JAC Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Civics Chapter 3 Electoral Politics
I. Objective Type Questions
1. Name the party formed by Chaudhary Devi Lai.
(a) Lok Dal
(b) National Congress
(d) All of these.
(a) Lok Dal
2. Which of the following terms is used when fresh election is held only for constituency to fill the vacancy caused by death or resignation of a member?
(a) By election
(b) General election
(c) Parliament election
(d) Assembly election.
(a) By election
3. Which of the following states has the largest number of Lok Sabha seats?
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(b) Uttar Pradesh
4. What is the minimum age for voting in India?
(a) 18 years
(b) 25 years
(c) 30 years
(d) 35 years.
(a) 18 years
5. What does EVM stand for?
(a) Electronic Volt Machine
(b) Electric Vending Machine
(c) Electronic Voting Machine
(d) None of these.
(c) Electronic Voting Machine
II. Very Short Answer Type Questions
Which movement did Chaudhary Devi Lai lead?
Chaudhary Devi Lai led a movement called Nyaya Yudh (Struggle for Justice).
What do you mean by Elections?
In a democracy, administration is run by the representatives who are elected by the people. The process by which people elect their representatives is called Elections.
What are constituencies?
For election, the entire country is divided into fixed electoral areas with a body of registered voters. These areas are called constituencies.
Mention a merit of electoral competition.
One merit of electoral competition is that it gives choice to voters to choose best among the contesting candidates.
What is ‘party-politics’?
Different political parties and leaders often level allegations aganist one another. Parties and candidates often use dirty tricks to win election. Such malpractices are collectively termed as ‘party-politics’.
What are the ‘two types’ of elections?
- General Election,
What do you mean by General Election?
Elections to the Lok Sabha and the Vidhan Sabha in the states are normally held every nve years, which is known as General Election. ‘
What do you understand by By-Elections?
If a representative from a constituency dies while in office or if the office falls va-cant because of reasons like resignation, fresh elections are held in that particular constituency. Such an election is called by-election.
Into how many constituencies has the country been divided for Lok Sabha elections?
The country has been divided into 543 constituencies for Lok Sabha elections.
What is the representative, elected from each parliamentary constitutency called?
Member of Parliament (MP).
Differentiate between MP and MLA.
For Lok Sabha, the country is divided into various constituencies. The representative elected from each constituency is called Member of Parliament (MP). On the other hand, each state is divided into certain Assembly constituencies. The representative elected from them is called Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA).
What is the motive behind reserved constituencies?
The motive behind reserved constituencies is to ensure proper representation of the weaker sections of our society like scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
How many seats are reserved for the Scheduled Castes in the Lok Sabha?
How many seats are reserved for the Scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha?
What is the official name of voters’ list?
What is Electoral Roll?
The list of eligible voters is known as Electoral Roll and is commonly known as Voters’ List.
Who can be denied the right to vote?
Criminals and persons with an unsound mind can be denied the right to vote.
What does‘EPIC’stand for?
Election Photo Identity Card.
What is election symbols?
At the time of any election, certain symbols are alloted by Election Commission to political parties. They are called election symbols.
What is meant by Model Code of Conduct?
Model Code of Conduct is a set of norms and guidelines to be followed by political parties and contesting condidates during election time.
what is ballot paper?
A ballot paper is a sheet of paper on which the names of the contesting candidates alongwith party name and symbols are listed.
Nowadays, which machine is used to record votes?
Electronic Voting Machine (EVM).
Who appoints the Chief Election Commissioner of India?
The President of India.
What is a turnout?
The percentage of eligible voters who cast their votes in an election is known as turnout.
III. Short Answer Type Questions
Why do weneed Elections?
We need Elections because:
- Elec ons give the voters the right to elect their representatives or rulers.
- Through elections, voters can choose who will form the government and take major decisions. They can choose the party whose policies will guide the government and law-making.
- Elect ions provide political equality.
“In an election, the voters make many choices.” Explain the statement.
in an election, the voters make many choices. This statement can be explained as follows:
- They can choose who will make laws for them,
- They an choose who will form the government and take major decisions,
- They can choose the party whose policies will guide the government and law-making.
What makes an election democratic?
What are the minimum conditions required for democratic elections?
- Everyone should have one vote and every vote should have equal value.
- Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections and should offer some real choice to the voters. The choice should be offered at regular inter¬vals. Elections must be held regularly after every few years.
- Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner where people can choose as they wish.
Mention any four demerits of electoral competition.
Following are the four demerits of electoral competition:
- An electoral competition creates a sense of disunity and ‘factionalism’ in every locality.
- Different political parties and candidates often use dirty tricks to win elec-tions.
- The pressure of winning electoral fights does not allow sensible long-term policies to be formulated.
- Some good people who wish to serve the country do not enter this arena as they do not like this unhealthy competition in politics.
Distinguish between general election and by election.
Differences between general election and by election are as follows:
|1. Elections are held in all constituencies at the same time either on the same time either on the same day or within a fear days. This is called a general election.
|1. Election is held only for one constituency to fill the vacancy caused by death of resignation of a member. This is called a by election.
|2. This election are held regularly after every five years.
|2. This election is held before the expiry of six months from the date of the seat falls vacant.
|3. By this elections, the representatives are elected for a full term of five years.
|3. By this election the representative is elected for the remaining period of the house and not for five years.
What is an Election Photo Identity Card?
Every eligible voter whose name appears in the voters’ list, is issued an identity card by the government. This contains the photograph of the voter. The card serves , as a mark of identification at the time of polling of votes. Such card is called as an Election Photo Identity Card.
Who can contest an election? What is the procedure for the nomination of candidates?
Any citizen over 25 years of age can file his nomination. Filing the nomination means he can present himself as a candidate. Every person who wishes to contest an election has to fill a ‘nomination form’ and give some amount as ‘security deposit’.
Recently, a new system of declearation has been introduced at the direction of the Supreme Court, according to which, every candidate has to make a legal declaration, giving full details of their assets and liabilities, their family and their educational qualifications. This information has to be made public. This provides an opportunity to the voters to make their decision on the basis of the information provided by the candidates.
What is the importance of symbols in elections?
Political parties have usually well-known symbols. Normally, a person recognises a party instantly from its symbol. Symbols are allotted by the Election Commission so that every condidate has a different symbol and the voters do not get confused.
What details are needed to be given by the candidates in a legal declaration?
The candidates in a legal declaration are expected to give full details of:
- Serious criminal cases pending against them.
- Assets and liabilities of the candidates and their families.
- Educational qualifications of the candidates.
What are the corrupt election practices forbidden by law?
Corrupt election practices forbidden by law are as follows:
- To bribe or threaten the voters.
- Using government money or other public resources to aid an election campaign.
- Spending more than the allowed amount of money for a Lok Sabha or Assembly election, and appeal to voters in the name of religion or caste.
Mention the norms of a Model Code of Conduct for election campaigns.
- Use any place of worship for election propaganda;
- Use government vehicles, aircrafts and officials for elections;
- Once elections are announced, ministers shall not lay foundation stones of any projects, take any big policy decisions or make any promises of providing public facilities.
How are votes casted?
On the election day, every person whose name is on the voters’ list can go to a nearby ‘polling booth’, situated usually in a local school or a government office. Once the voter goes inside the booth, the election officials identify him, put a mark on his finger and allow him to cast his vote. An agent of each candidate is allowed to sit inside the polling booth and ensure that the voting is taking place in a fair way.
Earlier the voters used to indicate who they wanted to vote for by putting a stamp on the ballot paper. Nowadays, Electronic Voting Machines (EVM) are used to record votes. The machine shows the names of the candidates and the party symbols. Independent candidates too have their own symbols, alotted by the election officials. All the voters has to do press the button against the name of the candidate he/she wants to give his/her vote.
How are the votes counted?
Once the polling is over, all the EVMs are sealed and taken to a secure place. A few days later, on a fixed date, all the EVMs from a constituency are opened and the votes secured by each condidate are counted. The agents of all candidates are present there to ensure that the counting is done properly.
The candidate who secures the highest number of votes from a constituency is declared elected. In a general election, usually the counting of votes in all the constituencies takes place at the same time, on the same day. Television, radio and newspapers report this event. Within a few hours of counting, all the results are declared and it becomes clear as to who will form the next government.
Write any four allegations about unfair practices on election, reported in newspapers and television.
Newspapers and television generally report the following four allegations about unfair practices in elections.
- Inclusion of false names and exclusion of genuine names in the voters’ list.
- Misuse of government facilities and officials by ruling party.
- Excessive use of money by rich candidates and big parties.
- Intimidation of voters and rigging on the polling day.
Explain any two provisions which ensure the independency of the Election Commission.
Following are the two provisions which ensure the independency of the Election Commission.
- The members of the Election Commission are appointed by the President of India, but the members are not answerable to the President of India.
- It is virtually impossible for the government to remove the members even if their work is not liked by the government.
Explain any four functions of the Election Commission of India.
Following are the four functions of the Election Commission of India:
- Election Commission take decision on every aspect of conduct and control of elections.
- It implements the code of conduct and can punish any candidate or party that violates it.
- It controls the government officers who are rooted on the election duty.
- During the election period, the Election Commission can order the govern-ment to follow some guidelines.
What are the measures taken by the Election Commission to ensure free and fair elections?
The Commission takes many measures. Some of these are as follows:
- It sends central observers to sensitive constituencies;
- The Commission prescribes the code of conduct for the election campaign, and
- The Commission creates conditions for a free and fair poll.
What factors affect citizens’ participation in electoral politics?
The factors affecting citizens’ participation in electroal politics are:
1. The Literacy Factor:
A vast majority of voters may not be welleducated, but they have plenty of common sense and enthusiastically cast their vote.
2. Economic, Regional and Ethnic Factors:
Unemployment and poverty have made low-income groups conscious of their voting right. In western democracies, especially in the United States, the better educated and the rich, vote more than those having lower status, such as the blacks and the poor persons. In case of India, the situation is exactly opposite of that. The regional and ethnic factors considerably helped the DMK, ALA DMK, Shiv Sena, Akali Dal, Assam Gana Parishad and the Bahujan Samaj Party in India.
3. Participation of Women:
Women, as compared to men, are politically less informed but their participation has increased steadily election after election. The number of women candidates has also shown a rising trend. This is in contrast to western democracies where men vote more than women.
How has the interest of the voters in the election-related activities increased in recent years in India? Explain.
The interest of the voters in the election related activities has been increasing over the years. During the 2004 election, more than one third voters took part in a campaign-related. activity. More than half of the people identify themselves as being close to one or the other political party. One out of every seven voters is a member of a political party.
“If elections are not free or fair, the outcome always favours the powerful.” Does the outcome of elections in India justify this statement?
The outcome of elections in India speaks for itself:
- The ruling parties routinely lose elections in India both at the national and state level. In fact, in every two out of the three elections held in the last 25 years, the ruling party lost. In India, about half of the sitting MPs or MLAs lose elections.
- Candidates who are known to have spent a lot of money on ‘buying votes’ and those with known criminal connections, often lose elections.
- Barring very few disputed elections, the electoral outcomes are usually accepted as ‘people’s verdict’ by the defeated party.
Explain any four challenges and limitation to free and fair elections in India.
Following are the four challenges and limitation to free and fair elections in India:
- Candidates and political parties with a lot of money enjoy a big and unfair advantage over smaller parties or independent candidates.
- Candidates with criminal records have been able to push others out of electoral race and secure a ticket from major parties.
- Some families tend to doominate political parties and secure tickes for their own family members.
(iv) Smaller parties and independents suffer a huge disadvantage compared to bigger parties.
IV. Long Answer Type Questions
What are reserved constituSncies ? Why are they required?
A true democracy provides equal opportunity to all the individuals and sections of the society to take part in elections, get elected and share the responsibility of gov-ernance of the country. In our country, the weaker section constitutes, by and large, Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), Other Backward Castes (OBCs) and Women.
For elections to be meaningful, a level playing field is to be provided to both the weakers and the powerful sections of the society. With this in view, our constitution contains the provision of reserved constituency. By reserved constituency, we mean a constituency in which only a person belonging to that particular group can contest an election for which the seat has been rserved. For example, in a SC constituency, only a person belonging to one of the SCs can contest elections. Similarly, for a ST constituency, only a ST person can be the candidate.
Explain the entire election process.
The entire election process can be briefy stated as follows:
1. Notification of Election Dates:
The elections process begins with the notifica¬tion of the election dates by the Election Commission.
2. Prepareation of Electoral Rolls:
Once the constituencies are decided the next step is to decide the voters who can vote. In a democratic elections, the list of those who are eligible to vote is prepared much before the elections. The list of eligible voters is known as Electoral Roll and is commonly known as Voters’ List.
3. Nomination of Candidates:
Political parties nominate their candidates who get the part}- symbol and support. Every person who wishes to contest an election has to file a ‘Nomination form’ and deposit some amount as security deposit.
4. Scrutinising of Nomination Papers:
The nomination papers are scrutinised on the fixed date. Incomplete or incorrect papers are rejected by the Commission.
5. Withdrawal of Nominations:
The candidates are given a date for withdrawal of their names after the withdrawal, the final list is printed. Election symbols are alloted to the candidates.
6. Election Campaign:
When the final list gets printed by the Returning Officer,
different political parties launch their election campaigns to canvass for their candidates. The political parties issue their election manifestos and propagate their programmes to the people through public meeting, processions, rallies, newspapers, booklets and radio etc.
Public holiday is declared on the election day, so that each voter may exercise his/her vote.
8. Counting of Votes: After the election is over, the counting personnels are appointed by the Election Officer, who, at a fixed place and at the fixed time, start their counting work in the presence of the Returning Officer.
9. Declaration of Results: After the counting of votes is over, the election officer declares the candidate getting the maximum votes, elected.
10. Election Petitions:
After the declaration of election results, the defeated candidate of the constituency can file an election petition against the successful candidate within a fixed period to the concerned court or election tribunal. If the allegations are proved true, the court declares the election of the successful candidate invalid and it declares the defeated candidate as successful.
Why slogan are used by political parties? Mention any four successful slogans given by different political parties in various elections.
In election campaign, various political parties use slogans to attract the voters and get them to vote for their party on that basis:
Following are the four successful slogans given by different political parties in various elections:
1. The congress party led by Indira Gandhi gave the slogan of Garibi Hatao (Remove poverty) in the Lok Sabha election of 1971. The party promised to reorient all the policies of the government to remove poverty from the country.
2. The Janata Party gave the slogan of Save Democracy in the Lok Sabha election of 1977, under the leadership of Jaya Prakash Narayan. The party promised to undo the atrocities committed during emergency and restore civil liberties.
3. The Left Front gave the slogan of land to the tiller in the West Bengal Assembly elections of 1977.
4. ‘Protect the Self Respect of the Telugus’ was the slogan used by N.T. Rama Rao, the leader of the Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh Assembly elections in 1983.
What maks elections in India democratic?
1. Independent Election Commission:
In our country the elections are conducted by an independent body, i.e., Election Commission. It enjoys same kind of independence that the judiciary enjoys. The Chief Election Commissioner is appointed by the President but once appointed he/she is not answerable to the President or the Government.
2. Popular Participation:
People’s participation in election is usually measures by voter turnout figures. Turnout indicates the percent of eligible voters who actually cast their vote. Over the last fifty years, the turnout in Europe and North America has declined. In India, the turnout has either remained stable or actually gone up.
3. Paticipation of Underprivileged:
In India, the poor, illiterate and under-privileged people vote in larger proportion as compared to the rich and privileged section. This is in contrast to western democracies.
4. Participation of People in Election-Related Activities:
It is not only the turnover and casting of votes but the people are also taking a lot of interest in election-related activities. According to a survey, one out of every seven voters is a member of a political party. During the general elections of 2004, more than one-third voters took part in campaign-related activities.
5. Acceptance of Election Outcome:
One final test of the free and fairness of election has in the outcome itself. If elections are not free and fair, the outcome
always favours the powerful ruling party. Usually, the ruling party does not accept the outcome of a rigged elections.
Mention the functions of Election Commission.
1. Conduct of Elections:
The Election Commission is obliged to conduct all elec¬tions to the Parliament and State Assemblies. It also supervises and directs the elections to the office of the President and Vice-President of India.
2. Recognition of Political Parties:
The Election Commission grants recognition to political parties. For this purpose, it has evolved its own procedure.
3. Allotment of Symbols:
The Election Commission allots symbols to political parties and to independent candidates.
4. Ensuring Free and Fair Elections:
To ensure free and fair elections is one of the major functions of the Election Commission.
5. The Model Code of Conduct for Elections:
Another important function of the Election Commission is to prescribe a Model Code of Conduct for the candidates and political parties, which is ought to be followed by them.
6. Preparation of Electoral Rolls:
The Election Commission prepares electoral rolls and includes the names of the valid voters in the electoral rolls.
7. Appointment of Electoral Staff:
The Election Commission appoints Chief Electoral officers for every state and one Returning Officer for every constituency. These officers appoint several other officers to make arrangement for the elections.
State the limitations and challenges to the elections in India.
The limitations and challenges to the elections in India are as follows:
- Candidates and parties with a lot of money may not be sure of their victory, but they do enjoy a big and unfair advantage over smaller parties and independents.
- In some parts of the country, candidates with criminal connection have been able to push others out of the electoral race and to secure a ‘ticket’ from major parties.
- Some families tend to dominate political parties; tickets are distributed to relatives from these families.
- Very often, elections offer little choice to ordinary citizens, for both the major parties are quite similar to each other, both in policies and practice.
- Smaller parties and independent candidates suffer a huge disadvantage compared to bigger parties.
- These deeper issues are matter of concern for those who believe in democracy. That is why, citizens, social activists and organisations have been demanding reforms in our electoral system.