JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

JAC Board Class 10 Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

→ Popular struggles in Nepal and Bolivia Movements for democracy in Nepal

  • Nepal witnessed an extraordinary popular movement in April 2006. The movement was aimed at restoring democracy.
  • The movement of April 2006 was aimed at retaining popular control over the government from the king.
  • All the major political parties in the parliament formed a Seven Party Alliance (SPA) and called for four-day strike in Kathmandu, the country’s capital.
  • The number of protesters reached between three to five lakhs on 21 April and they served an ultimatum to the king.
  • The leader of the movement rejected the half-hearted concessions made by the king.
  • They stuck to their demand for restoration of parliament, the power to an all party government and a new constituent assembly.
  • On 24 April 2004, the last day of the ultimatum; the king was forced to concede all the three demands.
  • The SPA chose Girija Prasad Koirala as the new Prime Minister of the interim government.
  • This struggle came to be known as Nepal’s second movement for democracy.

→ Bolivia Water War

  • Bolivia is a poor country in Latin America.
  • World Bank pressurized the government to give up the control of water supply. So, the government to sell the rights of water supply to M.N.C.
  • As soon as they get the right of water supply, they increased the price of water by four times.
  • This bought troubles in lives of common people and led to a popular protest.
  • In January 2000, an alliance of labour human rights organizations called for a four day strike in city. Hence, the government agreed to negotiate but nothing happened.
  • The agitation was started again in February and April, but the government tried to suppress the movement.
  • But the power of people forced the M.N.C. to flee the city and made the government to accept all the demands.
  • The contract with M.N.C. was cancelled and water supply was restored to Municipality.

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

→ Democracy and popular struggles

  • What are differences between Bolivia and Nepal?
  • The movement in Nepal was to establish democracy but movement in Bolivia was against the policy of an elected democratic government.
  • The popular struggle in Bolivia was about one specific policy while the struggle in Nepal was about the foundation of country’s politics.

→ What are similarities between Bolivia and Nepal?

  • Both of these are instances of political conflicts that led to popular struggles.
  • In both cases, the struggle involved mass mobilization.
  • Public demonstration of mass support clinched the dispute.

→ Conclusion

  • Democracy evolves through popular struggles.
  • Democracy involves conflict between those who are in power and those who aspires for power.
  • Democratic conflicts are resolved through mass mobilization.
  • If the conflicts cannot be resolved by parliament the solution will come from people. ,
  • These conflicts and mobilization are based on new political organization.

→ Mobilization and organizations

  • The protest against water privatization in Bolivia was not led by any political party.
  • It was led by an organization called FEDECOR.
  • This organization comprised of local professionals, including engineers and environmentalists.
  • The movement was supported by the socialist party. In 200.6, this party came to power in Bolivia.
  • From both these examples, we can see that in a democracy several different kinds of organizations work behind any big struggle.
  • These organizations play their role in two ways:
    • One-way of influencing the decisions in a democracy is direct participation in competitive politics.
    • There are many indirect ways in which people can get governments to listen to their demands or their points of view.

→ Pressure groups and movements

  • Pressure groups are organizations that attempt to influence government policies.
  • These organizations are formed when people with common occupation, interest, aspirations or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective.

→ Sectional interest groups and public interest groups

  • Interest groups seek to promote the interests of a particular section or group of society.
  • Their principal concern is the betterment and well-being of their members, not society in general.
  • Sometimes these organizations are not about representing the interest of one section of society. They represent some common or general interest that needs to be defined. These type of groups are called promotional groups or public interest groups.
  • They promote collective rather than selective goods. They aim to help groups other than their own members.

→ Movement groups

  • As in the case of interest groups, the groups involved with movements include a very wide variety.
  • Most of the movements are issues specific movements that seek to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame.
  • The movement started with the specific issues of the people displaced by the creation of Sardar Sarovar dam on the Narmada River. Its objective was to stop the dam from being constructed.
  • These single-issue movements can be contrasted with movements that are long terms and involve more than one issue.
  • Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in a variety of ways:
    • They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals and their activity by carrying out information
      campaigns, organizing meetings, file petition, etc.
    • They often organize protest activity like strikes or disrupting government programs.
    • Business groups often employ professional lobbyists or sponsors expensive advertisements.
    • In some instances, the pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties.
    • Sometimes political parties grow out of movements.
    • In most cases, the relationship between parties and interest or movement groups is not so direct.

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

→ Is their influeqce healthy?

  • It may initially appear that it is not healthy for groups that promote the interest of one section to have influence in democracy.
  • It may seem that these groups wield power without responsibility.
  • Pressure groups and movements may not get their funds and support from the people.
  • Putting pressure on the rulers is not unhealthy activity in a democracy as long as everyone gets this opportunity.
  • Public interest groups and movements perform a useful role in countering this useful role or countering this undue influence and reminding the government of the needs and concerns of ordinary citizens.

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes