JAC Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 3 The Making of Global World
JAC Class 10th History The Making of Global World InText Questions and Answers
Explain what we mean when we say that the world ‘shrank’ in the 1500s.
The word ‘Shrank’ stands for increased interaction among the people of various continents of the world. Before the 1500s there was not much interconnectedness, trade and commerce among the residents of various continents. But after the 1500s the commercial cultural exchange of ideas and people increased in the continents of the world that stretched from America to Asia through Europe and Africa.
Prepare a flow chart to show how Britain’s decision to import food led to increased migration to America and Australia.
Imagine that you are an agricultural worker who has arrived in America from Ireland. Write a paragraph on why you chose to come and how you are earning your living.
The potato crop had failed in Ireland last year and I had no money. There was no food to eat. The cities were very crowded and many diseases were prevalent. Also, we Catholics were prosecuted by the Englishmen, who were mostly Protestants. The English tried to dominate us by imposing English language on us. That is why I decided to leave Ireland and immigrate to America, where I was sure that I would have a better future. Here, I am earning my living as an agricultural labourer on a very big wheat farm. I get a regular salary and am very happy that I have left Ireland.
Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity.
A person is identified by his language and traditional practices because the language that he speaks belongs to a nation, his motherland. It is the nation which is important than an individual. Also the language and traditional practices of a land or territory develop in a long time, thus get firmly established. People are bom and die but language and traditions stay. They are always alive. They give an identity to an individual, wherever he goes. Therefore, the language and popular traditions are important in creating national identity of an individual.
Who profits from jute cultivation according to the jute growers’ lament? Explain.
The jute growers’ lament was that only the traders and moneylenders profited from jute cultivation, not the growers. Peasants of Bengal cultivated raw jute which was processed in factories for export in the form of gunny bags. They grew raw jute I hoping that a better time would come and there would be increase in exports.But this did not happen as gunny exports collapsed due to the depression. Due to glut in the local market, the price of raw jute crashed by more than 60% and so they fell into heavy debt. Thus, only the traders and moneylenders profited from jute cultivation, not the farmers.
Briefly summarise the two lessons learnt by economists and politicians from the inter-war economic experience.
The inter-war economic experience was very bad. Most of the countries were devastated and cities were destroyed.The economists and politicians learned that they had to ensure economic stability of the industrial countries. Also they understood the interdependence of national economies all over the world.Hence, they drew up an internationally accepted framework to recover and consolidate the world economy.
JAC Class 10th History The Making of Global World Textbook Questions and Answers
Write in brief:
Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas.
(i) Exchange of food: Food offers many examples of long distance cultural exchange. It is believed that ‘noodles’ travelled west from China to become ‘spaghetti’.
(ii) Exchange of germs:
The Portuguese andSpanish conquests and colonisation of America were decisively underway by the mid-sixteenth century. The European conquest was not just a result of superior firepower. In fact, the most powerful I weapon of the Spanish conquerors wasnot a conventional military weapon at all. It was the germs such as those of smallpox I that they carried on their person.
Because of their long isolation, America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases that came from Europe. Smallpox in particular proved a deadly killer. Once introduced, it spread deep into the continent, ahead even of any European ireaching there. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.
Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas,
The global transfer of disease in the pre modem world helped in the colonisation I of the Americas because the Native l American Indians were not immune to the diseases that the settlers and colonisers brought with them. The Europeans were more or less immune to small pox, but the native Americans, having been cut : off from the rest of the world for millions of years, had no defence against it.These germs killed and wiped out whole’communities, paving the way for foreign domination. Weapons and soldiers could be destroyed or captured, but diseases could not be fought against.
Write a note to explain the effects of the following:
(a) The British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws.
(b) The coming of rinderpest to Africa,
(c) The death of men of working-age in . Eqrope because of the World War.
(d) The Great Depression on the Indian economy.
(e) The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries,
(a) Population growth from the late eighteenth century had increased the demand for foodgrains in Britain. As urban centres expanded and industry grew, the demand for agricultural products went up, pushing up foodgrain prices. Under pressure from landed groups, the government also restricted the import of com.
The laws allowing the government to do this were commonly known as the ‘Com Laws’. Unhappy with high food prices, industrialists and urban dwellers forced the abolition of the com laws. After the com laws were scrapped, food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country. British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated, and thousands of men and women were thrown out of work.
(b) In Africa, in the 1890s, a fast-spreading disease of cattle plague or rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihoods and the local economy. This is a good example of the widespread European imperial impact on colonised societies. It shows how in this era of conquest even a disease affecting cattle reshaped the lives and fortunes of thousands of people and their relations with the rest of the world.
The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods. Planters, mine owners and colonial governments now successfully monopolised what scarce cattle resources remained, to strengthen their power and to force Africans into the labour market. Control over the scarce resource of cattle enabled the European colonisers to conquer and subdue Africa.
(c) Most of the victims of the first world war belonged to young generations of working men. As a result, it reduced the workforce in Europe, thereby reducing household income. The role of women increased and led to demand for more equality of status. It made the feminist movement stronger. Women started working alongside men in every field. Women and youngsters became more independent and free with long-term effects.
(d) The impact of the Great Depression in India was felt especially in the agricultural sector. It was evident that Indian economy was closely becoming integrated to global economy. India was a British colony. It exported agricultural goods and imported manufactured goods.
The fall in agricultural price led to reduction of farmers’ income and agricultural export. The government did not decrease their tax and so, many farmers and landlords became more indebted to moneylenders and corrupt officials. It led to a great rural unrest in India.
(e) The industrial world was also hit by unemployment that began rising from the mid-1970s and remained high until the early 1990s. From the late 1970s, the MNCs also began to shift production operations to low-wage Asian countries. The relocation of industry to low-wage countries stimulated world trade and capital flows. In the last two decades the world’s economic geography has been transformed as countries such as India, China and Brazil have undergone rapid economic transformation.
Give tjyo examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.
(i) Availability of cheap food in different markets:
Improvements in transport, faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped move food more cheaply and quickly from the far away farms to the final markets.
(ii) Impact on meat:
Till the 1870s, meat from America was shipped to Europe in the form of live animals which were then slaughtered in Europe. But live animals took up a lot of ship space. But the invention of refrigerated ships made it possible to transport meat from one region to another. Now animals were slaughtered in America, Australia or New Zealand, and then transported to Europe as frozen meat.
The invention of refrigerated ship had the following advantages This reduced shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe.The poor in Europe could now consume a more varied diet. To the earlier monotony of bread and potatoes many, not all, could add meat, butter and eggs.Better living conditions promoted Social peace within the country, and support for imperialism abroad.
What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement?
The Bretton Woods system inaugurated an era of unprecedented growth of trade and incomes for the Western industrial nations and Japan. World trade grew annually at over 8 per cent between 1950 and 1970 and incomes at nearly 5 per cent. The growth was also mostly stable, without large fluctuations. For much of this period the unemployment rate, for example, averaged less than 5 per cent in most industrial countries.
NCERT ‘Discuss’ Questions
Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean. Drawing from the details in this chapter, write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings.
B-30 Anna Nagar,
Madras (Chennai) Date 12/04/1911
Hope, all is well at your end. I am trying to get settled in this Caribbean country. Presently, I am working in Trinidad . (Caribbean) as an indentured labourer. Through this letter, I would like to draw a picture to you about my hardship and simultaneous the misbehaviour of the contractor towards me. The contractor at the time of hiring me did not provide the correct information regarding the place of work, mode of travel and living and working conditions.
Very few legal rights are provided to us. The contractor uses harsh and abusive language at the worksite. He treats us like coolies and we are an uneasy minority in the cocoa plantations in Trinidad. Whenever I do not attend my work, I am prosecuted and sent to jail. There is a lot of work at the plantations with heavy workload and sometimes I have to finish all of it one day. In case of unsatisfactory work (in the contractor’s thinking), my wages are cut. I am living a life of a slave and in great trouble.
Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and -Indians, and write a short account of it.
The thAe types of movements or flows in international economic exchange are:
(i) Flow of Trade:
This refers to trade in tangible goods like wheat, cotton, etc. Historically fine cotton cloth was produced in India by the weavers and exported to European countries, but when the industrial revolution started in Europe and,the European countries imposed tariff barriers, this export of textiles dropped
drastically. In fact, India started exporting raw cotton and importing mill made cloth from England.
(ii) Flow of Labour:
This refers to migration of people in search of employment: During the nineteenth century, a large number of Indian labourers migrated to Africa, the West Indies and the other countries to work on plantations and in mines as well as in railway and road construction projects set up by the Europeans. These Indians settled in the countries where they had gone after their contracts ended and now their descendants are found in these countries.
(iii) Flow of Capital:
This refers to movement of capital over long distances for short¬term and long-term investments. Groups of Indian financiers and traders like the Sheriffs. Chatters, etc., financed agriculture plantations in various Asian and African countries using their own funds or those borrowed from the European banks.
Explain the causes of the Great Depression.
The causes of the Great Depression were:
(i) Conditions Created by War: There was an immense industrial expansion in view of the increased demand of goods supplied to the army during the period of the First World War. After the war, the demand for these goods suddenly dropped and so there was no demand in many industries. There was also a large fall in the agricultural prices due to reduced demand.
(ii) Overproduction in Agriculture:
Agricultural overproduction was another major factor responsible for the depression. This was made worse by falling agricultural prices. As prices slumped and agricultural incomes declined, the farmers tried to increase the production and bring a larger volume of produce to the market to maintain their overall income. This worsened the situation by pushing down the prices of farm produce further. Various goods rotted in the markets because of lack of buyers.
(iii) Shortage of Loans: In the mid-1920’s many countries financed their investments through loans from the USA. While it was often very easy to raise loans in the USA during the boom period, the USA overseas lenders panicked at the first sign of trouble.
(iv) Multiple Effects: With the fall in prices and the prospect of a depression, the USA banks slashed domestic lending and stopped bank loans. Thousands of banks went bankrupt and were forced to close down. Factories were closed, leading to unemployment of hundreds of people who were rendered jobless, which further aggravated the crisis.
Explain what is referred to as the G-77 countries. In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins?
The developing countries did not benefit from the economic growth of the developed countries like the USA, European countries and Japan. To remove this disparity, these 77 countries organized themselves into a group called the G-77 countries. Later on, more developing countries joined the group and now it consists of about 130 countries. They have demanded a New International Economic Order, in which they have a real coptrol over their natural resources; they get more development assistance and fairer prices for raw materials exported by them.
They want better access to the markets in developed countries for their, manufactured goods. The Bretton Woods twins, IMF and World Bank, were mainly set up to favour the developed nations. They did not help the developing nations significantly as both of these institutions controlled their investments in the developing countries. So, the developing countries decided to set up their own group, the G-77, so that they could bargain better with these institutions and the developed countries for economic development and resultant benefits.
NCERT ‘Project’ Work
Find out more about gold and diamond mining in South Africa in the nineteenth century. Who controlled the gold and diamond companies? Who were the miners and what were their lives like?
(i) During the 19th century in South Africa, gold was discovered in Johannesburg and diamond in Kimberly. Soon European migrants began mining of gold and diamond in South Africa, when from 1886 onwards, mining business became highly profitable. This can be attested by the data that South Africa was producing world’s 27% gold from 1886 to 1914 (the year of First World War).
(ii) Cecil Rhodes was the first European to create a gold and diamond mining monopoly buying up land and forming De Beers. Today it is world’s largest diamond producing company.
(iii) Mining companies were controlled by the Europeans and Americans , as many of white settlers migrated to South Africa; with desire of making huge profits in the mining industry. They also introduced technological advances and deep mining techniques so that profits could be increased.
(iv) The workers on the mining fields were African natives, and most of them migrated to South Africa, from other parts and colonial states of African continents.
The mining workers lived a miserable life.
- They were paid ten times lower wages than the white workmen.
- Apartheid (Racism): The discovery of gold and diamond in Southern Africa led to apartheid (racism) from as early as 1889.
- In 1889 chamber of mines was formed by the European industrial nations mainly to reduce African wages. This was to increase the profitability of mines. This increased racial attacks on African blacks, as they were dissatisfied a lot and lived miserable lives.