JAC Board Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries
→ Manufacturing is production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products.
- It is a secondary activity.
- The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries.
→ Importance of Manufacturing
- Manufacturing is considered the backbone of development in general and economic development in particular.
- Manufacturing industries help in modernising agriculture and reduce the dependence of people on agricultural income by engaging them in secondary and tertiary activities.
- Industrial development gives a boost to the economy and reduces unemployment.
- There is trade with other countries and export brings in foreign exchange.
- Raw materials can be converted into a variety of finished products.
- Development and competitiveness of manufacturing industries assists agriculturists in increasing their income. This also makes production processes very efficient.
→ Contribution of Industry to National Economy
Over the last two decades, the contribution of rnaìufacturing in GDP has been low as compared to some East Asian economies.
- With appropriate policy interventions by the government and renewed efforts by the industry to improve productivity, economists predict that manufacturing can achieve the target over the next decade.
- The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set up with this objective.
→ Industrial Location
- Industrial locations are influenced by the availability of raw materials, labour, capital, power, market, least cost, government policies and specialised labour.
- Many industries come together to make the use of the advantages offered by the urban centres (financial advice, banking, insurance, transport, labour, consultants, etc.). These are known as agglomeration economies. Gradually, a large industrial agglomeration takes place.
- In pre-Independence India, industries were strategically located from where overseas trade was possible.
→ Classification of Industries
- On the basis of source of raw materials used, industries are classified as agro-based and mineral-based.
- On the basis of their main role, industries are classified as basic or key industries and consumer industries.
→ Contribution of Industry to National Economy
- Over the last two decades, the contribution of manufacturing in GDP has been low as compared to some East Asian economies.
- On the basis of capital investment, industries can be small-scale or large-scale.
- On the basis of ownership, industries can be in public sector, private sector, joint sector or cooperative sector.
- On the basis of bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods, it can be a heavy industry or a light industry.
→ Agro-based Industries
- Agro-based industries include cotton, jute, woollen textiles, sugar and edible oil, etc.
- These industries are based on agricultural raw materials.
- The textile industry contributes significantly to industrial production.
→ Cotton textiles: This industry has close links with agriculture as it provides a living to farmers, cotton boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing. It supports other industries, such as chemicals and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works. The handspun khadi provides large-scale employment to weavers in their homes as a cottage industry. India exports yam to Japan, and exports cotton goods to USA, UK, Russia, France, Sri Lanka and African countries.
→ Jute textiles: India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods. It stands at a second place as an exporter after Bangladesh. Most mills are located along Hugli basin, West Bengal.
→ Sugar industry: India stands second as a world producer of sugar but occupies the first place in production of gur and khandsari. In recent years, there has been a tendency for the’ sugar mills to shift and concentrate in west and south India, especially Maharashtra as sugarcane has higher sucrose content and longer crushing season.
→ Mineral-based Industries:
Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral based industries.
→ Iron and steel industry:
It is a basic industry as all other industries depend on it for their machinery. Steel is required to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, scientific equipment, etc. There are mini steel plants and integrated steel plants. Steel plants are concentrated in Chota Nagpur Plateau region. Liberalisation, Foreign Direct Investment and private entrepreneurs have given a boost to this industry.
→ Aluminium smelting:
It is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. These plants are located in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. A very heavy raw material, viz., bauxite is used in the smelters. It is used as a substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead in many industries.
→ Chemical industry:
This industry in India is fast growing and diversifying. Rapid growth has been recorded in both organic and inorganic sectors. It comprises both large and small scale manufacturing units. Inorganic chemical units are located all over the country. Organic chemical plants are located near oil refineries and petrochemical plants.
→ Fertiliser industry:
is centred around the production of nitrogenous fertilizers (Urea) and combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P) and potash (K). This industry is located in Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Assam, etc.
→ Cement industry:
It is required for building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and for other commercial establishments. It requires bulky raw materials, power supply and coal. They are located in Gujarat that has suitable access to the market in the Gulf countries.
→ Automobile industry:
It provides vehicles for quick transport of goods and passengers. With liberalisation new and contemporary models increased the demand for vehicles in the market. This industry is located in Delhi, Gurugram, Mumbai, Lucknow, Indore, Bengaluru, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Hyderabad and Jamshedpur.
→ Information Technology and Electronics Industry:
Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India. Other centres are at Noida, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad and Pune. A major impact has been on employment generation. The growth in hardware and software is the key to success of IT in India
→ Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation
- Industries are responsible for air, water, land and noise pollution. Increase in industrialisation has led to degradation of environment which has serious long-term effects on plant, animal and human life.
- Several toxic gases are released into the atmosphere through the factory chimneys. The wastes are discharged into water bodies, polluting the rivers and ponds and poisoning the underground water. Noise pollution has psychological effects too.
→ Control of Environmental Degradation
- Water should be reused and recycled for minimising the use of water for processing.
- Rainwater harvesting should be practised to use water efficiently.
- Hot water and effluents should be treated before being discharged into any water bodies.
- Smoke filters, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators should be used to capture the dust apd reduce it. Silencers should be used to reduce noise levels.
- NTPC has adopted a pro-active approach for preserving the natural environment and resources like water, oil, gas and fuels in the places.where it is setting up power plants.