JAC Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 6 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners
JAC Class 8th History Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners InText Questions and Answers
Why do you think the Act was called the Calico Act? What does the name tell us about the kind of textiles the Act wanted to ban?
The Act was called the Calico Act because in 1720, the British government enacted a legislation banning the use of printed cotton textiles called chintz in England Since, the manufacturers were unable to compete with the Indian market.
Read Sources 1 and 2. What reasons do the petition writers give for their condition of starvation?
‘We must starve for food” In 1823 the Company government in India received a petition from 12,000 weavers stating:
Our ancestors and we used to receive advances from the Company and maintain ourselves and our respective families by weaving Company s superior assortments. Owing to our misfortune, the aurangs have been abolished ever since because of which we and our families are distressed for want of the means of livelihoo(d) We are weavers and do not know any other business. We must starve for food, if the Board of Trade do not cast a look of kindness towards us and give orders for clothes. Proceedings of the Board of Trade, 3 February 1824.
“Please publish this in your paper” One widowed spinner wrote in 1828 to a Bengali newspaper, Samachar Darpan, detailing her plight:
To the Editor, Samachar, I am a spinner. After having suffered a great deal, I am writing this letter. Please publish this in your paper … When my age was … 22, I became a widow with three daughters. My husband left nothing at the time of his death … I sold my jewellery for his shraddha ceremony. When we were on the verge of starvation God showed me a way by which we could save ourselves. I began to spin on takli and charkha … The weavers used to visit our houses and buy the charkha yarn at three tolas per rupee. Whatever amount I wanted as advance from the weavers, 1 could get for the asking. This saved us from cares about food and cloth. In a few years ’time I got together … Rs. 28. With this I married one daughter. And in the same way all three daughters …
Now for 3 years, we two women, mother- in-law and me, are in want of foo(d) The weavers do not call at the house for buying yarn. Not only this, if the yarn is sent to market it is still not sold even at one-fourth the old prices. I do not know how it happened I asked ‘ many about it. They say that Btlati 2 yam is being imported on a large scale. The weavers buy that yarn and weave … People cannot use the cloth out of this yarn even for two months; it rots away. A representation from a suffering spinner
They are the weavers and they don’t know any other work. The yam sent to the market is not sold even at the nominal price.
Why would the iron and steel making industry be affected by the defeat of the nawabs and rajas?
The iron and steel making industry were affected by the defeat of the nawabs and rajas because the swords which they used were made of iron and steel. But, with the defeat of nawabs and rajas by the British, imports of iron and steel stopped from Britain.
JAC Class 8th History Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners Textbook Questions and Answers
( Let’s Recall)
What kinds of cloth had a large market in Europe?
Cotton and silk were the clothes that had a large market in Europe. Also different varieties of Indian textiles were also sold, they were Chintz, Jamdani, Bandana etc.
What is jamdani?
Jamdani is a fine muslin in which beautiful motifs are woven in the loom. A mixture of cotton and gold threads are used The most important jamdani weaving centres were Dacca in Bengal and Lucknow in United Provinces.
What is bandanna?
Bandanna is a bright colour scarf used for neck or head The term derived from the word ‘bandhna’ and it means bright colour cloth produced through the method of tying and dying.
Who are the Agaria?
Agaria are the group of men and women who forms a community of iron smelters.
Fill in the blanks:
(a) The word chintz comes from the word .
(b) Tipu’s sword was made of steel.
(c) India’s textile exports declined in the century.
How do the names of different textiles tell us about their histories?
The following names of different textiles tell us about their histories: Muslin – European traders first encountered fine cotton cloth from India carried by Arab merchants in Mosul(now Iraq). So, they named all finely woven textiles as muslin. . Calico – When the Portuguese first came to India in search of spices they landed in Calicut on the Kerala coast in south-west India. The cotton textiles which they took back to Europe along with the spices came to be known as calico (derived from Calicut) and subsequently calico became the general name for all cotton textiles. Chintz – It is derived from the Hindi word chhint which means a cloth with small and colourful flowery designs. Bandanna – The word bandanna refers to brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or hea(d) Though, the term derived from the word bandhna means tying and referred to a variety of brightly coloured cloth produced through a method of tying and dying.
Why did the wool and silk producers in England protest against the import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century?
The wool and silk producers in England protested against the import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century because textile industries had just begun to develop in England and unable to compete with Indian textiles, English producers wanted a secure market within the country by preventing the entry of Indian textiles.
How did the development of cotton industries in Britain affect textile producers in India?
The development of cotton industries in Britain affected textile producers in India in the following ways:
- Indian textiles had to compete with British textiles in the European and American markets.
- Due to very high duties imposed on Indian textiles which were imported from Britain, exporting textiles to England became increasingly difficult.
- By the beginning of the nineteenth century, English made cotton textiles successfully ousted Indian goods from their traditional markets in Africa, America and Europe.
- Bengal weavers were the worst hit. Most of weavers in India were now thrown out of employment.
- By the 1830s, British cotton cloth flooded Indian markets. This badly affected not only the specialist weavers but also spinners.
Why did the Indian iron smelting industry decline in the nineteenth century?
Indian iron smelting industry began to decline in the nineteenth century due to the following reasons:
- The new forest law of British government prevented people from entering the reserved forests. Thus, the iron smelters were not able to find wood for charcoal and iron ore for producing iron.
- Defying forest laws, they often entered the forests secretly and collected wood but they could not sustain their occupation on this basis for long. Many gave up their work and looked for other means of livelihood
- In some areas, the government did grant access to the forest but the iron smelters had to pay a very high tax to the forest department for every furnace they used This reduced their income.
- By the late nineteenth century, iron and steel was being imported from Britain. Ironsmiths in India began using the imported iron to manufacture utensils and implements. This inevitably lowered the demand for iron produced by local smelters.
What problems did the Indian textile industry face in the early years of its development?
The Indian textile industry faced many problems in the early years of its development:
(i) It found it difficult to compete with the cheap textiles imported from Britain.
(ii) In most countries, governments supported industrialisation by imposing heavy duties on imports. This helped in eliminating competition and protected infant industries. But the colonial government in India usually refused such protection to local industries.
What helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World War?
The following reasons helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World War:
- The World War I broke out in 1914 and demanded a huge amount of iron and steel for the production of ammunition which Britain had to fulfill.
- TISCO built shells and carriage wheels for the war.
- Indian market turned to TISCO for rail works.
- By 1919, British government started to buy 90% of the steel manufactured by TISCO.
Find out about the history of any craft around the area you live. You may wish to know about the community of craftsmen, the changes in the techniques they use and the markets they supply. How have these changed in the past 50 years?
Students need to do it on their own.
On a map of India, locate the centres of different crafts today. Find out when these centres came up.
Student need to do it on their own.
- Bengal was an important centre.
- Dacca(now in Bangladesh) was . famous for jamdani and mulmul weaving.
- Southern Indian region had important cotton weaving centres such as Madras, Pondicherry, etc
JAC Class 8th History Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners Important Questions and Answers
Multiple Choice Questions
The industries which were important for the industrial revolution in the modern British world are:
(a) textile, cotton, and steel
(b) textile, steel, and IT
(c) textile, iron, and steel
(d) IT, iron, and, steel
(c) textile, iron, and steel
Indian print cotton clothes are:
(a) chintz, khassa, and bandanna
(b) silk, khadi, and khassa
(c) chintz, dhasa, and darya
(d) bandanna, darya, and dhakka
(a) chintz, khassa, and bandanna
The inventor of steam engine was:
(a) John Kaye
(b) Albert Einstein
(c) Richard Arkwright
(d) None of the above
(c) Richard Arkwright
(b) Block printers
(b) Block printers
…….. towns emerged as important new centres of weaving in the late 19th century.
(a) Kolkata and Delhi
(b) Patna and Bombay
(c) Sholapur and Delhi
(d) Sholapur and Madura
(d) Sholapur and Madura
The charkha was put at the centre of the tricolour flag that the Indian National Congress adopted which came to represent India in
India’s first cotton mill was setup in the year……… in
(a) 1854, Bombay
(b) 1864, Bombay
(c) 1854, Kolkata
(d) 1873, Delhi
(a) 1854, Bombay
Question 8. gives the Wootz steel its cutting edge and high strength.
(a) a very low level of carbon
(b) a high level of carbon
(c) a high level of aluminium
(d) a low level of aluminium
(b) a high level of carbon
The first world war broke out in………
Tata Iron and Steel Company in Jamshedpur gets it water from the river…….
Very Short Answer Type Question
The people of the Agaria tribe helped Dorabji Tata and Charles Weld to discover a vast source of one of the finest iron ores in the world Where were these deposits found?
These deposits were found in the Rajhara hills.
Patola weaving was famous in which period?
Patola weaving was famous in mid nineteenth century.
What do you mean by piece goods?
Piece goods were woven cloth pieces that were 20 yards long and 1 yard wide.
What was the use of bellows?
Bellows were used for pumping air that kept the charcoal burning.
Why were Indian textiles renowned in the world?
Indian textiles had been renowned both for their fine quality and exquisite craftsmanship.
Name the place where chintz was produced during the mid- nineteenth century?
Chintz was produced in Masulipatnam, Andhra Pradesh in mid-nineteenth century.
In what way the Indian cotton factories prove to be helpful during the First World War?
During the First World War when textile imports from Britain declined and Indian factories were called upon to produce cloth for military supplies. These factories proved to be helpful.
Why do you think printed Indian cotton textiles were popular in England?
The printed Indian cotton textiles in England and Europe were popular because of their exquisite floral designs, fine texture and relative cheapness.
Where Wootz steel was produced?
Wootz steel was produced in all over South India but specially in the state of Mysore.
Why did TISCO have to expand its capacity?
TISCO had to expand its capacity during the First World War to meet the demand of the war.
Short Answer Type Question
What do you understand by smelting?
Smelting is the process of obtaining a metal from rock or soil by heating it to a very high temperature or of melting objects made from metal in order to use the metal to make something new.
What was named as ‘calico’?
When the Portuguese first came to India in search of spices they landed in Calicut on the Kerala coast in south¬west India. The cotton textiles which they took back to Europe along with the spices was known as ‘calico’ (derived from Calicut).
Describe briefly the growth of cotton mills in India.
In 1854, the first cotton mill in India was set up as a spinning mill in Bombay. By 1900, over 84 mills started operating in Bombay. Mills came up in other cities too. In 1861, the first mill in Ahmedabad started A year later a mill was established in Kanpur in the United Provinces. Growth of cotton mills led to a demand for labour. Thousands of poor peasants, artisans and agricultural labourers moved to the cities to work in the mills.
Wootz steel making process was completely lost by the mid-19th century. Why?
Wootz steel making process was completely lost by the mid-nineteenth century because of the following reasons:
(i) The swords and armour making industry died with the conquest of India by the British.
(ii) Imports of iron and steel from England displaced the iron and steel produced by craftspeople in India.
In what ways did the invention of spinning jenny and steam engine revolutionised cotton textiles moving in England?
Competition with Indian textiles led to a search for technological innovation in England In 1764, the spinning jenny was invented by John Kaye which increased the productivity of the traditional spindles. The invention of the steam engine by Richard Arkwright in 1786 revolutionised cotton textile weaving. Cloth could now be woven in immense quantities and cheaply too.
Britain came to be known as the workshop of the world Why?
In the nineteenth century, mechanised production of cotton textiles made Britain the foremost industrial. And, when its iron and steel industry started growing from the 1850s, Britain came to be known as the “workshop of the world”.
Name some communities famous for weaving?
Some famous communities for weaving are:
- the tanti weavers of Bengal.
- the julahas or momin weavers of north India.
- sale and kaikollar and devangs of south India.
What happened to the weavers and spinners who lost their livelihood?
Many weavers became agricultural labourers. Some migrated to cities in search of work and some went out of the country to work in plantations in Africa and South America. Some of these handloom weavers also found work in the new cotton mills that were established in Bombay (now Mumbai), Ahmedabad, Sholapur, Nagpur and Kanpur.
Long Answer Type Question
Why do you think handloom weaving did not completely die in India?
Handloom weaving did not completely die in India because of the following reasons:
- Some types of cloths could not be supplied by machines such as, machines could not produce saris with intricate borders or cloths with traditional woven patterns. These had a wide demand not only amongst the rich but also amongst the middle classes.
- The textile manufacturers in Britain did not produced the very coarse cloths used by the poor people in India.
- In the late nineteenth century, Sholapur in western India and Madura in South India emerged as important new centres of weaving.
- Later during the national movement, Mahatma Gandhi urged people to boycott imported textiles and use hand-spun and hand-woven cloth. Hence, Khadi gradually became a symbol of nationalism.
(a) the process of weaving.
(b) Patola weave.
(a) Process of weaving
- The first stage of production was spinning, the work mostly done by women. The charkha and the takli were household spinning instruments. The thread was spun on the charkha and rolled on the takli.
- When the spinning was over the thread was woven into cloth by the weaver. In most communities weaving was a task done by men.
- For coloured textiles, the thread was dyed by the dyer who are known as rangrez. For printed cloth the weavers needed the help of specialist block printers known as chhipigars.
(b) Patola weave
- It came into existence in the mid-nineteenth century.
- Patola is a double ikat woven sari usually made from silk which is made in Patan, Gujarat.
- They are very expensive and were worn only by those belonging to royal and aristocratic families.
- Patola-‘weaving is a closely guarded family tradition.
- It was also woven in Surat, Ahmedabad
- It was highly valued in Indonesia. It became a part of the local weaving tradition there.