JAC Board Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources
→ Minerals are an indispensable part of our lives.
- They are homogeneous, a naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.
- Minerals are obtained from rocks.
- Certain rocks contain only one mineral while
- some other rocks contain many minerals.
- They vary in colour, lustre, density, and hardness.
- Minerals occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks in cracks, crevices, and joints.
- The smaller occurrence is called veins and the larger occurrence is called lodes.
- In sedimentary rocks, minerals occur in layers or beds, e.g., gypsum and potash.
- Certain minerals occur by the decomposition of surface rocks, e.g., bauxite.
- Some minerals involve alluvial deposits. These deposits are called placer deposits which are not corroded by water, e.g., gold, silver, etc.
- Ocean waters contain a vast quantity of minerals e.g., common salt, magnesium, etc.
→ Distribution of Mineral Resources in India
- India is fortunate to have plenty of minerals but they are unevenly distributed.
- Peninsular rocks contain reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica, etc.
- Sedimentary rocks in western and eastern coasts, Assam and Gujarat have petroleum deposits.
- Rock system in Rajasthan has non-ferrous minerals.
- The alluvial plains are devoid of economic minerals.
→ Ferrous Minerals
Ferrous minerals account for about three- fourths of the total value of the production of metallic minerals. They provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries.
→ Iron Ore
- It is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development.
- Magnetite is the finest iron ore with 70% iron content. Magnetite has magnetic qualities.
- Haematite is the most important industrial ore in terms of quantity used. It has 50%- 60% iron content.
→ Major Iron Ore Beits in India
- Odisha-Jharkhand Belt: High-grade haematite is found in the Badampahar mines in Odisha, Singhbhum district in Jharkhand.
- Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur Belt (Lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra): 14 deposits of super high-grade haematite is found. It is exported to Japan and South- Korea.
- Ballari-Chitradurga-Chikkamagaluru- Tumakuru Belt: It lies in Karnataka. Kudremukh mines are 100% export unit.
- Maharashtra-Goa Belt (Lies in Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra): Though the ores are not of good quality, they are exported through Marmagao port.
- It is used in manufacturing steel.
- 10 kg of manganese is required to manufacture 1 tonne of steel. Madhya Pradesh (27%) is the largest producer of manganese in India.
→ Non-Ferrous Minerals
Important non-ferrous minerals are: copper, lead, zinc, etc.
India is deficient in the production of copper. They are malleable, ductile and good conductor; used in electrical appliances, electronic and chemical industries. Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh, Khetri mines in Rajasthan are leading producers.
Aluminium is obtained from bauxite. Bauxite is strong like iron with extreme lightness. It is malleable and good conductor. 49% of bauxite is produced in Odisha.
→ Non-Metallic Minerals
- It splits easily into thin sheets.
- It is an indispensable mineral used in electric and electronic industries due to its dielectric strength, low power loss factor and resistance , to high voltage.
- It is found in sedimentary rocks,’composed in calcium and magnesium carbonates.
- It is the basic low material for cement industries and essential for iron ore in the refineries.
→ Conservation of Minerals
- Industry and agriculture are strongly dependent on minerals.
- The process of mineral formation is very slow in comparison to its present consumption.
- They are ,finite and non-renewable.
- Continued extraction from greater depth leads to increasing costs and decreases in quality.
- Improved technologies need to be evolved to lower the costs.
- Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substances are the steps to consume the minerals for the future.
→ Energy Resources
- Energy is required for all the activities, i.e., to cook, to provide light and heat, to propel vehicles and to drive machinery. Energy resources are of two types:
- Conventional Resources: Include firewood, cattle dung cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity.
Non-conventional Resources: Include solar, the wind, tidal, geothermal, bio-gas and atomic energy.
Used for power generation, to supply energy to industry and domestic need.
→ Types of Coal
- Peat: Decaying plants in swamps produce peat. It has low carbon, high moisture, and low heating capacity.
- Lignite: It is a low grade brown coal.
Neyveli in Tamil Nadu has great reserves of lignite. This is also used for generation of electricity.
- Bituminous: It is buried deep and subjected to increased temperatures. Most popular coal in commercial use.
- Anthracite: It is the highest quality hard coal.
- Coal occurs in rock series of 2 main geological ages- Gondwana and Tertiary.
- It provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for industries.
- Most of the petroleum occurrences are of tertiary age.
- Mumbai, Gujarat and Assam are major petroleum-producing states in India.
- Assam is the oldest oil producing state in India.
→ Natural Gas
- Natural gas is found in association with or without petroleum.
- It is an environment-friendly fuel because of the low carbon dioxide emission.
- Large reserves are found in the Krishna- Godavari basin.
- The 1700 km long Hazira-Vijaypur- Jagdishpur cross-country gas pipeline links Mumbai High and Bassien.
- Per capita consumption of electricity is considered as an index of development.
- It is generated in two ways: Hydro electricity and Thermal electricity.
→ Hydro Electricity:
It is generated by fast flowing water. It is a renewable fuel. In India, there are many multi-projects like Bhakra Nangal, Kopili, Hydel project, etc. Thermal Electricity: It is generated by using coal, petroleum and natural gas. It is a non-renewable fossil fuel.
→ Importance of Non-Conventional Source of Energy
- Growing consumption of energy resulted in the over dependent on fossil fuels, like coal, petroleum, etc.
- Rising prices of oil and gas have raised uncertainties about the supply in future.
- Increasing use of fossil fuels results in the environmental problems.
- Therefore, there is a pressing need to use renewable resources like solar, wind, tidal energy, etc
→ Nuclear/Atomic Energy
- It is obtained by altering the structure of atoms.
- Uranium and Thorium are used for generating electricity.
- Monazite sands of Kerala are rich in thorium.
→ Solar Energy
- Since India is a tropical country, there are enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy.
- Photovoltaic technology directly converts sunlight into electricity.
- It will minimize the use of firewood and dung cakes in rural areas.
→ Wind Power
The largest wind farm cluster is located in TamilNadu, between Nagercoil and Madurai.
- Shrubs, fast waste animal, and human waste are used to produce bio-gas for domestic use in rural areas.
- It has higher thermal efficiency.
- The plants using cattle dung are called ‘Gobar Gas Plants’.
- It has two benefits: Providing energy for electricity and providing manure.
→ Tidal Energy
- Oceanic tides are used to generate electricity.
- Gulf of kachchh in Gujarat, Gulf of Khambhat provide tidal energy.
→ Geothermal Energy
- Heat and electricity is produced by using the heat from the interior of the Earth.
- Ground water absorbs the heat from the rocks and becomes hot.
- There are hundreds of hot springs in India.
- Two experimental projects have been set up-one in Manikaran (Himachal Pradesh) and the other in Puga valley (Ladakh).
→ Importance of Conservation of Energy Resources
- Energy is a basic requirement for economic development.
- Every sector of the national economy, i.e., agriculture, industry, domestic, etc. needs inputs of energy.
- Consumption of energy has been increasing since independence.
- Energy conservations and use of renewable energy are the two features of sustainable energy.