JAC Board Class 8th Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 5 Industries
→ Secondary activities or manufacturing change raw materials into products of more value to people. Industry is an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services.
→ Classification of Industries:
On the basis of raw materials, size and ownership, industries are classified.
→ Raw Materials:
- Depending upon the type of raw materials used, they are classified accordingly. Industries may be agro-based, mineral based, marine based and forest based.
- Plant and animal based products are used as their raw materials in Agro-based industries.
- The primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials in Mineral based industries.
- Marine based industries use products from the sea and oceans as raw materials.
- Forest based industries utilise forest produce as raw materials.
- Size depicts the amount of capital invested, number of people employed and the volume of production.
- Industries can be classified into small scale and large scale industries based on its size.
- In a small scale industry, the products are manufactured by hand, by the artisans.
- In large scale industries, investment of capital is higher and the technology used is superior.
- Industries can be classified into private sector, public sector or state owned, joint sector and cooperative sector.
- Private-sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals.
- The public sector industries are owned and operated by the government.
- Joint sector industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals.
- Co-operative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both.
→ Factors Affecting Location of Industries:
- The factors affecting the location of industries are the availability of raw material, land, water, labour, power, capital, transport and market.
- Industrialisation often leads to development and growth of towns and cities.
→ Industrial System:
- An industrial system consists of inputs, processes and outputs.
- The inputs are the raw materials, labour and costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure.
- The processes include a wide range of activities that convert the raw material into finished products.
- The outputs are the end product and the income earned from it.
→ Industrial Regions:
- Industrial regions emerge when a number of industries locate close to each other and share the benefits of their closeness.
- Major industrial regions of the world are eastern North America, western and central Europe, eastern Europe and eastern Asia.
- India has several industrial regions such as Mumbai-Pune cluster, Bangalore-Tamil Nadu region, Hugh region, Ahmedabad- Baroda region, Chhota Nagpur industrial belt, Vishakhapatnam-Guntur belt, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region and the Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram industrial cluster.
→ Distribution of Major Industries:
- The world’s major industries are the iron and steel industry, the textile industry and the information technology industry.
- The countries in which iron and steel industry is located are Germany, USA, China, Japan and Russia.
- Textile industry is mainly concentrated in India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan.
- The major hubs of information technology industry is the Silicon Valley of Central California and the Bangalore region of India.
→ Iron and Steel Industry:
- Iron and steel industry is a feeder industry whose products are used as raw material for other industries.
- Steel is tough and it can easily be shaped, cut, or made into wire.
- Alloys give steel unusual hardness, toughness, or ability to resist rust.
- Steel is often called the backbone of modem industry.
- Most of the things we use is either made of iron or steel or has been made with tools and machinery of these metals.
- Before 1800 A.D. iron and steel industry was located where raw materials, power supply and running water were easily available. Later the ideal location for the industry was near coal fields and close to canals and railways. After 1950, iron and steel industry began to be located on large areas of flat land near sea ports.
- In India, iron and steel industry has developed taking advantage of raw materials, cheap labour, transport and market.
- All the important steel producing centres such as Bhilai, Durgapur, Bumpur, Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaro are situated in West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha and Chhattisgarh. Bhadravati and Vijay Nagar in Karnataka, Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, Salem in Tamil Nadu.
- Before 1947, there was only one iron and steel plant in the country – Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited (TISCO) and it was privately owned.
- After independence, the government took the initiative and set up several iron and steel plants.
- Jamshedpur is the most conveniently situated iron and steel centre in the country.
- In Jamshedpur, several other industrial plants were set up after TISCO. They produce chemicals, locomotive parts, agricultural equipment, machinery, tinplate, cable and wire.
- Almost all sectors of the Indian industry depend heavily on the iron and steel industry for their basic infrastructure. It opened the doors to rapid industrial development in India.
- It is an important steel city of the United States of America. The steel industry at Pittsburgh enjoys locational advantages.
- The Pittsburgh area has many factories other than steel mills. These use steel as their raw material to make many different products such as railroad equipment, heavy machinery and rails.
- Today, very few of the large steel mills are in Pittsburgh itself.
→ Cotton Textile Industry:
- Cotton, wool, silk, jute, flax have been used for making cloth and weaving cloth from yam is an ancient art.
- Fibres are the raw material of textile industry. Fibres can be natural or man-made.
- Natural fibres are obtained from wool, silk, cotton, linen and jute. Man-made fibres include nylon, polyester, acrylic and rayon.
- The cotton textile industry is one of the oldest industries in the world.
- In 18th century power looms facilitated the development of cotton textile industry, first in Britain and later in other parts of the world.
- The important producers of cotton textiles are India, China, Japan and the USA.
- Before the British rule, Indian hand-spun and handwoven cloth already had a wide market.
- The Muslins of Dhaka, Chintzes of Masulipatnam, Calicos of Calicut and Gold-wrought cotton of
- Burhanpur, Surat and Vadodara were known worldwide for their quality and design.
- The production of handwoven cotton textile was expensive and time consuming.
- The first successful mechanised textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.
- Initially this industry flourished in the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat because of favourable humid climate.
- Nowadays, it can be created artificially, and some of the other important centres are Coimbatore, Kanpur, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Ludhiana, Puducherry and Panipat.
- The first mill was established in 1859.
- It soon became the second largest textile city of India, after Mumbai.
- Ahmedabad was often referred to as the ‘Manchester of India’.
- Ahmedabad is situated very close to cotton growing area.
- The densely populated states of Gujarat and Maharashtra provide both skilled and semi-skilled labour.
- In the recent years, Ahmedabad textile mills have been having facing some problems. This is due to the emergence of new textile centres in the country as well as non- upgradation of machines and technology in the mills of Ahmedabad.
- It is an important textile centre of Japan and also known as the ‘Manchester of Japan’.
- The textile industry at Osaka depends completely upon imported raw materials.
- Cotton is imported from Egypt, India, China and USA.
- The finished product is mostly exported and has a good market due to good quality and low price.