JAC Board Class 9th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Constitutional Design
JAC Class 9th Civics Constitutional Design InText Questions and Answers
Questions of Unni & Munni (Page No. 20)
What would have happended in South Africa if the black majority had decided to take revenge on the whites for all their oppression and exploitation?
If the black majority had decided to take revenge on the whites for all their oppression and exploitation then bloodshed would be seen everywhere. Fortunately, South Africa did not adopt this thinking. Instead, they adopted non-violence for their freedom struggle.
Activity (Page No. 20)
Make a poster on the life and struggle of Nelson Mandela.
Do it yourself.
If available, read some portions of his autobiography, ‘The Long Walk to Freedom in the classroom.
Do it yourself.
Check Your Progress (Page No. 21)
Does the story of the SouthAfrican struggle for freedom remind you of the Indian National Movement? Make a list of similarities and dissimilarities between the two on the following points:
1. Nature of Colonialism
2. Relationship between different communities
3. Leadership: Gandhi / Mandela
4. Party that led the struggle. African National Congress/Indian National Congress
5. Method of Struggle
Yes, the story of SouthAfrican struggle for freedom remind me of the Indian National Movement.
1. Nature of Colonialism Similarities:
During the 17th and 18th centuries, the European trading companies occupied South Africa and India with arms and force.
Dismilarities: The white setters in South Africa made it their permanent home gained control of the state. In contrast, the British invaders never made India their home.
2. Relationship between Different Communities Similarities:
The white rulers treated all non-whites as inferiors and uncivilised people in both the countries.
Dissimilarities: The relationship between different communities in India was cordial. They all believed themselves to be Indians. But in South Africa, different communities like the whites, blacks, and Indians did not have cordial relations.
3. Leadership: Gandhi/Mandela Similarities:
Both Mahatma Gandhi and Nelson Mandela believed in non-violence and led their freedom struggle through it.
Dissimilarities: Nelson Mandela was sentenced to imprisonment for life for treason. Mahatma Gandhi went to jail several times but he was never tried for treason in his life time.
4. Party that led the freedom struggle Similarities:
Both the African National Congress (ANC) and the Indian National Congress (INC) were the umbrella organisations of all individuals, groups and political formations that led the freedom struggle against injustice.
Dissimilarities: ANC adopted all types of methods, including armed intervention in their freedom struggle but INC stood for and supported only non-violence all through the freedom movement.
5. Method of Struggle Similarities:
Both the parties followed non-violence to achieve freedom.
Dissimilarities: In South Africa there was only one group, i.e. of the moderates, who adopted peaceful means against the government, whereas in India, besides the moderates, there were also the extremists, who used violent methods to attain their goal of freedom.
Activity (Page No. 22)
Approach a club or co-operative Society or Union or Political Party in your locality. Get a copy of their rule book (It is often called Rule of Association) and read it. Are these rules in accordance with principles of democracy ? Do they give membership to any person without discrimination?
Do it yourself.
Questions of Unni & Munni (Page No. 22)
This is not fair! What was the point in having a Constituent Assembly in India if all the basics were already decided ?
India was establishing democracy just after the independence. Therefore, a written constitution was needed to run the country. As a result, a Constituent Assembly was formed to set up for writing the constitution.
Activity (Page No. 23)
Speak to your grandparents or some other elders in your locality. Ask them if the they have any memory of partition or independence or the making of the constitution. What were their fears and hopes about the country at that time ? Discuss these in the classroom.
Do it yourself.
Activity (Page No. 24)
Find out more about any member of the Constituent Assembly from your state or region who is not mentioned here. Collect a photograph or make a sketch of that leader. Write a short note on him or her, following the same style as used here : Name (year of birth, year of death), Place of birth (by current political boundries), brief description of political activities; role played after the Constituent Assembly.
Do it yourself.
Check Your Progress (Page No. 25)
Read the information about all the makers of the Indian Constitution given in the side columns here. You don’t need to memorise this information. Just give examples from these to support the following statements:
1. The Assembly had many members who were not with the Congress.
Sarat Chandra Bose (1889-1950), Somnath Lahiri (1901-1984), Jaipal Singh (1903-1970), Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891-1956), Shyama Prasad Mukherjee (1901-1953).
2. The Assembly represented members from different social groups.
- Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel: Leader of peasent satyagraha.
- Abul Kalam Azad: Scholar of Arabic.
- Jaipal Singh: Founder President of Adivasi Maha Sabha.
- Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar: Social revolutionary thinker and agitator against caste divisions.
- Shyama Prasad Mukheijee: Active in Hindu Mahasabha.
3. Members of the Assembly believed in different ideologies.
Rajendra Prasad (1884-1963), H. C. Mukherjee (1887-1956), G. Durgabai Desmukh (1909-1981), Kanhaiyalal Maniklal Munshi (1887-1971), Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964), Sarojini Naidu (1879-1949).
Check Your Progress (Page No. 27)
Read the three quotations above carefully:
1. Can you identify one idea that is common to all these three?
The one idea that is common to all these three quotations, is the ending of inequality in Indian society.
2. What are the differences in their ways of expressing that common idea?
In the first quotation, Gandhiji strived for an India in which there should be no higher or lower class of people and all communities should live in perfect harmony. In the second quotation, B.R. Ambedkar felt that, “In politics, we will have equality, but in social and economic life, we will have inequality.” In the third quotation, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru said, “It means the ending of poverty, ignorance, disease and inequality of opportunity.”
Check Your Progress (Page No. 30)
Compare the Preambles to the constitutions of the United States of America, India and South Africa.
1. Make a list of ideas that are common to all these three.
The ideas that are common to all these three are:
(a) Each of these preambles starts with, “We the people”. It means the source of all au¬thority to govern these countries are the people of these countries.
(b) In all these three, the idea of justice is common.
2. Note down at least one of the major difference among these.
In the preamble to the constitution of the United States, there is a statement for the formation of a more perfect union, which is not there in the preambles to the Indian and South African Constitutions.
3. Which of the three make a reference to the past?
The preamble to the constitution of South Africa makes a reference to the past.
4. Which of these does not invoke God?
The preambles of the constitutions of the United States of America and India do not invoke God.
JAC Class 9th Civics Constitutional Design Textbook Questions and Answers
Here are some false statements. Identify the mistake in each case and rewrite these correctly based on what you have read in this chapter.
(a) Leaders of the freedom movement had an open mind about whether the country should be democratic or not after independence.
(b) Members of the Constituent Assembly of India held the same views on all provisions of the constitution.
(c) A country that has a constitution must be a democracy.
(d) Constitution cannot be amended because it is the supreme law of a country.
(a) Leaders of the freedom movement had a consensus that the country should be democratic after independence.
(b) The members of the Constituent Assembly of India held the same views on the principles of the constitution.
(c) A country that is a democracy must have a constitution.
(d) The constitution needs to be amended because it has to be in accordance with people’s aspirations and changes in society.
Which of these was the most salient underlying conflict in the making of a democratic constitution in South Africa?
(a) Between South Africa and its neighbours
(b) Between men and women
(c) Between the white majority and the black minority
(d) Between the coloured minority and the black majority
(d) Between the coloured minority and the black majority
Which of these is a provision that a democratic constitution does not have?
(a) Powers of the head of the state
(b) Name of the head of the state
(c) Powers of the legislature
(d) Name of the country
(b) Name of the head of the state
Match the following leaders with their roles in the making of the Constitution:
|(a) Motilal Nehru||(i) President of the Constituent Assembly|
|(b) B. R. Ambedkar||(ii) Member of the Constituent Assembly|
|(c) Rajendra Prasad||(iii) Chairman of the Drafting Committee|
|(d) Sarojini Naidu||(iv) Prepared a Constitution for India in 1928|
|(a) Motilal Nehru||(iv) Prepared a Constitution for India in 1928|
|(b) B. R. Ambedkar||(iii) Chairman of the Drafting Committee|
|(c) Rajendra Prasad||(i) President of the Constituent Assembly|
|(d) Sarojini Naidu||(ii) Member of the Constituent Assembly|
Read again the extracts from Nehru’s speech “Tryst with Destiny” and answer the following:
(a) Why did Nehru use the expression “not wholly or in full measure” in the first sentence?
(b) What pledge did he want the makers of the Indian Constitution to take?
(c) “The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye.” Who was he referring to?
(a) He used this expression because all the pledges could not be fulfilled all at once but they will be fulfilled gradually.
(b) The pledge of dedication to the service of India and its people and to the still larger cause of humanity.
(c) He was referring to Mahatma Gandhi.
Here are some of the guiding values of the constitution and their meaning. Rewrite them by matching them correctly.
|(a) Sovereign||(i) Government will not favour any religion|
|(b) Republic||(ii) People have the supreme right to make decisions|
|(c) Fraternity||(iii) Head of the state is an elected person|
|(d) Secular||(iv) People should live like brothers and sisters|
|(a) Sovereign||(ii) People have the supreme right to make decisions|
|(b) Republic||(iii) Head of the state is an elected person|
|(c) Fraternity||(iv) People should live like brothers and sisters|
|(d) Secular||(i) Government will not favour any religion|
How did your school celebrate the Constitution Day on November 26th? Prepare a brief report.
The existence and successful survival of democracy in such diverse conditions is the most celebrated fact about our country and constitution is its backbone. To reinforce the significance and importance of constitution, the government of India declared 26th of November as Constitution Day on 19 November 2015 by a gazettee notification in remembrance of the father of Indian Constitution, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
The occasion was also celebrated in my school. It was marked by the conduct of a ‘Special Assembly’ by the students of the school. The celebration started with very apt words as the thought for the day “The flavour of tricolour should not be depicted only through our words, but also through our actions.” This worthy thought was followed by an oath on preamble taken by the students. The assembly ground echoed with the words, “We the people of India”.
A specially-designed quiz was conducted to enhance the awareness of the students about their constitution. The answers were fast and prompt. Then came the culmination of the ceremony a speech on our constitution, which took us on a journey of our constitution from its history to its present-day form and its important role to bring together an idea called India. This is how Constitution Day was celebrated in our school.
Here are different opinions about what made India a democracy. How much importance would you give to each of these factors?
(a) The concept democracy in India gained momentum during the colonial rule under the British rulers. We received training to work with representative legislative institutions under the British rule.
(b) Our freedom struggle challenged the colonial exploitation and denial of different freedoms to Indians. Free India could not be anything but democratic.
(c) We were lucky to have leaders who had democratic convictions. The denial of democracy in several other newly independent countries shows the important role of these leaders.
(a) Democracy in India is not a gift of the British rulers. But it is true that during British rule, the experience and training gained by the Indians in the working of the legislative institutions proved to be very useful for the country, in setting up its own democratic institutions and working in them.
(b) Since, Indians had suffered a lot under the colonial rule of the Britishers, India could not be anything but democratic.
(c) It is true that Indians were lucky to have leaders who had strong democratic convictions.
Read the following extract from a conduct book for ‘married woman’, published in 1912. ‘God has made the female species delicate and fragile both physically and emotionally, pitiably incapable of self-defence. They are destined thus by God to remain in male protection of father, husband and son all their lives. Women should, therefore, not despair, but feel obliged that they can dedicate themselves to the service of men.’ Do you think the values expressed in this para reflected the values underlying our constitution? Or does this go against the constitutional values?
This para does not reflect the values underlying our constitution because our constitution gives equal rights to both men and women.
Read the following statements about a constitution. Give reasons why each of these is true or not true.
(a) The authority of the rules of the constitution is the same as that of any other law.
(b) Constitution lays down how different organs of the government will be formed.
(c) Rights of citizens and limits on the power of the government are laid down in the constitutions.
(d) A constitution is about institutions, not about values.
(a) Not True: The authority of the rules of the constitution is much more than that of any other law.
(b) True: The constitution lays down how different organs of the government should be formed and what are the powers of each organ.
(c) True: Because only then the government’s authority can be checked.
(d) Not True: Because the constitution gives equal importance to values, for example, the human values.