JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources

JAC Board Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources

→ Minerals are an indispensable part of our lives.

  • They are homogeneous, a naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.
  • Minerals are obtained from rocks.
  • Certain rocks contain only one mineral while
  • some other rocks contain many minerals.
  • They vary in colour, lustre, density, and hardness.
  • Minerals occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks in cracks, crevices, and joints.
  • The smaller occurrence is called veins and the larger occurrence is called lodes.
  • In sedimentary rocks, minerals occur in layers or beds, e.g., gypsum and potash.
  • Certain minerals occur by the decomposition of surface rocks, e.g., bauxite.
  • Some minerals involve alluvial deposits. These deposits are called placer deposits which are not corroded by water, e.g., gold, silver, etc.
  • Ocean waters contain a vast quantity of minerals e.g., common salt, magnesium, etc.

→ Distribution of Mineral Resources in India

  • India is fortunate to have plenty of minerals but they are unevenly distributed.
  • Peninsular rocks contain reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica, etc.
  • Sedimentary rocks in western and eastern coasts, Assam and Gujarat have petroleum deposits.
  • Rock system in Rajasthan has non-ferrous minerals.
  • The alluvial plains are devoid of economic minerals.

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources

→ Ferrous Minerals
Ferrous minerals account for about three- fourths of the total value of the production of metallic minerals. They provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries.

→ Iron Ore

  • It is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development.
  • Magnetite is the finest iron ore with 70% iron content. Magnetite has magnetic qualities.
  • Haematite is the most important industrial ore in terms of quantity used. It has 50%- 60% iron content.

→ Major Iron Ore Beits in India

  • Odisha-Jharkhand Belt: High-grade haematite is found in the Badampahar mines in Odisha, Singhbhum district in Jharkhand.
  • Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur Belt (Lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra): 14 deposits of super high-grade haematite is found. It is exported to Japan and South- Korea.
  • Ballari-Chitradurga-Chikkamagaluru- Tumakuru Belt: It lies in Karnataka. Kudremukh mines are 100% export unit.
  • Maharashtra-Goa Belt (Lies in Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra): Though the ores are not of good quality, they are exported through Marmagao port.

→ Manganese:

  • It is used in manufacturing steel.
  • 10 kg of manganese is required to manufacture 1 tonne of steel. Madhya Pradesh (27%) is the largest producer of manganese in India.

→ Non-Ferrous Minerals
Important non-ferrous minerals are: copper, lead, zinc, etc.

→ Copper
India is deficient in the production of copper. They are malleable, ductile and good conductor; used in electrical appliances, electronic and chemical industries. Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh, Khetri mines in Rajasthan are leading producers.

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources

→ Bauxite
Aluminium is obtained from bauxite. Bauxite is strong like iron with extreme lightness. It is malleable and good conductor. 49% of bauxite is produced in Odisha.

→ Non-Metallic Minerals

  • It splits easily into thin sheets.
  • It is an indispensable mineral used in electric and electronic industries due to its dielectric strength, low power loss factor and resistance , to high voltage.

→ Limestone

  • It is found in sedimentary rocks,’composed in calcium and magnesium carbonates.
  • It is the basic low material for cement industries and essential for iron ore in the refineries.

→ Conservation of Minerals

  • Industry and agriculture are strongly dependent on minerals.
  • The process of mineral formation is very slow in comparison to its present consumption.
  • They are ,finite and non-renewable.
  • Continued extraction from greater depth leads to increasing costs and decreases in quality.
  • Improved technologies need to be evolved to lower the costs.
  • Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substances are the steps to consume the minerals for the future.

→ Energy Resources

  • Energy is required for all the activities, i.e., to cook, to provide light and heat, to propel vehicles and to drive machinery. Energy resources are of two types:
  • Conventional Resources: Include firewood, cattle dung cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity.
    Non-conventional Resources: Include solar, the wind, tidal, geothermal, bio-gas and atomic energy.

→ Coal
Used for power generation, to supply energy to industry and domestic need.

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources

→ Types of Coal

  • Peat: Decaying plants in swamps produce peat. It has low carbon, high moisture, and low heating capacity.
  • Lignite: It is a low grade brown coal.
    Neyveli in Tamil Nadu has great reserves of lignite. This is also used for generation of electricity.
  • Bituminous: It is buried deep and subjected to increased temperatures. Most popular coal in commercial use.
  • Anthracite: It is the highest quality hard coal.
  • Coal occurs in rock series of 2 main geological ages- Gondwana and Tertiary.

→ Petroleum

  • It provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for industries.
  • Most of the petroleum occurrences are of tertiary age.
  • Mumbai, Gujarat and Assam are major petroleum-producing states in India.
  • Assam is the oldest oil producing state in India.

→ Natural Gas

  • Natural gas is found in association with or without petroleum.
  • It is an environment-friendly fuel because of the low carbon dioxide emission.
  • Large reserves are found in the Krishna- Godavari basin.
  • The 1700 km long Hazira-Vijaypur- Jagdishpur cross-country gas pipeline links Mumbai High and Bassien.

→ Electricity

  • Per capita consumption of electricity is considered as an index of development.
  • It is generated in two ways: Hydro electricity and Thermal electricity.

→ Hydro Electricity:
It is generated by fast flowing water. It is a renewable fuel. In India, there are many multi-projects like Bhakra Nangal, Kopili, Hydel project, etc. Thermal Electricity: It is generated by using coal, petroleum and natural gas. It is a non-renewable fossil fuel.

→ Importance of Non-Conventional Source of Energy

  • Growing consumption of energy resulted in the over dependent on fossil fuels, like coal, petroleum, etc.
  • Rising prices of oil and gas have raised uncertainties about the supply in future.
  • Increasing use of fossil fuels results in the environmental problems.
  • Therefore, there is a pressing need to use renewable resources like solar, wind, tidal energy, etc

→ Nuclear/Atomic Energy

  • It is obtained by altering the structure of atoms.
  • Uranium and Thorium are used for generating electricity.
  • Monazite sands of Kerala are rich in thorium.

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources

→ Solar Energy

  • Since India is a tropical country, there are enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy.
  • Photovoltaic technology directly converts sunlight into electricity.
  • It will minimize the use of firewood and dung cakes in rural areas.

→ Wind Power
The largest wind farm cluster is located in TamilNadu, between Nagercoil and Madurai.

→ Bio-Gas

  • Shrubs, fast waste animal, and human waste are used to produce bio-gas for domestic use in rural areas.
  • It has higher thermal efficiency.
  • The plants using cattle dung are called ‘Gobar Gas Plants’.
  • It has two benefits: Providing energy for electricity and providing manure.

→ Tidal Energy

  • Oceanic tides are used to generate electricity.
  • Gulf of kachchh in Gujarat, Gulf of Khambhat provide tidal energy.

→ Geothermal Energy

  • Heat and electricity is produced by using the heat from the interior of the Earth.
  • Ground water absorbs the heat from the rocks and becomes hot.
  • There are hundreds of hot springs in India.
  • Two experimental projects have been set up-one in Manikaran (Himachal Pradesh) and the other in Puga valley (Ladakh).

→ Importance of Conservation of Energy Resources

  • Energy is a basic requirement for economic development.
  • Every sector of the national economy, i.e., agriculture, industry, domestic, etc. needs inputs of energy.
  • Consumption of energy has been increasing since independence.
  • Energy conservations and use of renewable energy are the two features of sustainable energy.

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes