JAC Class 9 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 1 What is Democracy? Why Democracy?

JAC Board Class 9th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 1 What is Democracy? Why Democracy?

JAC Class 9th Civics What is Democracy? Why Democracy? InText Questions and Answers 

Activity (Page No. 2)

Question 1.
Let us take Lyngdoh Madam seriously and try to write down the exact definition of some of the simple words that we use all the time: pen, rain and love. For example, is there a way of defining that distinguishes it clearly from a pencil, a brush, a chalk or crayon.
1. What have you learnt from this attempt?
2. What does it seach us about understanding the meaning of democracy?
Pen: A source through which we can write. It needs ink, nib or refill to write that distinguishes it from pencil, brush or chalk.

Rain: Rain are the drops which fall on the earth after cooling the water vapours.

Love: It is an attraction between two persons for each other.

  1. Everything have a speciality on the basis of while it can be defined.
  2. It taught us that democracy is of different kinds but its special feature is the election held by the common people.

Questions of Unni and Munni (Page No. 2)

Question 1.
I have heard a different version. Democracy is off the people, far (from) the people and (where they) buy the people. Why don’t we accept that ?
In some cases, the democracy if off the people, far (from) the people and (where they) buy the people, i.e., where the democracy does not belong to the people, it is not for them but far away from them, where the democracy is not by the people but the candidates win the votes with money which means that true democracy does not exist. However, these cases are exceptions, which will respectively fade away with the passage of time.

Read the Cartoon (Page No. 3)

Question 1.
This cartoon was drawn when elections were held in Iraq with the presence of US and other foreign powers. What do you think this cartoon is saying? Why is ‘democracy1 written the way it is?

  1. This cartoon is saying that the US troops are trying to establish democracy in Iraq.
  2. Democracy is being transplanted in Iraq by the US army, which is using force and the power of gun. The transplantation of democracy is not so much about ensuring the welfare of the people; it is more about promoting the interests of multinational corporations. Letter ‘M’ symbolises Me Donald’s, a leading food chain of USA.

Check your Progress (Page No. 3)

Question 1.
Ribiang went back home and collected some more famous quotations on democracy. This time she did not mention the names of the people who said or wrote these. She wants you to read these and comment on how good or useful these thoughts are:
(a) Democracy gives every man the right to be his own oppressor.
(b) Democracy consists of choosing your dictators after they have told you what you think it is you want to hear.
(c) Man’s capacity for justice makes democracy possible, but man’s inclination to injustice makes democracy necessary.
(d) Democracy is a device that insures we shall be governed no better than we deserve.
(e) All the ills of democracy can be cured by more democracy.
(a) This view is also true to the extent that the representative we choose exploits us, but there is no fault of democracy. It is the fault of the person who does not appreciate those feelings of the people, because of which people have chosen him. This is actually an abuse of democratic method.

(b) If we look in the present context, this idea is practically applicable to our system. The people whom we elect as our representatives, forget our problems and think of their self-interest and benefit but which is contradictory to democratic principles. Such ideas have no utility in democracy or society. We should choose our representatives thoughtfully.

(c) Democracy demands that the ruling class must have the ability to provide justice. If the people’s representatives are not able to deliver justice and attend the problems of the people, then democracy has no meaning. Prevention of injustice needs democracy. Social, economic and political injustice can be effectively removed under the democratic framework. Hence the usefulness of this idea is immense.

(d) The idea is somewhat correct that the government is also like the people. Our views are also as we are, but democracy is a system in which if there is an alternative, we cam give better people a chance to represent themselves. The utility of this idea is very much in the present context.

(e) The more democratic we are, the greater is the participation and transparency of governance. With the increasing consent of the people, the chances of conflicts are reduced and peace is established in the country. This leads the country towards prosperity. Therefore, this idea also has great utility.

Read the Cartoon (Page No. 4)

JAC Class 9 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 1 What is Democracy? Why Democracy?

Question 1.
Syria is a small West-Asian country. The ruling Ba’ath party and some of its small allies are the only parties allowed in that country.
1. Do you think this cartoon could apply to China or Mexico?
2. What does the crown of leaves on democracy signify?

  1. Yes, this cartoon could apply to China or Mexico because they also have a one- party system which has the sole right to fight an election.
  2. The crown on democracy shows only one branch of leaves. It signifies the existence of one party only of, which there are so many members like leaves.

Read the Cartoon (Page No. 5)

Question 1.
This cartoon was drawn in the context of Latin America. Do you think it applies to the Pakistani situation as well? Think of other countries where this could apply ? Does this happen sometimes in our country as well?

  1. Yes, it applies to the Pakistani situation as well.
  2. The cartoon applies on Iraq and China also.
  3. The enemies of democracy capture the voting centre. Sometimes, it happens in our country also.

Questions of Unni & Munni (Page No. 5)

Question 1.
All this is so remote for me:
1. Is democracy all about rulers and government?
2. Can we talk about a democratic classroom? Or a democratic family?

  1. No, Democracy is not all about rulers and governments. Democracy means a decision taken by a majority which is beneficial to all.
  2. Yes, we can talk about democratic system in our classroom. When we choose a monitor in our class, it is an example of democratic method. Yes we can talk about democracy in our family. It is an example of a democratic family when we take a decision by deliberating among the family members.

Read the Cartoon (Page No. 6)

Question 1.
This cartoon was titled ‘Building Democracy’ and was first published in a Latin America publication. What do money bags signify here? Could this cartoon be applied to India?

  1. Money bags signify the expensive set-up of democracy. Government spent unlimited money to conduct free and fair election.
  2. Yes, this cartoon could be applied to India also.

Read the Cartoon (page 7)

Question 1.
This cartoon is about the Iraqi election held after Saddam Hussain’s regime was overthrown. He is shown behind the bars. What is the cartoonist saying here? Compare the message of this cartoon with the first cartoon in this chapter.
The cartoonist is trying to say the following things

  1. Equality of the Right to Vote and equal value of each man’s vote.
  2. Dictatorship, mostly prefers such a situation, where ruler or dictator is the only person to decide any matter by his only vote.
  3. The first cartoon in this chapter shows that the US army personnel are elevating the process to form a democracy in Iraq, while in this cartoon democracy is already established.

JAC Class 9 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 1 What is Democracy? Why Democracy?

Question 2.
Why talk about Zimbabwe? I read similar reports from many parts of our own country. Why don’t we discuss that?
The example of Zimbabwe shows that popular approval of the rulers is necessary in a democracy, but it is not sufficient. A democratic government cannot do whatever it likes, simply because it has won the election. This is the reason for which Zimbabwe is discussed here. Our country is democratic and elections are free and fair. However, sometimes we hear reports about use of unfair means, violence and power play in elections.

Read the Cartoon (page 8)

Question 1.
Chinese government blocked free flow of information on the internet by placing restrictions on popular websites like ‘Google’ and ‘Yahoo’. The image of tanks and an unarmed student reminds the reader of another major event in recent Chinese history. Find out about that event.
The cartoon reminds us of the massacre in Tiananmen Square in 1989. In April 1989, triggered by the death of Hu Yaobang, mass gathering and protest of liberal reformers took place in and around Tiananmen Square in Beijing. It was largely a student-run demonstration, which called for economic reforms, freedom of the press and political liberalization. The Chinese government brutally suppressed the movement for which it was internationally condemned.

Check your Progress (Page No. 9)

Question 1.
Read these five examples of working or denial of democracy. Match each of these with

Example Feature
1. King of Bhutan has declared that in future he will be guided by the advice given to him by the elected representatives. (a) Rule of law
2. Many Tamil workers who migrated from India were not given a right to vote in Sri Lanka. (b) Respect for Rights
3. The King of Nepal imposed a ban on political gatherings, demonstrations and rallies. (c) One person, one vote, one value
4. The Indian Supreme Court held that the dissolution of Bihar assembly was unconsti-tutional. (d) Free and Fair electoral competition
5. Political parties in Bangladesh have agreed that a neutral government should rule the country at the time of elections. (e) Major decisions by elected leaders

1. (e) Major decisions by elected leaders (Working of democracy)
2. (c) One person, one vote, one value (Denial of democracy)
3. (b) Respect for Rights (Denial for democracy)
4. (a) Rule of law (Working for democracy)
5. (d) Free and fair electoral competition (Working of Democracy)

JAC Class 9 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 1 What is Democracy? Why Democracy?

Question 2.
want to be in Lyngdoh Madam’s class? That sound like a democratic classroom. Doesn’t it?
Yes, Lyngdoh Madam’s classroom seems to be a democratic class in the true sense. Hence everyone can speak one’s own mind. The students are giving their own arguments passionately. They felt very bad if some one tried to stop them or if someone punished them for saying what they felt.

Read the Cartoon (Page No. 10)

Question 1.
This cartoon is from Brazil, a country that has a long experience of dictatorship. It is entitled “The Hidden side of Dictatorship.”
1. Which hidden sides does this cartoon depict ?
2. Is it necessary for every dictatorship to have a hidden side ?
3. Find this out about the dictators discussed in the first chapter and if possible, about Abacha in Nigeria and Marcos in the Phillippines.

  1. The hidden side that cartoon depicts is that dictatorship is surrounded by those person who tortured the people.
  2. No, it is not necessray for every dictatorship to have a hidden side.
  3. A democratic government is overthrown by military general Augusto Pinochet on 11th September, 1973. The President Salvador Allende allongwith defence minister was arrested and later murdered.

Questions of Unni & Munni (Page No. 11)

Question 1.
What would have happened if India was not a democracy? Could we have stayed together as a single nation?
If India was not a democracy that dictatorship was established as a government. In this case, country could be divided in different states and nations.

Read the Cartoon (Page No. 12)

Question 1.
This cartoon was published in Canada just before its parliamentary election of 2004. Everyone, including the cartoonist, expected the liberal party to win once again. When the results came, the liberal party lost the elections. Is this cartoon an argument against democracy or for democracy?
This cartoon is an argument for democracy, because only in democracy, voters can support or go against the ruling party.

Check your Progress (Page No. 12)

Question 1.
Rajesh and Muzaffar read an article. It showed that no democracy has ever gone to war with another democracy. Wars take place only when one of the two governments is non- democratic. The article said that this was a great merit of democracy. After reading the essay, Rajesh and Muzaffar had different reactions. Rajesh said that this was not a good argument for democracy. It was just a matter of chance. It is possible that in future democracies may have wars. Muzaffar said that it could not be a matter of chance. Democracies take decisions in such a way that it reduces the chances of war. Which of the two positions do you agree with and why?
I agree with Muzaffar’s argument. In democracy, the decision is taken after discussion and keeping in view the welfare of the people. So, the chances of war are minimised due in democracy, but we cannot say that it is not possible. Some wars were fought between democracies like India and Pakistan, e.g., ‘Kargil War’ when both countries were democratic countries.

Read the Cartoon (Page No. 13)

Question 1.
This famous cartoon by R.K. Laxman comments on the celebrations of the fifty years of independence. How many images on the wall do you recognize? Do many common people feel the way the common man in this cartoon does?
Images on the wall are of the Prime Ministers of India in the past, beginning with (from left to right) Jawaharlal Nehru, Lai Bahadur Shastri, Gulzari Lai Nanda, Moraxji Desai, Chaudhary Charan Singh, Indira Gandhi, Rajeev Gandhi, V.P. Singh, Chandrashekhar, P.V. Narsimha Rao, Deva Gowda and Atal Bihari Vajpayee.

Yes, many common people feel the way the common man in this cartoon does. Even after so many glorious years of independence, the condition of the common man has changed very little. The promises of the politicians have proved to be meaningless to the common man, so he fell asleep while hearing these again. It is the true picture of our democracy.

Questions of Unni & Munni (Page No 14)

Question 1.
In my village, the Gram Sabha never meets. It that democratic?
The Gram Sabha should meet regularly to conduct out its functions for the welfare of the village people, but if the Gram Sabha does not meet, that is not democratic.

JAC Class 9th Civics What is Democracy? Why Democracy? Textbook Questions and Answers 

Question 1.
Here is some information about four countries. Based on this information, how would you classify each of these countries? Write ‘democratic’, ‘undemocratic’ or ‘not sure’ against each of these.
(a) Country A: People who do not accept the country’s official religion do not have a right to vote.
(b) Country B: The same party has been winning elections for the last twenty years.
(c) Country C: Ruling party has lost in the last three elections.
(d) Country D: There is no independent election commission.
(a) Undemocratic

(b) Not sure

(c) Democratic

(d) Undemocratic.

JAC Class 9 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 1 What is Democracy? Why Democracy?

Question 2.
Here is some information about four countries. Based on this information, how would you classify each of these countries? Write ‘democratic’, ‘undemocratic’ or ‘not sure’ against each of these.
(a) Country P: The parliament cannot pass a law about the army without the consent of the Chief of Army.
(b) Country Q: The parliament cannot pass a to law reducing the powers of the judiciary.
(c) Country R: The country’s leaders cannot sign any treaty with another country without taking permission from its neighbouring country.
(d) Country S: All the major economic decisions about the country are taken by officials i of the Central Bank which the ministers cannot change.
(a) Undemocratic,

(b) Undemocratic,

(c) Not sure,

(d) Undemocratic.

Question 3.
Which of these is not a good argument in favour of democracy? Why?
(a) People feel free and equal in a democracy.
(b) Democracies resolve confict in a better way than others.
(c) Democratic government is more accountable to the people.
(d) Democracies are more prosperous than others.
(d) Democracies are more prosperous than others. Because prosperity depends upon the economic set up.

Question 4.
Each of these statements contains a democratic and an undemocratic element. Write out the two separately for each statement.
1. A minister said that some laws have to be passed by the Parliament in order to conform to the regulations decided by the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
2. The Election Commission ordered re-polling in a constitutuency where large-scale rigging was reported.
3. Women’s representation in the Parliament has barely reached 10 per cent. This led women’s organisations to demand one-third seats for women.
(a) (i) A minister said that some laws have to be passed by the Parliament: Democratic.
(ii) These should conform to the regulations decided by the World Trade Organisation: Undemocratic.

(b) (i) The Election Commission ordered re-polling in a constituency: Democratic.
(ii) Where large-scale rigging was reported: Undemocratic.

(c) (i) Women’s representation in the Parliament has barely reached 10 per cent: Undemocratic.
(ii) This led women’s organisations to demand one-third seats for women: Democratic.

JAC Class 9 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 1 What is Democracy? Why Democracy?

Question 5.
Which of these is not a valid reason for arguing that there is a lesser possibility of famine in a democratic country?
(a) Opposition parties can draw attention to hunger and starvation.
(b) Free press can report suffering from famine in different parts of the country.
(c) Government fears its defeat in the next elections.
(d) People are free to believe in and practice any religion.
(d) People are free to believe in and practice any religion.

Question 6.
There are 40 villages in a district where a government has made no provision for drinking water. These villagers met and considered many methods of forcing the government to respond to their need. Which of these is not a democratic method?
(a) Filing a case in the courts claiming that water is part of right to life.
(b) Boycotting the next elections to give a message to all parties.
(c) Organising public meetings against government policies.
(d) Paying money to government officials to get water.
(d) Paying money to government officials to get water.

Question 7.
Write a response to the following arguments against democracy:
(a) Army is the most disciplined and corruption-free organisation in the country. Therefore, army should rule the country.
(b) Rule of the majority means the rule of ignorant people. What we need is the rule of the wise, even if they are in small numbers.
(c) If we want religious leaders to guide us in spiritual matters, why not invite them to guide us in politics as well. The country should be ruled by religious leaders.
(a) A military dictator may not be responsive to people’s aspirations. He may like to force his decisions. This may result in discontentment and tensions.

(b) Rule of the majority implied wider particiption by people in decision-making. The majority cannot afford to take wrong decisions. The decision-makers can always be voted out.

(c) Religion is a matter of individual faith. Religious leaders know more about religions matter. They may not always be in a position to make desired response to people’s aspirations.

JAC Class 9 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 1 What is Democracy? Why Democracy?

Question 8.
Are the following statements in keeping with democracy as a value? Why?
(a) Father to Daughter: I don’t want to hear your opinion about your marriage. In our family, children marry where the parents tell them to.
(b) Teacher to Student: Don’t disturb my concentration by asking me questions in the classroom.
(c) Employee to the Officer: Our working hours must be reduced according to the law.
Democracy encourages dissent, debate, discussion and consensus. The points (a) and (b) are against the spirit of democracy. Only (c) is a democratic way. In this decision-making process, management, workers and many other experts in the area, including the legal experts, will take part.

Question 9.
Consider the following facts about a country and decide if you would call it a democracy. Give reasons to support your decision.
(a) All the citizens of the country have right to vote. Elections are held regularly.

(b) The country took loan from international agencies. One of the conditions for giving loan was that the government would reduce its expenses on education and health.

(c) People speak more than seven languages but education is available on in one language, the language spoken by 52 percent people of that country.

(d) Several organisations have given a call for peaceful demonstrations and nationwide strikes in the country to oppose these policies. Government has arrested these leaders.

(e) The government owns the radio and television in the country. All the newspapers have to get permission from the government to publish any news about government’s policies and protests.
(c), (d) and (e) Show the undemocratic behaviour of the government, (b) indicates a wrong decision taken under compulsion due to the government’s economic weakness but (a) shows the government being fundamentally democratic.

A country where all the citizens have the right to vote and elections are held regularly can certainly be called democratic. These characteristics are a symbol of belief in democratic values. Therefore, it can be said that this country is a democratic country expect for a few things.

JAC Class 9 Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 1 What is Democracy? Why Democracy?

Question 10.
In 2004 a report pubished in the USA pointed to the increasing inequalities in that country. Inequalities in income reflected in the participation of people in democracy. It also shaped their abilities to influence the decisions taken by the government. The report highlighted that:
(a) If an average black family earns $100, then the income of average white family is $162. A white family has twelve times more wealth than the average black family.

(b) In a president’s election nearly 9 out of 10 individuals in families with income over $75,000 have voted. These people are the top 20% of the population in terms of their income. On the other hand only 5 people out of 10 from families with income less the $15,000 have voted. They are the bottom 20% of the population in terms of their income.

(c) About 95% contribution to the political parties comes from the rich. This gives them opportunity to express their opinions and concerns, which is not available to most citizens.

(d) As poor sections participate less in politics, the govenment does not listen to their concerns-coming out of poverty, getting job, eduation, healthcare and housing for them. Politicians hear most regularly about the concerns of business persons and the rich. Write an essay on ‘Democracy and Poverty’ using the information given in this report but using examples from India.
Democracy and Poverty:
Democratic societies are free societies. Economic activity is market-oriented; the price of each factor-service is determined by the value of its service to the society. Hence, there are inequalities in income distribution. Income disparties ai therefore, inherent in a democracy.

Poor people co-exist with rich people. But democracy ensu, es equal rights to all individuals, irrespective of their economic status. Everybody enjoys equal voting rights. Therefore, in theory, there is nothing wrong with democracy on this account.

But, in practice, the rich people of the society have more resources at their command. The rich people control the media and use it for their own benefit. Influence of the rich over politics is clearly visible in countries like USA, England and India. In India, only the rich can contest elections.

The votes of poor people are bought and sold. The poor cannot fight elections against the rich to get elected. Like USA, in India different political parties pay more attention to the concerns of the rich who contribute most of their funds. What is required, therefore, is that a mechanism should be evolved to organise the poor and educate them about their rights. They can be trained to assert their democratic rights.

JAC Class 9 Social Science Solutions

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