JAC Board Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 1 Resource and Development
→ Everything, that is available in our environment and can be used to satisfy our needs, is termed as resources, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable.
→ Resources are a function of human activities. Human beings themselves are essential components of resources.
→ Types of Resources: Resources can be classified into different categories:
(a) On the basis of origin: Biotic and abiotic.
(b) On the basis of exhaustibility: Renewable and non-renewable.
(c) On the basis of ownership: Individual, community, national and international.
(d) On the basis of status of development: Potential, developed stock and reserves.
→ Resource Planning: This is a technique or skill of proper utilisation of resources.
→ Resource Planning in India: Resource planning ,is a complex process which involves:
(a) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
(b) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
(c) Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.
→ Conservation of Resources: Irrational consumption and over-utilisation of resources may lead to socio-economic and environmental problems. To overcome these problems, resource conservation at various levels is important.
→ Land Resources:
- India has land under variety of relief features like mountains, plateaus, plains and islands. About 43 per cent of the land area is plain, which is either used for agriculture or industry. 30 per cent of the total surface area of the country are mountains and ensure perennial flow of some rivers, provide facilities for tourism and ecological aspects.
- The plateau region accounts for about 27 per cent of the area of the country. It possesses rich reserves of minerals, fossil fuels and forests.
- The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types and human factors such as population density, technological capability and culture and tradition, etc.
→ Land Degradation and Conservation Measures: Human activities such as deforestation, overgrazing, mining and quarrying have contributed significantly in land degradation. Measures like afforestation, proper management of grazing, planting of shelter belts of plants, control on overgrazing, etc., can help to reduce land degradation in dry areas.
→ Soil as a Resource: Soil is a living system. It takes millions of years to form soil upto a few cm in depth. The important factors in the formation of soil are relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time.
→ Types of Soil
(a) Alluvial soil: Alluvial soil as a whole is very fertile. Mostly this soil contains adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops. Due to its high fertility, regions pf alluvial soils are intensively cultivated and densely populated.
(b) Black soil: This soil is black in colour and is also known as regur soil. Black soil is ideal for growing cotton and is also known as black cotton soil. Black soil consists of higher proportion of clay and thus can retain moisture for a long time. The soil is sticky and when wet, it is difficult to work unless tilled immediately after the monsoon.
(c) Red soil: This soil develops a reddish colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in the areas of low rainfall.
(d) Laterite soil: Laterite soil develops in the areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall. This is the result of intense leaching due to heavy rain. This soil is very useful for growing tea and coffee.
(e) Arid soil: Arid soil ranges from red to brown in colour. It is generally sandy in texture and saline in nature. In some areas Hie salt content is very high and common salt is obtained by evaporating the water.
(f) Forest soil: This soil is found in the hilly and mountainous areas where sufficient rain forests are available.
→ Soil Erosion and Conservation: Some human activities such as deforestation, overgrazing, mining and quarrying have contributed significantly in land degradation.
→ Some methods of soil conservation are:
(b) Controlled grazing
(c) Contour Ploughing
(d) Terrace Farming
(e) Strip Cropping
(f) Shelter belts
(g) Crop Rotation
→ Biotic: These are obtained from biosphere and have life.
→ Abiotic: Those things which are composed of non-living things.
→ Renewable Resources: The resources which can be renewed or reproduced.
→ Non-Renewable Resources: These resources take millions of years in their formation.
→ Individual Resources: Resources which are owned privately by the individuals.
→ Community Owned Resources: Resources which are accessible to all the members of the community.
→ National Resources: Resources belonging to the nation.
→ International Resources: International institutions which regulate some resources.
→ Potential Resources: Resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilised.
→ Developed Resources: Resources which are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilisation.
→ Sustainable Development: Sustainable economic development means ‘development should take place without damaging the environment.
→ Soil Erosion: The removal of top fertile soil cover due to various reasons like wind, glacier and water.