JAC Board Class 9th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
JAC Class 9th History Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution InText Questions and Answers
Activity (Page No. 28)
List two differences between the capitalist and socialist ideas of private property.
The following are the two differences between the capitalist and socialist ideas about private property :
- Capitalists believe in private property and a class-based society, but socialists believe in collective property and a class-less society.
- Capitalists believe that the profit should be enjoyed by the owners of the industry, but socialists believe that the profits are the result of the worker’s labour, so the workers deserve to share it.
Activity (Page No. 29)
Imagine that a meeting has been called in your area to discuss the socialist idea of doing away with private property and introducing collective ownership. Write the speech you would make at the meeting if you are :
(a) A poor labourer working in the fields.
(b) A medium-level land owner.
(c) A house owner.
(a) A poor labourer working in the fields Dear Friends:
Nature has not done any partiality in providing resources to everyone and so some people own more land than others. All the profits from our crops are the results of hard work done by people like us in planting seeds. Watering the crops, keeping them free from weeds and harvesting them.
So I think, we the labourers should share in the profits made from sale of crops, instead of getting a subsistence wage. To enable this, private ownership of property needs to be abolished and collective ownership of the fields by all the labourers who are working on it be introduced. This is in the interest of the poor labourers working in the field.
(b) A medium level land owner:
Dear Friends, the idea of socialism is good but I do not agree that private ownership of property should be removed. It is not rational and will reduce the crop production. You will not try to increase crop production if the whole profit is not going to you.
In fact, what should be done is the equitable distribution of land so that only a few people do not own large areas of land. While others have to manage with small areas of land or are deprived completely of any land ownership. So all should be land owners, so that everybody benefitted. Thank you.
(c) A house owner:
Respected friends. I think everybody should have the basic necessities of life like food, cloth and shelter but not at the expense of other people’s property. Those who do not have land should be given the means to earn their livelihood. But with the abolition of private property and collective ownership, the creative potential of the people will slow down.
Thus, after some time, the collective wealth will become zero. Because every one would like to take something from it and nothing will be added to it. Therefore there should be equality in property ownership but not capitalism. Thank you.
Activity (Page No. 33)
Why were there revolutionary disturbances in Russia in 1905? What were the demands of revolutionaries?
1. The reasons for the revolutionary disturbances in Russia in 1905 were as following:
(a) Prices of essential goods rose so quickly that real wages declined by 20 ‘ per cent. When four members of the Assembly of Russian Workers, which had been formed in 1904, were dismissed at the Putifov Iron Works, there was a call for industrial action.
(b) When the procession of workers led by Father Gapon reached the Winter Palace, it was attacked by the police and the Cossacks. Over 100 workers were killed and about 300 wounded.
2. The demands of revolutionaries were:
(a) Reduction in the working day to eight hours,
(b) An increase in wages, and
(c) Improvement in working conditions.
Activity (Page No. 34)
The year is 1916. You are a general in the Tsar’s army on the eastern front. You are writing a report for the government in Moscow. In your report suggest what you think the government should do to improve the situation.
Report for Russian Government from the War Front. Sir, our army is fighting very well on the eastern front, but many soldiers lost their lives till now. Due to this, remaining soldiers are losing their morale.
They do not wish to fight such a war. Thus, I request you to think about some other warfare strategies like Guerilla war to save the soldiers from disappointment. Sincerely yours General of the Russian Army
Activity (Page No. 36)
Look again at Source A and Box 1.
1. List five changes in the mood of the workers.
2. Place yourself in the position of a woman who has seen both situations and write an account of what has changed.
1. In 1920s and 1930s, India was a colony of the British and there existed caste and class differences. Most of the population was ignorant, backward and poor. Naturally, Indians like Shaukat Usmani and Rabindranath Tagore who visited USSR during this period were impressed to see the level of development of the nation and progress of the people in a short span of 10 years.
Freedom from the Tsar, they felt, had ended class and religious barriers. People appeared happy, satisfied, confident and fearless, while just a decade ago, they too were miserable, hungry, ignorant and illiterate. Asians and Europeans mingled freely, bound by a sense of brotherhood.
2. The writers failed to notice the essential freedom denied to the citizens, The people of USSR were not free to do as they liked. The Bolsheviks ruled like dictators and followed repressive policies to repidly develop the nation. The hard lives and poor working conditions of the people went unnoticed by these writers.
Activity (Page No. 48)
Imagine that you are a striking worker in 1905 who is being tried in court for your act of rebellion. Draft the speech you would make in your defence. Act out your speech for your class.
Your honour, as a worker, I did not commit any crime by participating in the rebellion of 1905. You know how the price of bread has gone up. My wages accordingly should have been increased so that my family did not starve. We eat only one meal a day, as there is no money to buy more food.
So what is wrong if I demand increase in wages? I am forced to work 15 hours a day, which is wrong. I have demanded an 8-hour working day, which is quite reasonable. Have I committed a crime in that? Now, I leave it to you to decided whether I am a criminal or not.
Write the headline and a short news item about the uprising of 24 October 1917 for each of the following newspapers :
1. a Conservative paper in France.
2. a Radical newspaper in Britain.
3. a Bolshevik newspaper in Russia.
1. For a conservative newspaper in France.
The Suppression of a Bolshevik Rebel: At dawn, military men seized the building of two Bolshevik newspapers. Pro-government troops were sent to take over telephone and telegraph offices and protect the Winter Palace.
2. For a Radical Newspaper in Britain:
Recognition of Bolshevik activity The city is in control of Bolshevik revolutionaries. All ministers have surrendered. At a meeting of the All Russian Congress of Soviets in Petrograd, the majority approved the Bolshevik action.
3. For a Bolshevik newspaper in Russia:
Bolsheviks win the war: The party has seized the Winter Palace and other Military Revolutionary Committees. We the people of Russia and followers of Bolshevik have finally captured the centre of power of government, i.e. the Moscow Petrograd area.
Imagine that you are a middle-level wheat farmer in Russia after collectivisation. You have decided to write a letter to Stalin explaining your objections to collectivisation. What would you write about the conditions of your life? What do you think would be Stalin’s response to such a farmer?
Leader of the Soviet Union,
I am a middle-level wheat farmer. I work very hard to produce crops. I obtain sufficient grain from this field which is enough to fulfill the necessities of my family. Therefore, grant me order to do farming on my own field and free my field from collectivisation.
(ii) Response of Stalin
New Street, Petrograd
I received your letter. You are obedient and find your right way. But you are not aware from collectivisation through which production would be increased and source of income too. Its reason is excessive dependence of agriculture on modern techniques. We are not taking your field, but instead are sharing the profits with others for unity and prosperity of the society. Therefore, you should obey the orders.
JAC Class 9th History Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Textbook Questions and Answers
What were the social, economic and political conditions of Russia before 1905?
1. Social Conditions :
The Europet countries had undergone important social changes during the 19th century, it the base of Russian Society was still feudalistic.
(a) The society was divided into two classes. The privileged class, which comprised of prosperous and influential people who had all the political and other rights.
(b) The non-privileged class, which consisted of farmers and workers formed about 90% of the Russian population. They had to work hard to meet their both ends.
2. Economic Conditions :
(a) Backwardness of industry and agriculture was the factor responsible for the Russian revolution.
(b) The peasants had to pay heavy dues for the land that they got. Their holdings were small and they had no resources to develop the land. Therefore, they occasionally pooled their land together into a commune and divided their income according to the efforts and needs of various families.
(c) The workers could be divided into three categories. The ‘State Factories’ were manned by peasants who came from the villages. The ‘Professional Factories’ were operated by skilled workers who had settled in cities. The ‘Manorial Factories’ were owned by landowners and operated on their estates.
(d) Women were employed in factories in large numbers, but they were paid much less than men.
3. Political Conditions :
(a) Tsar Nicholas II was an inefficient and short-sighted person. He was ruthless ruler, having no concern with administration or the welfare of his subjects.
(b) The common masses or their representatives had no participation in the political system of the country.
In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917?
Working population of Russia was vastly different from other European countries in the following ways
1. About 85% of the Russians, even in the early 20th century, were agriculturists. This proportion was much higher than other European countries.
2. Peasants were divided into groups. These divisions were incorporated due to religious sentiments. Unlike European peasants, Russian peasants had no respect for nobles. They wanted the land of nobles to be given to them. They refused to pay rent and even murdered the landlords.
3. Unlike European peasants, they were natural socialists. They pooled their land periodically and their commune divided it according to the needs of the individual.
4. Unlike Europe, in Russia, workers were divided into social groups. Divisions were based on skills. The ‘State Factories’, the ‘Professional Factories’ and the ‘Manorial Factories’ were the three categories in which Russian workers were divided.
5. The condition of the factory workers was miserable. They could not form any trade unions and political parties to express their grievances. Industrialists exploited the workers for their selfish ends. There was no limit of working hours, as a result of which they had to work for up to 12-15 hours a day.
Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?
The Tsarist autocracy collapsed in 1917 due to the interplay of many social, economic and political factors which were as follows :
1. The Russian state under Tsar Nicholas II was completely unsuited to the needs of modern times. The Tsar still believed in the autocratic divine right of the king.
2. The bureaucracy that the Tsar recruited was top heavy, inefficient and unflexible. Members were recruited on the basis of privileges and patronage, and not on merit.
3. The Tsar had built a vast empire and imposed Russian language and culture on diverse nationalities.
4. The peasants and workers who formed large section of the population were miserable and frustrated. The Tsar was totally ignorant, indifferent to their conditions and needs.
5. The Tsar Nicholas II imposed restrictions on political activity, changed voting laws and dismissed any questioning or restrictions on his authority.
6. At the beginning of the First World War, people rallied around the Tsar. But as the war prolonged, he refused to consult the main parties in the Duma. Thus, he lost the support. The Russian army lost the war. This led to over 3 million refugees in Russia, which worsened the condition. It exposed the economic bankruptcy of the government and increased liabilities on the already impoverished population. Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
7. The liberal ideas of the west and growth of socialist ideology led to the formation of many socialist groups which infused the workers and peasants with a revolutionary spirit.
Make two lists: One with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders and what was the impact of each on Soviet history?
Main Events of the February Revolution: The main events of the February Revolution were as follows :
- In the winter of 1917, conditions in the capital, Petrograd, were harsh.
- In the capital city, the workers’ quarters and factories were located on the right bank of the River Neva. On the left bank were the Winter Palace and official buildings, including the palace where the Duma met.
- In February 1917, food shortages were deeply felt in the workers’ quarters. The winter was very cold and severe.
- Parliamentarians wishing to preserve elected government were opposed to the Tsar’s desire to dissolve the Duma.
- On 22 February, a lockout took place at a factory on the right bank. The next day, workers in fifty factories called a strike in sympathy in which most were the women.
- Demonstrating workers crossed from the factory quarters to the centre of the capital-the Nevskii Prospekt.
- When the government imposed curfew, demonstrators dispersed by the evening, but they came back on the 24th and 25th.
- On 25th February, the government suspended the Duma. On 27th, the Police Headquarters were ransacked.
- The streets thronged with people raising slogans about bread, wages, better hours and democracy.
- The government tried to control the situation and called out the army but the army refused to fire on the demonstrators. By the evening, soldiers and striking workers had gathered to form a ‘Soviet’ or ‘Council’ in the same building as the Duma met. This was the Petrograd Soviet.
- The next day, a delegation went to see the Tsar. Military commanders advised him to abdicate. He abdicated on 2 March and in this way monarchy came to an end.
Effects of the February Revolution The effects of the February Revolution can be understood through following points :
- Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a Provisional Government to run the country.
- Russia’s future would be decided by a constituent assembly elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage.
- Restrictions on public meetings and associations were removed.
- In April 1917, the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin returned to Russia from his exile.
He made three demands known as ‘April Theses’. These demands were:
(a) the war be brought to a close,
(b) land be transferred to the peasants, and
(c) banks be nationalised.
Impact of February Revolution on Soviet History :
The February Revolution had no political party at its forefront. It was led by the people themselves. Petrograd had brought down the monarch and thus gained a significant place in Soviet history. Main Events of the October Revolution: Main events of the October Revolution were as following:
- As the conflict between the Provisional Government and the Bolsheviks grew, Lenin feared the Provisional Government would set up a dictatorship.
- He began discussion for an uprising against the government and brought together the Bolshevik supporters.
- On 16 October 1917, Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist seizure of power.
- A Military Revolutionary Committee was appointed by the Soviet under Leon Trotskii to organise the seizure.
- The uprising began on 24 October. Prime Minister Kerenskii had left the city. At dawn, military men loyal to the government seized the building of two Bolshevik newspapers.
- In a swift response, the Military Revolutionary Committee ordered its supporters to seize government offices and arrest ministers. The ship Aurora shelled the Winter Palace. By nightfall, the city was under the committee’s control and the ministers had surrendered.
Effects of the October Revolution Effects of the October Revolution were as follows:
- The Bolsheviks were totally opposed to private property. Therefore, private property in the means of production was abolished. Land and other means of production were declared as the property of the entire nation.
- Most industries and banks were nationalised in November, 1917.
- Land was declared social property and peasants were allowed to seize the land of the nobility.
- In cities, Bolsheviks enforced the partition of large houses according to family requirements.
- They banned the use of the old titles of aristocracy.
- The Bolshevik party was renamed the Russian Communist Party.
- The control of industries was given to the workers. All the banks, insurance companies, large industries, mines, water transports and railways were nationalised.
Impact of the October Revolution on Soviet history:
The October Revolution was primarily led by Lenin and his subordinate Trotskii and involved the masses who supported these leaders. It marked the beginning of Lenin’s rule over the Soviet, with the Bolsheviks under his guidance.
What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?
Bolsheviks immediately made the following changes after the October Revolution :
- The right to private property was abolished.
- They nationalised most industries and banks.
- Land was declared social property and peasants were allowed to seize the land of the nobility.
- In cities, Bolsheviks enforced the partition of large houses according to family requirement.
- They banned the use of the old titles of aristocracy.
- To assert the change, new uniform were designed for the army and officials, like the Soviet hat.
- The Bolshevik party renamed itself as the Russian Communist Party.
- All Russian Congress of Soviets became the parliament of the country.
- Trade unions were kept under party control.
- The secret police kept vigilance on citizens and punished those who criticised the Bolsheviks.
Write a few lines to show what you know about:
(b) The Duma
(c) Women workers between 1900 and 1930
(d) The liberals
(e) Stalin’s collectivisation programme.
(a) Kulaks: It is a term used for well-to-do peasants in Russia. In the period of Stalin, it was decided to eliminate Kulaks to develop modern farms, and run them along industrial lines with machinery.
(b) The Duma: Duma was an elected consultative Parliament. It was created by the Tsar during the 1905 Revolution, but later he dismissed the Duma because he did not want any questioning of his authority or any reduction in his power.
(c) Women workers between 1900 and 1930: Women workers in Russia constituted 31% of the factory labour force by 1914. They formed the unprivileged class, had no political status or political rights. They were discriminated, paid less than men, i.e., between half and three-fourths of a man’s wage.
Women, however, were in the forefront in agitations and strikes for better and equal wages, improvement in conditions of work 8 hours a day, reinstatements and voting rights. They were a source of inspiration for their male co-workers. On February 23, 1917, women led the way to strikes as recognition of their active and significant role. February 23 is celebrated as International Women’s Day.
(d) The Liberals: Liberals wanted to bring a change in the society. They wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. They opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They wanted to safeguard the rights of individuals against governments.
They also wanted to have an independent judiciary to interpret law. However, they were not ‘democrats’. They did not believe in universal adult franchise. They felt that only the person holding a property mainly had the right to vote. They also did not want the voting rights to be given to women.
(e) Stalin’s collectivisation programme: By 1927-1928, there was a great shortage of food grains in the towns of Soviet Russia. Stalin introduced a firm emergency measure which is known as collectivisation programme.
From 1929, the Party forced all peasants to cultivate in collective farms (kolkhoz). The bulk of land and implements were transferred to the ownership of collective farms. Peasants worked on the land, and the kolkhoz profit was shared