woman and Citizen, which she addressed to the Queen and to the members of the National Assembly, demanding that they act upon it. In 1793, Olympe de Gouges criticised the Jacobin government for forcibly closing down women’s clubs. She was tried by the National Convention, which charged her with treason. Soon after this, she was executed.
The French Revolution saw the rise of newspapers describing the events of each day and week. Collect information and pictures on any one event and write a newspaper article. You could also conduct an imaginary interview with important personages such as Mirabeau, Olympe de Gouges or Robespierre.
An article in a newspaper at the end of Bastille: On the morning of 14th July 1789, the city of Paris was in a state of alarm. Rumours spread that king would soon order the army to open fire upon the citizens. Some 7,000 men and women gathered in front of the town hall and decided to form a people’s militia. Finally, a group of several hundred people marched towards the fortress prison, the Bastille, where they hoped to find hoarded ammunition.
In the armed fight that followed, the Commander of the Bastille was killed and the prisoners were released, though there were only seven of them. The fortress was demolished and its stone fragments were sold in the market. The Bastille, which stood for the despotic rule of the king came to an end cowardly. It masked the end of feudalism and brought in a new era.
1. Interview with Mirabeau :
Journalist: Sir, you belong to the nobility, but here you are supporting those people who are against the nobility or aristocracy.
Mirabeau: Yes, I was born in an aristocratic group but it doesn’t mean that others are doing wrong and should not protest.
Journalist: Sir, will you support certain privileges based on birth which are given to some special classes of society?
Mirabeau: No, I am not convinced of the need to do with a society of feudal privileges by birth.
2. Interview with Olympe de Gouges :
Journalist: Madam, why do you oppose the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen?
Gouges: I am opposing this Declaration because there is no discussion of fundamental rights of women.
Journalist: What is the reason behind your criticism for the Jacobin government?
Gouges: I am criticising the Jacobin government for forcibly closing down the women’s clubs,
3. Interview Journalist Robespierre
Journalist: Sir, How would you establish and consolidate democracy?
Robespierre: To establish and consolidate democracy, I would annihilate the enemies of the republic at home and abroad.
Journalist: What method should be adopted by a democratic government during the revolution?
Robespierre: In the time of revolution, a democratic government may relay on terror.
Journalist: Sir, what do you mean by ‘Terror’?
Robespierre: Terror is nothing but justice. It is a swift, severe and inflexible policy which is used to meet the most urgent need of the fatherland.
JAC Class 9th History The French Revolution Textbook Questions and Answers
Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France.
The following circumstances led to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France:
1. Political Causes:
Emperor Louis XVI and his queen, Marie Antoinette, wasted’ money on their luxurious living and wasteful festivities. The high posts were often sold. The whole administration was corrupt and each department had its own laws. In the absence of any uniform system, there was confusion all around. The people were tired of such a rotten system of administration and wanted a change.
2. Social Causes :
The social conditions of France were as distressing as its political organisation. The clergy and the nobility led a luxurious life and enjoyed many privileges by birth, while the peasants and the labourers led a very hard life. They had to pay heavy taxes.
In addition to the direct taxes paid to the state, peasants had to pay taxes to the first and second estates also. They had often to be content with meals of boiled grass. It was an unfair situation which led to the growth of a feeling of discontent among the members of the Third Estate.
3. Econoir causes :
Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France, added to this was the cost of maintaining the extravagant court. To meet tht e expenses, the state was forced to increase taxes imposed on common people, At this time, there was a greater demand for food grains due to huge growth in population.
As a result, the price of bread rose. Due to rising prices and inadequate wages, most of the population could not even afford the basic means of livelihood. This led to a crisis of subsistence and an increase in the gap between the rich and the poor.
4. Influence of the Philosophers and Writers :
The middle class emerged educated and wealthy during the eighteenth century. The system of privileges as promoted by the feudal society was against their interest. Being educated, the members of this class had access to various ideas of equality and freedom proposed by the French and English political and social philosophers.
These ideas got popularised among the masses as a result of intensive discussions and debates in salons/halls and coffee-houses, and through books and newspapers. The ideas of philosophers played a great role. John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau and Montesquieu rejected the doctrine of divine kingship.
5. Immediate Cause:
On 5th May 1789, Louis XVI called together an assembly of the Estates General to pass proposals for new taxes. Voting in the Estates General in the past had been conducted according to the principle that each Estate had one vote. But this time, members of the third Estate demanded that voting now should be conducted by the assembly as a whole, where each member would have one vote. When the king rejected this proposal, members of the third Estate walked out of the assembly in protest, which was the spark of outbreak of the French revolution.
Which groups of French society benefitted from the revolution? Which groups were forced to relinquish power? Which sections of society would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution?
- All the groups of Third Estate were benefitted from the revolution. These groups included peasants, artisans, petty officers, lawyers, teachers, servants, merchants, doctors and traders.
- The clergy and the nobility were forced to surrender power and all the privileges were taken away from them.
- Feudal lords, nobles, clergy and women would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution.
Describe the legacy of the French Revolution for the people of the world during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
The legacy of French Revolution for the people of the world during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries can be described as given below :
- The French Revolution put an end to the arbitrary rule and developed the idea of Republic in Europe and in other parts of the world.
- It was the first national movement that adopted the ideals of “liberty, equality and fraternity”. These ideas became the basic doctrine of democracy for every nation in the 19th and 20th century.
- It marked the end of feudalism and brought in a new era of industrial capitalism.
- It initiated social and political changes that took place in different parts of Europe.
- It gave the term ‘Nation’ its modern meaning and promoted the concept of ‘nationalist’ which inspired the people in Poland, Germany, Netherlands and Italy to establish Nation-states in the countries.
- The greatest effect was the starting of mass movements all over the world and the rise of a spirit of nationalism among the people.
Draw up a list of democratic rights we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution.
Some of the democratic rights which we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French revolution are given in the Indian constitution. They are :
1. Right to Equality:
The Right to Equality has its origin in the French Revolution. Which was its guiding principle. In the Indian constitution, Right to Equality means equality before the law, prohibition of discrimination on the basis of religion, descent, caste, gender or place of birth and end of titles and equality of opportunity in matters of employment.
2. Right to Liberty or Freedom:
The origin of this right can also be traced to the French Revolution. In the premble to the Indian Constitution, Right to Liberty or Freedom means ‘Freedom of Speech, expression, education, protection of the life and physical freedom, belief, faith and worship.
3. Encouraging the Spirit of Fraternity:
The French Revolution introduced the growth of the spirit of fraternity and social welfare. In the Indian constitution, the concept of ‘Fraternity’ abolishes untouchability and local or provincial anti-social feelings.
4. Inspiring the Spirit of Democracy:
The French Revolution inspired the spirit of democracy which ensured many rights, viz., right against exploitation, right to life, right to vote etc., which we are enjoying today.
Would you agree with the view that the message of universal rights was beset with contradictions? Explain.
Yes, I agree with the view that the message of universal rights, was beset with contradictions. Many ideals in the “Declaration of Right of Man and Citizen’ were not clear in their meanings. I can say this on the basis of the following examples:
- “The law has the right to forbid only actions injurious to society”. It did not mention about criminal offences against individuals.
- The declaration stated that, “Law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to participate in its formation, personally or through their representatives. All citizens are equal before it.” Although, France became a constitutional monarchy, millions of citizens (men under the age of 25 including women) were still not allowed to vote at all.
- Men who were above 25 years of age and who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourer’s wages, were given the status of active citizens, i.e., they had the right to vote. This was in striking contrast to the ideals that the revolution supported.
- In the universal rights, nothing was mentioned about compulsory education for all.
- It did not give the right to freedom of trade and occupation.
How would you explain the rise of Napoleon?
The rise of Napoleon Bonaparte was an indirect result of the French Revolution. After the fall of the Jacobin government, a new constitution was introduced. It provided for two elected legislative councils, and a Directory, an executive made up of five members. However, the Directors often clashed with the legislative councils, who then sought to dismiss them. This clash was responsible for political instability. Napoleon took advantage of the situation and became a dictator with the help of the army.
In 1804, Napoleon declared himself the Emperor of France. He was a brilliant General and used his armies to conquer and dominate all the neighbouring countries except Britain and Russia. However, his successes were short-lived. Britain, Prussia, Austria and Russia jointly defeated him at Leipzig, and again at Waterloo in 1815. He was captured and sent as a prisoner to the island of St. Helena where he died in 1821.