JAC Class 10 Maths Solutions Chapter 1 Real Numbers Ex 1.1

Jharkhand Board JAC Class 10 Maths Solutions Chapter 1 Real Numbers Ex 1.1 Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

JAC Board Class 10 Maths Solutions Chapter 1 Real Numbers Exercise 1.1

Question 1.
Use Euclid’s division algorithm to find the of (1) 135 and 225 (2) 196 and 38220 (3) 867 and 255.
Solution:
1. 135 and 225
Here, 225 > 135
∴ 225 = 135 × 1 +90
Since remainder ≠ 0, we apply division lemma to 135 and 90.
∴ 135 = 90 × 1 + 45
Since remainder ≠ 0, we apply division lemma to 90 and 45.
∴ 90 = 45 × 2 + 0
Since remainder = 0, the divisor 45 is the HCF.
Hence, HCF (135, 225) = 45.

2. 196 and 38220
Here, 38220 > 196
∴ 38220 = 196 × 195 +0
Since remainder = 0, the divisor 196 is the HCF.
Hence, HCF (196, 38220) = 196.

3. 867 and 255
Here, 867 > 255
∴ 867 = 255 × 3 + 102
Since remainder ≠ 0, we apply division lemma to 255 and 102.
∴ 255 = 102 × 2 + 51
Since remainder ≠ 0. we apply division lemma to 102 and 51.
∴ 102 = 51 × 2 + 0
Since remainder = 0, the divisor 51 is the HCF.
Hence, HCF (867, 255) = 51

Question 2.
Show that any positive odd integer is of the form 6q + 1 or 6q + 3 or 6q + 5, where q is some integer.
Solution:
Let a be any positive integer and b = 6. Then. by Euclid’s division lemma, a = 6q + r, for some integer q ≥ 0 and r = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5. because 0 ≤ r < 6.
So, a = 6q or a = 6q + 1 or
a = 6q + 2 = 2(3q + 1) or a = 6q + 3 or
a = 6q + 4 = 2(3q + 2) or a = 6q + 5.
Since a is an odd integer, a cannot be 6q or 6q + 2 or 6q + 4 as they are all divisible by 2.
Therefore, any positive odd integer is of the form 6q + 1 or 6q + 3 or 6q + 5.

Question 3.
An army contingent of 616 members is to march behind an army band of 32 members in a parade. The two groups are to march in the same number of columns. What is the maximum number of columns in which they can march?
Solution:
To arrive at the answer, we have to find the HCF of 616 and 32.
Here, 616 > 32
∴ 616 = 32 × 19 + 8
∴ 32 = 8 × 4 + 0
Thus, HCF (616, 32)=8
Hence, the maximum number of columns in which they can march is 8 columns.

Question 4.
Use Euclid’s division lemma to show that the square of any positive integer is either of the form 3m or 3m + 1 for some integer m. [Hint: Let a be any positive integer then it is of the form 3q, 3q + 1 or 3q + 2. Now square each of these and show that they can be rewritten in the form 3m or 3m + 1.]
Solution:
Let a be any positive integer and b = 3. Then, by Euclid’s division lemma, a = 3q or a = 3q + 1 or a = 3q + 2; where q is a non- negative integer.
1. If a = 3q, then a2 = (39)2 = 9q2 = 3(3q2) = 3m, where m = 3q2 is some integer.
2. If a = 3q + 1, then a2 = (3q + 1)2 = 9q2 + 6q + 1 = 3(3q2 + 2q) + 1 = 3m+ 1. where m = 3q2 + 2q is some integer.
3. If a = 3q + 2, then a2 = (3q + 2)2 = 9q2 + 12q + 4 = 9q2 + 12q + 3 + 1 = 3 (3q2 + 4q + 1) + 1 = 3m + 1, where m = 3q2 + 4q + 1 is some integer.
Thus, in either case, the square of any positive integer is of the form 3m or 3m + 1.

Question 5.
Use Euclid’s division lemma to show that the cube of any positive integer is of the form 9m, 9m + 1 or 9m +8.
Solution:
Let a be any positive integer and b = 3. Then, by Euclid’s division lemma, a = 3q or a = 3q + 1 or a = 3q + 2; where q is negative integer.
1. If a = 3q, then
a3 = (39)3 = 27q3 = 9(3q3) = 9m,
where m = 3q3 is some integer.

2. If a = 3q + 1, then
a3 = (3q + 1)3
= 27q3 + 27q2 + 9q + 1
= 9(3q3 + 3q2 + q) + 1
= 9m + 1.
where m = 3q3 + 3q2 + q is some integer.

3. If a = 3q + 2, then
a3 = (3q + 2)3
= 27q + 54q2 + 36q + 8
= 9(3q3 + 6q2 + 4q) + 8
= 9m + 8,
where m = 3q3 + 6q2 + 4q is some integer.
Thus, in either case, the cube of any positive integer is of the form 9m or 9m + 1 or 9m + 8.