JAC Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Civics Chapter 4 Working of Institutions
I. Objective Type Questions
1. Who is the highest formal authority in our country?
(a) The President of India
(b) The Vice-President of India
(c) The Prime Minister on India
(d) The Chief Justice India
(a) The President of India
2. The Indian parliament consists of how many houses?
3. Which is called as ‘upper chamber’ of the Indian parliament?
(a) Lok Sabha
(b) Rajya Sabha
(c) President’s office
(d) None of the above
(b) Rajya Sabha
4. Which of the following is called as ‘Lower chamber’ of the parliament?
(a) Rajya Sabha
(b) Lok Sabha
(c) President’s office
(d) None of the above
(b) Lok Sabha
5. Which one of the following is incorrect about the supreme court of India?
(a) It can hear appeals against the decisions of the high courts.
(b) It is the highest court of appeal in civil cases. –
(c) it cannot take up any dispute between citizens of the county.
(d) All of these.
(d) All of these.
II. Very Short Answer Type Questions
Which are the three institutions in a Parliamentary democracy ?
- Executive and
What do you understand by office memorandum?
A communication issued by an appropriate authority stating the policy or decision of the government is called office memorandom.
What is the full form of SEBC?
SEBC Socially and Educationally Backward classes.
Who are the decision makers in India?
The president, the Prime Minister and the parliament are the decision makers.
Who is formally the country’s highest officer?
Who is the head of the country in India?
Who is the head of government?
Prime minister is the head of the government.
Which political institutions take all important policy decisions in our country?
The Prime Minister and the cabinet are institutions that take all important policy decisions.
How many Houses of Indian parliament are there?
The Indian parliament has two houses
- Lok Sabha
- Rajya Sabha.
When was the second backward classes commission set up?
Who was the head of the second backward classes commission?
Mention any one recommendation of the mantal commission.
One recommendation is that 27% of government jobs be reserved for the socially and educationally backward classes.
Who is the final authority for making laws in any country?
The parliament is the final authority for making laws in any country.
How many members are presently in Lok Sabha?
There are 545 members on Lok Sabha presently.
Name the three components of the Indian Parliament.
- The President of the Union.
- The Lok Sabha or the House of the People.
- The Rajya Sabha or the Council of States.
What do you know about Lok Sabha?
Lok Sabha is the lower house of the Indian parliament, which is directly elected by the people and exercises the real power on behalf of the people.
What is Rajya Sabha?
Rajya Sabha is the upper house of the Indian parliament, which is indirectly elected by the people.
How many members are presently in Rajya Sabha?
There are 245 memebers in Rajya Sabha presently.
What is the term of Lok Sabha?
What is the tenure of the members of Rajya Sabha?
Can this house be dissolved or is it permanent?
Rajya Sabha is a parmanent house, so it can not be dissolved wheres Lok Sabha can be dissolved.
Which is the Upper House of the Parliament?
The Rajya Sabha.
Which is the Lower house of the Parliament?
The Lok Sabha.
In what ways Lok Sabha exercises supreme power over Rajya Sabha?
Lok Sabha exercises more powers on money matter and during the joint session, final decision is taken by Lok Sabha because of its large number of members.
Who exercises more powers in money matters?
The Lok Sabha.
Which house is better placed with regard to control over the executive in our country?
What do we mean by government?
By government we refer to the executive.
In which house of the Indian parliament a money bill can be introduced?
Describe the type of executive.
- political executive
- permanent executive.
Who are civil servants?
Person, working in civil services are called civil sarvants.
What work do secretaries of different departments do?
The secretaries provide the necessary back ground information to the ministers to . take decisions.
Which is the most important political institution in our country?
Prime Minister is the most important political institution in our country.
Who appoints the Prime Minister in our country?
The President appoints the Prime Minister in our country.
Whom does the President appoint as Prime Minister?
The President appoints the leader of the majority party or the coalition of parties that commands a majority in the Lok Sabha.
Who is the leader of the Lok Sabha?
The Prime Minister.
What is the tenure of the Prime Minister?
The Prime Minister does not have a fixed tenur. He continues in power so long as he remain the leader of the majority party or coalition.
How are members of Council of Minister appointed india?
The members of Council of Minister appointed by the president on the advice of the Prime Ministers.
A person who is not a memeber of any house of parliament is appointed as minister within what time he has to get elected to one of the house of the parliament?
Within 6 months, he has to be elected to one of the house of the parliament.
Which types of ministers are included in the union council of ministers?
Union council of ministers include cabinet ministers, ministers of state and ministers of state with independent charges.
Who presides over cabinet meetings?
The Prime Minister presides over cabinet meetings.
State any two functions of the Prime Minister.
- Presiding over cabinet meetings.
- Distibution and redistribution of work to ministers.
In which type of government the Prime Minister cannot take decisions as he likes?
The Prime Minister of a coalition government can not take decisions as he likes.
The President of India is like the Queen of which country?
The President of India is like the Queen of Britain whose functions are to a large extent ceremonial.
What is the term of office for the President?
Who supervises the functioning of all political institutions in the country?
The President supervises the overall functioning of all the political institutions in the country.
How is the President elected in India?
The President in India is not directly elected by the public. Members of the parliament and members of the legislative assemblies of the entire country are elected by him.
In whose name are international treaties and agruments made?
All international treaties and agreements are made in the name of the president.
Who is the supreme commander of India’s defence forces?
The President is the supreme commander of the defence forces of India.
A bill passed by parliament becames law only after whose approval?
A bill passed by parliament becomes law only after the approval of the President.
State any two functions of the President.
- He appoints the Prime Minister.
- He approves bills passed by the parliament.
When can the President exercise his discretionary powers in the matter of appointment of the Prime Minister?
When a party or coalition does not get a majority in the Lok Sabha, the President can exercise his discretionary powers.
What is the highest Court in the country called?
The Supreme Court.
Where is the Supreme Court located in India?
Describe the structure of Indian judiciary.
The Indian judiciary consists of a supreme court for the entire nation, High courts in the states, district courts and the courts at local level.
Who controls the judicial administration of the country.
The supreme court controls the judicial administration of the country
Whose verdict is required by all the courts of the country?
Of the supreme court.
All the courts of the country have to decide whose decision?
Of the supreme court.
Which dispute can the supreme court hear?
The supreme court can hear any of the following disputes.
- Between citizens of the country,
- Between citizens and government,
- Between two or next more state government, and
- Between government at the union and state level.
Name the institution where disputes between two or more state governments are finally settled in our country.
The disputes between two or more state governments are finally settled in the supreme court.
Which is the highest court of appeal in civil and criminal cases?
Which institution can hear appeal against the decisions of the high courts?
The supreme court can hear appeals against the decisions of the high courts.
What does independence of the judiciary means?
Indepenence of the judiciary means that it is not under the control of the legislature or the executive.
What is the procedure for the removal of Judges of the Supreme Court ?
A Judge can be removed by the President on the grounds of ‘proved misbehaviour or incapacity’ but the resolution for his impeachment should be passed by both the Houses.
Who have the power to interpret the constitution of the country?
The supreme court and the high courts have the power to interpret the constitution of the country.
In what ways does the powers and independence of the Indian judiciary give him the ability to function ?
The powers and the independence of the Indian judiciary allow it to act as the guardian of the fundamental right.
Why is the Supreme court called the ‘Guardian of the Constitution’?
The written constitution of the country is the fundamental law of the land. It is the supreme law, above all men, matters and legislation. The Supreme Court has been given the power to interpret the constitution, declare the law and enforce the principle of and balances, prevalent in the constitution.
‘The Supreme Court is the Guardian of the Fundamental Rights’. Explain.
The Supreme Court is the guardian of the Fundamental Rights. A citizen, whose fundamental right has been violated by any individual, government or institution, may move to the Supreme Court for the protection of his Fundamental Rights.
What is PIL?
Public Interest Litigation (PIL) means litigation for the protection of public interest. It is the power given to the public by courts through Judicial activism. Such cases may occur when the victim does not have the necessary resources to commence litigation or his freedom to move court has been suppressed.
III. Short Answer Type Questions
Why do we need the political institutions? Give reasons?
We need political institutions for the following:
1. To Take Decisions:
Institutions are required to take decisions regarding the policies, to collect taxes, spending money on administration, defence and development programmes.
2. Implementation of Decisions:
The decisions which are taken by one institution have to be implemented. Most of the decisions are implemented by permanent executives.
3. To Solve the Dispute:
In a democratic country disputes may occur over decisions. So, courts have been established to solve the disputes.
4. Right decisions:
Institutions provide solid base to democracy. They provide an opportunity for a wider set of people to be consulted in any decision. These institutions help the rulers to take right decisions.
Give any two differences between the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.
The differences between the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha are as follows.
|Lok Sabha||Rajya Sabha|
|1. The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people.||1. Members of the Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected by the members of the legislative assemblies.|
|2. The tenure of Lok Sabha is 5 years. The house can be dissolved berfore the expiry of the tenure.||2. The tenure of Rajya Sabha members is 6 years but one-third members retire after every 2 years. It can not be dissolved, it is a parmanent house.|
Lok Sabha is more powerful than Rajya Sabha’. Analyse the statement.
Lok Sabha is more powerful than Rajya Sabha. This is clear from the following facts.
- Any ordinary law needs to be passed by both the houses but in case of conflict, view of Lok Sabha prevails because it has large number of members.
- Once the Lok Sabha passes the budget or any other money related law, Rajya Sabha cannot reject it. The Rajya Sabha can delay it for a maximum of 14 days or suggest changes in it which may or may not be accepted by the Lok Sabha.
- Most importantly, the Lok Sabha controls the Council of Ministers. If the majority of the Lok Sabha members say that they have no confidence in the Council of Ministers, then all the ministers including the Prime Minister have to resign. Thus, it can be concluded that Lok Sabha is more powerful than Rajya Sabha.
Differentiate between a Money Bill and an Ordinary Bill? (Any three)
|Money Bill||Ordinary Bill|
|1. A bill deals with income, expenditure, loans, investments and taxes is a Money Bill.||1. Any bill which is not a Money Bill is an Ordinary Bill.|
|2. It can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha.||2. It may be introduced in either House of the Parliament.|
|3. Prior permission of the President is sought to introduce this bill.||3. It is not necessary to take any prior permission of the President to introduce this bill.|
|4. The Rajya Sabha cannot reject a Money Bill. It can only make recommendations for changes in the Bill.||4. It is necessary to pass this bill by Rajya Sabha also. If Rajya Sabha rejects this bill, it can not be passed.|
Differentiate between political executive and permanent executives.
The following are the differences between a political executive and a permanent executive
|Political executive||Permanent executive|
|1. Elected by the people (voters) for specific period.||1. Appointed a long term basis.|
|2. Answerable to the people.||2. Answerable to the government.|
|3. Political leaders are political executives||3. Civil servants are the permanent executives.|
Why does the political executive have more power than the non political executive?
There are following reasons for this.
- In democracy, the will of the people is paramount, political executives are the elected representative of the public. Therefore, they use all the power on behalf of the people.
- Political executives (ministers) are ultimately accountable to the public for their policy and decision.
How is the election of Prime Minister in India?
There is no direct election for the post of Prime Minister in India. The President appoints the Prime Minister. The President appoints the leader of the majority party or coalition parties in the Lok Sabha as the Prime Minister.
In case no single party or alliance gets a majority, the president appoints the person most likely to secure a majority support. The Prime Minister does not have a fixed tenure. He continues in power so long as he remains the leader of the majority party or coalitions.
Write any three constraints on the powers of the Prime Minister of a coalition government.
Following are the three constraints on the powers of Prime Minister of coalition government.
- The agenda and policies of the government are usually decided as a common minimum programme which includes all the views and demands of coalition partners.
- The Prime Minister has to accommodate different groups and fraction in his party as well as his alliance partners.
- He has to pay attention to the views and positions of his coalition partners for
the survival of his government.
Briefly describe which classes of ministers are there in the council of ministers.
The Council of Ministers consists of three classes of ministers.
- Cabinet minister: They are usually for leaders of the ruling party or parties who are incharge of the major ministeries.
- Ministers of state with independent charge: They are usually incharge at smaller ministries. They participate in the cabinet meetings only when specially invited.
- Ministers of state: They are attached to and required to assist cabinet ministers.
Explain the collective responsibility of fhe Cabinet.
The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible and accountable to the Lok Sabha. The cabinet owes collective responsibility for all the decisions taken by it. If the Lok Sabha rejects the policy of the government on a particular issue, it is not only the Minister responsible for that subject, but also the whole council of Ministers must accept the responsibility and resign.
The Prime Minister is the line of communication between the Cabinet and the President. Justify by giving two examples.
- The Prime Minister conveys cabinet’s decisions to the the President, and keeps him informed of all national or foreign matters of the government.
- He advises the President to summon and progue the Parliament and dissolve the Lok Sabha.
Discuss the relations of the Prime Minister with the Parliament.
- The Prime Minister is the leader of the Lok Sabha.
- The Prime Minister is the chief spokesman of the government in the Parliament.
- The Prime Minister is free to choose ministers as long as they are the members of Parliament.
In recent years the rise of coalition politics has imposed certain constraints on the power of the the Prime Minister. Justify the statement.
Coalition politics has acted to curb the powers of the Prime Minister. Discuss.
- The Prime Minister of coalition government can not take decisions as he likes,
- He has to accommodate different groups and factions in his party as well as among alliance partners.
- He has also to need to the view and positions of the coalition partners and other parties, on whose support the survival of the government depends.
Write any three legislative powers of the President of India.
Following are the three legislative powers of the President of India.
- The Presindent is not a member of either house of the parliament. But she is an integral part of the legislative process. He plays an important role in making of laws.
- The President has the power to dissolved the Lok Sabha. He can summon joint sitting of both houses of parliament.
- The president has the power to send messages to either house of the parliament either regarding any pending bill or any other matter.
IV. Long Answer Type Questions
Why was the Mandal Commission appointed? What did it recommend to the government?
The government of India appointed the second backward classes commission in the year 1979. B.P mandal was the head of Mandal Commission. Thus, it was popularly known as mandal commission.
It was appointed in order to:
1. Determine the criteria to identify the socially and educationally backward classes (SEBCs) in India.
2. To recommend steps to be taken for their advancement. The commission gave its report in 1980 and made following recommendations 27% of the government jobs be reserved for the socially and educationally backward classes. The report and recommendations were discussed in the parliament. On 6th August 1990, the government of India took a formal decision to implement the recommendation.
Describe the “Indira Sawhney and others v/s union of India case” along with its major reforms.
In 1990, the central government implemented 27% reservation for socially and educationally backward classes in government jobs in accordance with the recommendations of the mandal commission. Some persons and associations opposed the order of government of implementing reservation and filed a number of cases in the courts. People appealed to the courts to declare the order invalid and stop its implementation.
The supreme court of India bunched all these cases together and this case came to be known as the ‘India Sawhney case’. Eleven judges of the Supreme Courts heard arguments of both sides. By a majority, the Supreme Court judges in 1992 declared the order of government was valid.
Supreme Court modified the orginal order and declared. That well to-do persons among the backward classes should be excluded from getting benefit of the reservation. Hence, the department of personnel and Training issued another office memorandum on 8th September, 1993.
Why do we need parliament? Explain in detail.
We need parliament for the following reasons.
1. Parliament is the final authority for making laws in any country. This task of law making or legislation is so important that these assemblies are called legislatures. Parliaments all over the world can make new laws, change existing laws, or abolish existing laws and make new ones in their place.
2. Parliament all over the world exercise some control over those who run the government. In same countries like India this control is direct and full. Those who run the government can take decisions only so long as they enjoy support of parliament.
3. Parliament is required to control public money, i.e., treasury. In most countries the public money can be spent only when parliament sanctions it.
4. Parliament is the highest forum of discussion and debate on public issues and national policy in any country. Parliament can seek information about any matter.
What is parliament? Explain the major powers and function of the parliament.
Parliament A national assembly of elected representatives of India is called parliament. Following are the major powers and functions of the parliament of India.
- The parliament elects Presidents, Vice-President, Speaker, Deputy Speaker, ViceChairman of Rajya Sabha, etc. It can also remove President, Vice-President, Judges of the Supreme Court and High courts by passing a resolution of impeachment against them.
- The parliament is the final authority for making laws in any country. In India, it makes laws on the subjects of union list, concurrent list and in certain cases on state list.
- The parliament can seek information from and ask questions to the government and its ministers on any matter.
- The parliament can pass a resolution of no-confidence against the ministry and ask it to resign. Those who run the government can take decision only so long as they enjoy support of the parliament.
- The parliament is the highest fourm of discussion and debate oh public issues and national policies.
- The governmental budget is passed in the parliament and it controls all the money that government has.
Distinguish between political and permanent executive. Why does the political executive have more power than the non-political executive?
1. The political excecutive consists of the political leaders who have been elected by the people for a specific period. They work till the House is dissolved or their five- year term is over. The permanent executive consists of those persons who have been oppointed on a long term basis. It constitutes of civil servants.
2. In a democracy, the will of the people is supreme. The political executive, i.e. the minister is elected by the people and thus is empowered to exercise the will of the people on their behalf. He is finally answerable to the people for all the consequences of his decisions.
That is why the minister takes all the final decisions. Though, he takes the advice of experts on all technical matters. But very often experts hold different opinions before him, i.e., more than one single option. Depending on what the overall objective is, the minister decides. Therefore, he has more power than the non-political or permanent executive.
Who appoints the Council of Ministers? also explain its composition?
Appointment of Council of Ministers:
After the appointment of the Prime Minister, the president appoints the minister of the Council of Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. The ministers are usually from the party or the coalition
that has the majority in the Lok Sabha. In other words, the President appoints the Council of Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister.
Composition of Council of Ministers:
The council of ministers is the official name for the body that includes all the ministers. It usually has 60 to 80 ministers of different ranks. The Council of Ministers have collective responsibility to the Lok Sabha, it includes three types of ministers.
1. Cabinet ministers:
They are usually top leaders of the ruling party or parties who are in charge of the major ministries. They meet to take decisions in the name of the council of ministers cabinet is the inner ring of the Council of Ministers.
2. Ministers of state with independent charge:
They are usually incharge at smaller ministers. They participate in the cabinet meetings only when specially invited.
3. Ministers of state:
They are attached to and required to assist cabinet ministers.
Describe the powers and functions of the Prime Minister.
As the head of the government, the Prime Minister has wide ranging powers. The power and functions of the Prime Minister are as follows:
- He is free to choose ministers. He distributes and redistributes work to the ministers.
- All ministers work under his leadership.
- He chairs cabinet meetings.
- He coordinates the work of different departments. His decisions are “final in case disagreement aries between different departments.
- He exercises general supervision of different ministers.
- He also has the power to dismiss ministers. When the Prime Minister quits the entire ministry quits.
- He communicates to the president all decisions of the council of ministers relating to the administration of union and proposals of legislation.
- He is the leader of the nation. People always remain ready to hear his views on all political and economic issues.
- He is the ex-office chairman of Niti aayog. Which supervises economic policies.
- When he attends the international meetings, represents his nation and whatever he says there is on behalf of his country.
Explain the election of the President.
1. The President is elected indirectly. Ordinary citizens play no part in this election. She is elected by the Electoral College, a joint body of elected M.Ps and M.L.As. It is a temporary body which is dissolved immediately after the election of the President is over.
2. All the members of the Electoral College are expected to indicate their preference by writing 1, 2, 3 against the names Presidential Candidates, according to their choice, on the ballot paper.
3. If any one of the candidates secures more than 50 per cent of the total number of votes polled, she is declared elected.
4. If none of the candidates secures more than 50 per cent of the total number of votes polled, the candidate with the least number of voters is eliminated. His votes are transferred to the candidate for whom the voters have indicated second preference.
Describe the functions and powers of the President.
Following are the functions and powers of the President:
- All governmental activities take place in the name of the President.
- All laws and major policy decisions of the government are issued in his name.
- All major appointments are made in the name of the President. These include the appointment of the Chief Justice of India, the judge of Supreme Court and the High courts of the states, the governours of the states, the Election Commissioners Ambassadors to the countries, etc.
- All international treaties and agreements are made in the name of the President.
- The president is the supreme commander of the defence forces of India. He appoints to the highest posts of the defence forces.
- He appoints the Prime Minister and members of the Council of Ministers.
- Any bill passed by the parliament becomes law only after the signature of the President.
- Every Union Territory in India is under the President and it is administered by him. He’texercises this power through an administrator appointed by him.
Explain in detail the differences between the presidential system of government and the parliamentary system.
The following are the differences between the presdiential system of government and the parliamentary system.
|Presidential system||Parliamentary system|
|1. In the presidential system, the executive is elected by direct voting by the public for a fixed term.||1. In the parliamentary system, the exdhtive is elected indirectly by the public for a fixed period.|
|2. The executive does not require the support of parliament to remain in power in this system.||2. This system requires the support of the majority of parliament to remain in power.|
|3. In this system, often the president does not get the support of parliament for his policies. Example—United States of America.||3. In this system the executive gets the support of the parliament for its policies. Example India|
|4. In this system, there is no difference between the nominal and the real executive of the nation. Both are the same.||4. In this system, the nominal and real executive of the nation are different.|
|5. The president has a central role in this form of gevernment.||5. The Prime Minister has a central role in this form of government.|
Describe the function and powers of the supreme court.
Following are the functions and powers of the supreme court:
- The supreme court is the highest court in the country. If controls the entire judicial administration of the country. Its decisions are binding on all other courts of the country.
- It hears appeals for criminal and civil matters, it also hears against the decisions of the high courts.
- If can hear any dispute which is
(a) Between citizens of the country.
(b) Between citizens and the government.
(c) Between the government of India and one or more states.
(d) Between the government of India and one or more states on one side and one or more states on the other.
- Betweeen two or more states governments.
- It interprets the constitution of the country.
- It protects the fundamental rights of citizens.
What do you mean by the independence of judiciary?
By the independence of judiciary we mean that the judiciary should not be under the influence of any individual or authority. This also means a fair, impartial, fearless and honest judiciary. Following points are given below to justify the independence of judiciary :
1. Appointment of Judges:
The Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts are appointed by the President of India on the advice of the Prime Minister. But it consults the chief justice of the Supreme Court.
2. Security of Tenure:
A Judge can remain in office till he has attained the age of 65 (in case of supreme court) and 62 years (in case of the High Court). He can be removed by the President on the grounds of “proved misbehaviour or incapacity”. But the resolution of his impeachment should be passed by two-third members of the two houses of the parliament.
3. No Discussion with Respect to the Conduct of Any Judge:
No discussion shall ‘ take place in Parliament with respect to the conduct of any judge in the discharge of his duties when a motion for this removal is under consideration.
4. Punishment for the Contempt of Court:
Genuine criticism of a judgement is allowed, but nothing should be done to lower the authority or dignity of the court.
“The Indian judiciary is free from legislature and executive control”. Explain.
The Indian judiciary is free from legislature and executive control. This is evident from the following points.
- The judges of the supreme court and high courts are appointed by the president on the advice of the Prime Minister. But it also consults the chief justice of the supreme court.
- The senior most judge of the supreme court is usually appointed the chief justice.
- Once a person is appointed a judge at the supreme or high court, it is almost impossible to remove him from his post.
- A judge can be removed only by an impeachment motion passed separately by two-thirds members of the two houses of the parliament. This is a very difficult task. It has never happened in the history of Indian democracy.
“The judiciary in India is also one of the most powerful in the world”. Explain.
The judiciary in India is also one of the most powerful in the world. This is evident from the following points:
- The supreme court and high courts of India are empowered to interpret the constitution of the country.
- The judiciary of India can examine the legality of any act done by the executive and any law passed by the legislature.
- The Indian judiciary can declare any such law or any such function of the executive passed by the legislature at the national or state level as against the provisions of the constitution.
- The Indian judiciary also acts as protector of fundamental rights. If the public is harm by any act of the government, then any person can go to the court and get justice by presenting a public interest litigation.
- The judiciary can interfere the government’s decision-making power is misused.
- The judiciary prevents the corrupt conduct of government officials.