JAC Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Civics Chapter 2 Constitutional Design
I. Objective Type Questions
1. On which island Nelson Mandela was kept in prison?
(a) Andman and Nicobar island
(b) Robben island
(c) Greenland island
(d) None of the above.
(b) Robben island
2. The constitution of India was framed by:
(a) British Parliament
(b) Indian Parliament
(c) A Constituent Assembly
(d) All of these.
(c) A Constituent Assembly
3. When was first meeting of the Consitituent Assembly held?
4. Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee?
(a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(b) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Jawaharlal Nehru.
(b) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
5. In 1931, who wrote about his expectation from the constitution in his magazine “Young India’?
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
(d) Motilal Nehru.
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
II. Very Short Answer Type Questions
Who said these words “I have fought against white domination and I have fought against black domination”?
For what crime did the white government of South Africa prosecute Nelson Mandela?
For the crime of demanding freedom.
Name the leader who led the struggle against racial discrimination?
What is Apartheid?
The official policy of racial separation and illtreatment of blacks followed by the government of South Africa between 1948 and 1989.
On the basis of what did the system of apartheid divide people?
On the basis of skin colour, the system of apartheid divided people.
Name the umbrella organisation that led the struggle against the policies of segregation.
African National Congress (ANC).
On which day did South Africa gain independence from the rule of the white minority?
South Africa gained Independence from the rule of the white minority on 26th April, 1994.
Which constitution has inspired democrats all over the world?
The constitution of South Africa has inspired democrats all over the world.
What is Constitution?
The constitution is a fundamental legal document according to which the government of a country functions.
Which national leader tried to draft a constitution for India in 1928?
The Constituent Assembly adopted the constitution on 20th November, 1949.
Define the Constituent Assembly.
The drafting of the document called the constitution was done by an assembly of elected representatives called the Constituent Assembly.
Name the body which prepared the constitution of India.
When were the elections to the Constituent Assembly held?
The elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July, 1946.
How many members of the Constituent Assembly wrote the Indian Constitution?
When did the Constituent Assembly adopt the constitution of India?
The Constituent Assembly adopted the constitution on 26th November, 1949.
When was the Indian constitution came into effect?
The Indian constitution come into effect on 26th January, 1950.
Who was the President of the Constituent Assembly?
Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
Who was the Chariman of the Drafting Committee?
Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar.
What is meant by the term‘Preamble’?
The Preamble is an introduction to the constitution which contains the ideals and . basic principles of the Indian Constitution.
Which part of the Indian constitution is called soul of the constitution?
The preamble of the Indian constitution is called soul of the constitution.
Which guiding value of the constitution of India means people have the supreme right to make decision?
What is meant by the term ‘socialist’?
The term ‘socialist’ in the contect of the Indian constitution means a person who believes that the wealth generated by society should be shared equally by all members of the society.
What is meant by declaring India as a Sovereign State?
A sovereign state means that Indian people have supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate the government of India.
“India is a secular country.” Justify.
In India, there is no official religion. All citizens have the right to follow any religion. The Indian government treats all religious beliefs and practices with equal respect.
What proves that India is democratic? Give two points.
- India is democratic, as the government is elected by the people directly after every five years.
- People enjoy equal political rights and hold their rulers accountable.
What is meant by the term ‘Republic’?
If the head of the state is an elected person and not a hereditary position, then it is called as Republic.
Why is India called a Republic?
India is called a Republic because the head of the state is an elected person and not from a hereditary position.
What does the term ‘liberty’ signify as mentioned in the preamble of the Indian constitution?
It signifies that the citizens are free to express their opinions and there are no unreasonable restrictions on their liberty.
What do you mean by constitutional amendment?
A change in the constitution made by the supreme legislative body in the country is known as constitutional amendment.
III. Short Answer Type Questions
What was the ‘Policy of Apartheid’? Explain.
What do you understand by the ‘Policy of Apartheid’? How did this policy come to an end?
Policy of Apartheid: The policy of apartheid was a system of racial discrimination unique to South Africa. It was imposed on the black by the white Europeans. In this system, the blacks were forbidden from living in white areas. They could work in white areas only if they had a permit.
Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools, colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theatres, beaches, swimming pools, public toilets, etc. were all separate for the whites and the blacks. This policy came to an end on 26th April, 1994, when the Republic of South Africa was bom with a multifacial government.
“The partheid system in South Africa was particularly oppressive for the blacks”. Justify the statement with arguments.
The following arguments are presented in support of this statement:
- The blacks were forbidden from living in white areas. They could work in white areas only if they had a permit.
- Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theatres, beaches, swimming pools, public toilets, churchs, etc. were all separate for the whites and blacks.
- Blacks could not form associations or protest against their terrible treatment.
Explain any three efforts made by the people of South Africa to struggle against the apartheid system :
The following three efforts were made by the people of South Africa to struggle against the apartheid system.
- From 1950 onwards, the blacks, coloured and Indians fought against the apartheid system. They launched protest marches and strikes.
- The African national congress led the struggle against this policy of segregation. Many workers’ unions and the Communist Party joined this movement.
- Even many sensitive whites joined the African National Congress and played a leading role in this movement.
Explain the role of Nelson Mandela in the struggle against apartheid.
- Nelson Mandela was one of the most able, efficient and far-sighted leaders of the African National Congress (ANC).
- It was under his leadership, that the struggle against apartheid reached its climax.
- Due to the participation in the movement against apartheid, he was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1964. He spent the next 28 years in prison.
- In the 90’s due to activities of the ANC and the support it got from other countries of the world, South African regime was completely isolated from the world.
- In order to create a favourable atmosphere, Nelson Mandela was released in 1990.
- In 1994, the first democratic elections were held and Nelson Mandela was elected the President of South Africa.
South Africans call themselves a ‘rainbow nation’. Can you guess why?
South Africans call themselves a ‘rainbow nation’ because there are whites, blacks, coloured people and Indians in South Africa who have different skin colours. But they are living and working together as one people, unified like the colours of a rainbow.
What is the constitution? What does it explain?
The constitution of a country is a set of written rules that are accepted by all people living together in a country. Constitution is the supreme law that determines the relationship among citizens and also the relationship between the people and government. The constitution explains:
- the organisation and structures of the three organs of the government, namely, the Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary.
- their powers and functions.
- their mutual relations.
- their limitations, and
- the rights and duties of the citizens.
What functions does the constitution perform?
The constitution performs the following functions:
- It generates a degree of trust and cordination that is necessary for different kind of people to like together.
- It specifies how the government will be constituted, who will have power to take which decisions.
- It lay down limits on the powers of the government and tells us what the right of the citizens are.
- It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.
‘Formation of Indian constitution was no less difficult than that of South Africa.’ Do you agree ? Explain with five arguments. What were the difficulties faced during the making of Indian Constitution?
The difficulties faced during the making of Indian constitution were as follows:
- The making of the constitution for a huge and diverse country like India was not an easy task.
- At that time, the people of India were emerging from the states of subjects to that of citizens.
- The country was bom through a partition on the basis of religious differences.
- The British had left it to the rulers of the princely states to decide whether they wanted to merge with India or with Pakistan or remain independent. The merger of these princely states was a difficult and uncertain task.
- When the constitution was being written, the future of the country did not look as secure as it does today.
“The Constituent Assembly was a galaxy of outstanding leaders”. Explain.
It was India’s good fortune that when it emerged as an independent country, it had the benefit of a galaxy of outstanding leaders. Some of these leaders, who were elected to the Constituent Assembly, were fully conscious about the enormity of the task before them.
Great men and women from different communities were entrusted with the momentous task of drafting the constitution of free India. They came to the Constituent Assembly from all parts of the country, making it a miniature India. The Assembly was dominated by the Indian National Congress but with leaders having different opinions.
What was the procedure adopted for making the Indian constitution ?
The ‘Drafting Committee’ chaired by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar prepared a draft of the Indian constitution for discussion.
Several rounds of discussion took place on the draft constitution clause by clause. The members worked for 114 days spread over three years. More than two thousand amendments were considered. Every document presented and every work spoken in the Constituent Assembly has been recorded and preserved. These are called Constituent Assembly Debates.
“The working of the Constituent Assembly has given sanctity to the constitution.”Explain.
- The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner.
- First, some basic principles were decided and agreed upon. Then a drafting committee prepared a Draft Constitution for discussion.
- Several rounds of through discussion took place on the Draft Constitution, clause by clause. More than two thousand amendments were considered. The members deliberated for 114 days, spread over three years.
- Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly has been recorded and preserved. These are called the ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’.
- Though the Constituent Assembly was not directly elected by the people, its sessions were open to the press and the people.
What is Preamble to our constitution? What is its importance.
The Preamble contains the ideals and basic principles of the Indian Constitution. The Preamble is not a part of the constitution, but it has been described as ‘Key to the Constitution.’ It is not enforceable by the court of law. No one can go to the court and say that the Preamble has not been enforced by the government. Still, the preamble serves as the guiding light of the constitution. Importance of Preamble:
- It contains the philosophy on which the entire constitution has been built.
- It provides a standard to examine and evaluate any law and action of the government, to find out whether it is good or bad. It is the soul of the Indian constitution.
“Indian Constitution is both rigid and flexible.” Explain.
Usually the federal constitutions are rigid, but our constitution presents a mixture of flexibility and rigidity. Some parts of it can be amended by parliament by a simple majority, while other parts are less flexible. They require, for their amendment, a special majority, that is two-thirds of the members of both Houses should vote for that legislation. Then there are Articles which fall under the third category. They require for their amendment a two-third majority of both Houses plus ratification by the legislatures of not less than one-half of the States.
III. Long Answer Type Questions
Explain the struggle of the South African People against apartheid.
The policy of’apartheid was imposed by the whites over the blacks. Under this, people of South Africa were discriminated on the basis of colour and race.
- The African National Congress (ANC) was the umbrella organisation that led the struggle against the policies of segregation. This included many workers’ unions and the Communist Party.
- Many sensitive whites also joined the ANC to oppose apartheid, and played a leading role in this struggle.
- Several countries including India denounced apartheid as unjust and racist, but the white racist government continued to rule by detaining, torturing and killing thousands of blacks and coloured people.
- As protests and struggles against apartheid increased, the government realised that they could no longer keep the blacks under their rule through repression.
- The white regime changed its policies. Discriminatory laws were repealed. Ban on political parties and restrictions on the media were lifted. After 28 years of imprisonment, Nelson Mandela walked out of the jail as a free man. Finally, at the midnight of 26th April, 1994, the new national flag of the Republic of South Africa was unfurled, making it a newly born democracy in the world.
How did the white minority and the black majority agree to draw up a common constitution for South Africa?
- Finally, at the midnight of 26th April, 1994 the new national flag of the Republic of South Africa was unfurled making the newly born democracy in the world.
- After the emergence of the new democratic South Africa, black leaders appealed to fellow blacks to forgive the whites for the atrocities they had committed while in power. They said let us build a new South Africa based on equality of all races and men and women, on democratic values, social justice and human rights.
- The party that ruled through oppression and brutal killings and the party that led the freedom struggle set together to draw up a common constitution.
- After two years of discussion and debate, they came out with one of the finest constitution the world has ever had.
- The new constitution gave to its citizens the most extensive rights available in any country.
What is a constitution? Why do we need a constitution?
The constitution of a country is a set of written rules that are accepted by all people living together in a country. Constitution is the supreme law that determines the relationship among people living in a territory (called citizens) and also the relationship between the people and government.
Need of Constitution: We need a constitution because:
- It generates a degree of trust and coordination that is necessary for different kinds of people to live together.
- It specifies how the government will be constituted and who will have power to take which decisions.
- It lays down limits to the powers of the government and tells us what are the rights of the citizens.
- It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.
- It grants universal adult franchise to all and establishes equality for all.
- The Indian constitution safeguards the interests of minorities, the backward classes, poor and weaker sections of our society.
Explain major difficulties faced by the makers of the Indian Constitution.
The following were the difficulties faced by the makers of the Indian Constitution:
- The Indian people were emerging as free citizens from their earlier status as subjects. The constitution had to ensure that the people were given certain fundamental rights, which had not been provided earlier.
- The country was born through a partition on the basis of religious differences. This was a traumetic experience for the people. At least 10 Lakh people were killed on the both sides of the border in partition-related violence.
- The Britishers had left it to the princely states to decide whether to join either country or remain independent. This problem had to be kept in mind while framing the constitution.
- India was a vast and varied country with diverse languages, religions, culture, customs and beliefs. This factor was a barrier in framing the constitution.
- The makers of the Indian constitution had to ensure that the country remained united after the constitution came into force. This was another difficulty faced while framing the constitution.
Highlight the constitution assembly.
The constitution of our country was framed by the constituent assembly which was constituted in 1946. This assembly originally had 389 members. Of them, most were elected by the provincial assemblies and some were nominated by the rulers of the native states. The first meeting of the constituent assembly was held in December, 1946.
Soon after, the country was divided into India and Pakistan. The Constituent As¬sembly was also divided into the Constituent Assembly of India and that of Pakistan. The Constituent Assembly that wrote the Indian constitution had 299 members. The assembly adopted the constitution on 26 November 1949 but it came into effect on 26 January 1950. To mark this day, we celebrate January 26 as Republic Day every year.
The Constituent Assembly included eminent persons, like Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Jaipal Singh, Baldev Singh, Shyama Prasad Mukheijee, Somnath Lahiri, C. Rajagopalachari and others. Women members, like Sarojini Naidu and C. Durgabai Deshmukh also played an important role in the constituent assembly.
Describe any five major factors which contributed to making of Indian Constitution.
The following were the major factors which contributed to the making of Indian Constitution:
- At that time, people of India were emerging from the status of subjects to that of citizens. They had become conscious of their rights.
- Our leaders gained confidence to learn from other countries, but on our own terms. Many of them were inspired by the ideals of the French Revolution.
- They were also influenced by the practices of parliamentary democracy in Britain and the Bill of Rights in the United States of America.
- Social Revolution in Russia inspired many Indians to think of shaping a system based on social and economic equality.
- The makers of the constitution were not simply coping the constitution of other countries.
At each step, they were questioning whether the values and ideals they accepted, suited or not suited to our country. We have modified those provisions to suit our needs.
Explain in detail the steps involved in the framing of Indian constitution.
The drafting of the constitution was done by an assembly of elected representatives called the constituent assembly. Following were the steps involved in the framing of Indian constitution:
1. Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946 and its first meeting was held in December 1946.
2. After partition, the Constituent Assembly was also divided into the Constituent Assembly of India and that of Pakistan.
3. The Constituent Assembly that wrote the Indian constitution had 299 members. The constitution does not only reflect the views of its members, but it also expresses a broad consensus of its time.
4. The Constituent Assembly represented the people of India, i.e., members from different language groups, castes, classes, religions and occupations.
Thus, the constitution written by the constituent assembly covered the interests of the diverse population of our country.
5. Finally, the manner in which the Constituent Assembly worked provided sanctity to the constitution. They worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner. drafting committee chaired by Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar prepared a draft constitution. Several rounds of thorough discussion took place.
The members deliberated for 114 days, spread over almost three years. Every document was recorded and preserved. These are called as ‘Constituent Assembly Debate’ and are printed in 12 volumes. These are used to interpret the true meaning of the constitution.
6. The assembly adopted the constitution on 26th November, 1949 and it came into effect on 26th January, 1950. To mark this day we celebrate 26th January as the Republic Day of India every year.
Why should we accept the constitution made by Constituent Assembly more than six decades ago? Explain.
Due to following reasons, we accept the constitution made by the Constituent Assembly more than six decades ago.
1. The constitution of India does not reflect the view of its members alone. It expresses a broad consensus of its time. Many countries of the world have had. to rewrite their constitution afresh because the basic rules were not acceptable to al1 major social groups or political parties. In some other countries, the cons tution exists as a mere piece of paper.
No one actually follows it. The expe ence of our constitution is different. Over the last half century, several grouj have questioned some provisions of the constitution. But no large social group or political party has ever questioned the legitimacy of the constitution itself. This is an unusual achievement for our constitution.
2. The constituent assembly represented the people of India. It was elected mainly by the members of the existing provincial legislatures. This ensured a fair geographical share of members from all the regions of the country. In social terms too, the assembly represented members from different language groups, castes, classes, religions and occupations.
3. The constituent assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner. First, some basic principles were decided and agreed upon. Then a drafting committee chaired by Dr.B. R. Amebedkar prepared a draft constitution for discussion. Several rounds of thorough discussion took place on the draft constitution, clause by clause.
The members worked for 114 days spread over three years. More than two thousand amendments were considered. Every document presented and every word spoken in the constituent assembly has been recorded and preserved. These debates provide the rationale behind every provision of the constitution. These are used to interpret the meaning of the constitution.
Explain the meaning of each key words of the Preamble.
1. We the people of India:
The constitution has been drawn up and enacted by the people through their representatives and not handed down to them by a king or any outside power.
People have supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate the Government of India.
Wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society. The government should regulate the owemship of land and industry to reduce socio-economic inequalities.
Citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion, but there is no official religion. The government treats all religious belief and practices with equal respect.
A form of government where people enjoy equal political rights, elect their rulers and hold them accountable. The government runs according to some basic rules.
The Head of the State is an elected person and he does not come from a heriditary position.
Citizens cannot be discriminated on the grounds of caste. The government should work for the welfare of all, especially of the disadvantaged groups.
There are no unreasonable restrictions on the citizens in what they think, how they wish to express their thoughts and the way they wish to follow up their thoughts in action.
All are equal before the law. The traditional social inequalities have to be ended. The government should ensure equal opportunity for all.
All of us should live like members of the same family. No one should treat a fellow citizen as inferior.