JAC Board Class 7 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 1 Environment
→ Environment is the most crucial aspect of our life. The place, people, things and nature that consists of any living organism is called environment. It is a blend of natural and human made phenomena.
- Both biotic and abiotic conditions which exists on earth refers to natural environment.
- Biotic means the world of living organisms and abiotic means the world of non-living organisms.
- Human environment divulge into the activities, creations and interactions among human beings.
→ Natural Environment
- The natural environment consists of land, water, air, plants and animals.
- Environmental domains are lithosphere, • hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere.
- The solid crust or the hard top layer of the earth is called the lithosphere. It is made up of different types of rocks and minerals and covered by a thin layer of soil. It provides us with forests, grasslands for grazing, land for agriculture and human settlements. We find different kinds of minerals here.
- Various sources of water and different types of waterbodies such as rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, etc., comprises Hydrosphere. It is an essential element for all living organisms.
- The thin layer of air that surrounds the earth is called the Atmosphere. It protect us from the harmful rays and scorching heat of the sun and contains many types of gases, dust and water vapour. Weather and climate changes due to the changes in the atmosphere.
- Biosphere or the living world consists of plant and animal kingdom. Land, water and air interact and mix with each other to support life and it is a narrow zone of the earth.
→ What is Ecosystem?
- The association between the living organisms as well as the association between the organisms and their surroundings form a system which is known as ecosystem.
- An ecosystem can be of large rainforest, grassland, desert, mountains, lake, river, ocean and even a small pond.
- As per human beings need, they modify the natural environment which is very dangerous.
→ Human Environment
- Early humans adjusted themselves to the natural surroundings.
- With time needs grew and humans learnt new ways to use and change environment. They learnt to grow crops, domesticate animals and lead a settled life.
- The wheel was invented, barter system came into existence, trade started and
commerce developed. Transportation became faster. Information revolution made communication easier and faster.
- A good balance is required between nature and human beings.