JAC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources

Jharkhand Board JAC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

JAC Board Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources

Jharkhand Board Class 10 Science Management of Natural Resources Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What changes would you suggest in your home in order to be environment-friendly?
Certain changes can be applied in our daily routine at home to be environment- friendly.

  • Check the wastage of water. Not letting the water run while brushing, soaping or washing.
  • Turning off lights and fans when not in use.
  • Avoid wastage of water, food and energy.
  • Reusing the materials whenever possible.
  • Use solar water heater and cookers.
  • Reduce the garbage.
  • Make small rainwater harvesting system if possible.

Question 2.
Can you suggest some changes in your s school which would make it environment-friendly?
A school can become environment-friendly by following ways:

  • Growing plants and trees all around the play ground.
  • Making a rainwater harvesting system.
  • Arranging solar cell pannel if possible.
  • Making compost of biomass waste collected e.g., food waste, fallen leaves, etc.

Question 3.
We saw in this chapter that there are four main stakeholders when it comes to forests and wildlife. Which among these should have the authority to decide the management of forest produce? Why do you think so?
Out of the four main stakeholders, the local people living near the forest areas should given the authority to decide the management of forest produce.

Because these people know the traditional methods to use the natural resources in sustainable manner. These local people have been using the forest and wildlife resources since the ancient times without causing any damage to environment.

JAC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources

Question 4.
How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to the management of (a) Forests and wildlife, (b) Water resources and (c) Coal and petroleum?
Contribution of an individual to the management of:
(a) Forests and wildlife : Do not waste paper, use less paper, recycle the waste paper, minimise the wooden furniture, etc. help into save trees. Any animal products like fur, skin, tusk, horn, etc. should not be used by killing them.

(b) Water resources : Stop the wastage of water in daily routine. Instead of shower, use buckets to take bath, to wash the car. Close the taps properly. Do not let the water run while brushing, soaping or washing.

(c) Coal and petroleum : To walk or to use a bicycle over a short distance, use of public transport switching of unnecessary electrical appliances.

Question 5.
What can you as an individual do to reduce your consumption of the various natural resources?
At an individual level, I will do following activities that can help to reduce the consumption of the various natural resources :

  • Switch off electric appliances when not in use.
  • Turn off tap when not in use.
  • Minimum use of auto-vehicles.
  • No wastage of food.
  • No wastage of paper.
  • Say no to plastic.

Question 6.
List five things you have done over the last one week to –
(a) conserve our natural resources.
(b) increase the pressure on our natural resources.
(a) To conserve our natural resources:

  • Turned off tap while brushing, soaping, etc.
  • Walking to the nearby places.
  • Switched off lights when not in use.
  • Reusing envelopes by turning them.
  • Using cracked crockery for growing the plant.

(b) To increase the pressure on our natural resources :

  • Frequent use of plastic bags and throwing these anywhere.
  • Often wastage of food
  • Buying leather belt, purse and shoes.
  • Leaving the light / lamp on even when not needed.
  • Tearing the pages of notebook.

Question 7.
On the basis of the issues raised in this chapter, what changes would you incorporate in your lifestyle in a move towards a sustainable use of our resources?
The Ganga Action Plan was launched in 1985 to improve the quality of water in Ganga and remove the pollution caused by disease causing microorganisms. Faecal coliform bacteria were found in Ganga water indicating contamination.

Jharkhand Board Class 10 Science Management of Natural Resources InText Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What changes can you make in your habits to become more environment-friendly?
We can make following changes in our habits to become more environment-friendly:

  • Use of paper bags, jute bags instead of plastic bags.
  • Walk or cycle to cover short distance.
  • Do not throw garbage anywhere.
  • Use of renewable resources and biodegradable substances.
  • Switching off electrical appliances when not required.
  • Do not pollute and waste water.

Question 2.
What would be the advantages of exploiting resources with short-term aims?
The advantages of exploiting resources with short-term aims are as follows :

  • We will able to meet current basic human needs.
  • It will be beneficial for the present generation.
  • There will be rapid industrial growth, agricultural growth and hence, economic development.

Question 3.
How would these advantages differ from the advantages of using a long-term perspective in managing our resources?
Using a long-term perspective is to reap the profit in a sustainable manner so that the natural resources will last for generations to come and will not merely be exploited to hit short-term gains. All the sections of society should be made aware about conservation and protection of the environment.

JAC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources

Question 4.
Why do you think that there should be equitable distribution of resources? What forces would be working against an equitable distribution of our resources?
There should be equitable distribution s of resources so that both rich as well as poor, will get benefitted. Powerful and rich people take advantage of their influence and get more benefit as compared to weak and poor people. Money and power are important factors which work against the proper distribution of resources.

Question 5.
Why should we conserve forests and wildlife?
We should conserve forests because they,

  • Provide raw materials for various industries.
  • Provide fruits, vegetables, fodder, grass, etc.
  • Provide medicines, herbs, gum, resin, catechu, etc.
  • Provide habitat to animals.
  • Prevent soil erosion and flood.
  • Provide sources for economic and social growth.
  • Play an important role in maintaining CO2 – O2 balance in the atmosphere. Regulate earth’s average temperature.

Importance of wildlife conservation :

  • To maintain forest ecosystem and ecological balance in nature.
  • It helps into maintain forests by facilitating growth of plants in different places by dispersing seeds.
  • Flow of energy in trophic levels maintained and biodiversity increases.

Question 6.
Suggest some approaches towards conservation of forests.
Approaches towards conservation of forests are :

  • Indiscriminate felling of trees for the purpose of timber must be reduced.
  • The forest ecosystem must be protected from fuel starved villages, fodder-starved cattles and commercial exploitation.
  • Replantation of trees and also plantation of indiginous species to develop forests in all available land.
  • Participation of local people and villagers must be taken in conservation of forests.
  • Scientific research, monitoring and spreading awareness about conservation of forests through education.

Question 7.
Find out about the traditional systems of water harvesting / management in different regions of India.

Region Traditional water harvesting system
Rajasthan Khadins, tanks and nadis
Maharashtra Bandharas and tals
Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh Bundhis
Bihar Ahars and pynes
Himachal Pradesh Kulhs
Kandi belt of Jammu Ponds
Tamil Nadu Eris (tanks)
Karnataka Kattas
Kerala Surangams

Question 8.
Compare the traditional water harvesting system with the probable systems in hilly mountainous area or plains or plateau regions.
Traditional water harvesting system in hilly and mountainous area is different from plains and from plateau region.

Example: In hilly areas like Himachal Pradesh there is a local system of irrigation called Kulhs. The water flowing in the streams is diverted into man-made channels which takes this water to numerous villages down the hillside.

Whereas water in plains is collected in check dams or tanks, tals or bundhis.

Question 9.
Find out the source of water in your region / locality. Is water from this source available to all people living in that area?
The source of water in our region is municipal corporation supply of water and from ground water source. There is scarcity of water during summer and most people have to wait in long queues at the nearest municipal water tap to collect water for their daily consumption.

Activity 16.1 [T. B. Pg. 266]

To find out the international norms to regulate the emission of carbon dioxide.

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activity.
  • The international norms to regulate the emission CO2 are based on Kyoto Protocol.
  • This protocol was negotiated in December, 1997 at the city of Kyoto, Japan and came into force on February 16th, 2005.
  • As of December 2006, a total of 169 countries have signed the agreement.
  • Under this protocol, industrialised countries must reduce their collective emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases to an average of 5 % against 1990 levels.


Question 1.
Why is it necessary to regulate the emission of carbon dioxide?
Carbon dioxide is a major greenhouse gas that causes global warming. Which results into climate change. So, it is necessary to regulate the emission of carbon dioxide.

Question 2.
Which is the simplest way to regulate the CO2 level in environment?
Plantation of trees and conservation of green cover on the earth is the simplest way to regulate the CO2 level in environment.

Question 3.
What is global warming?
Global warming is the increase in average temperature of the earth’s environment due to increase in amount of greenhouse gases.

JAC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources

Activity 16.2 [T. B. Pg. 267]

To find out the names of organisations involved in spreading awareness about the conservation of natural resources.

NGO (Non Government Organisations) such us SEACOLOGY and Mera Desh Foundation spread awareness about the environment and promote activities that lead to conservation of natural resources.

Some other organisations that work for the conservation of the environment.

  • CSE – The Centre for Science and Environment
  • TER – The Energy and Resources Institute
  • WTI – Wildlife Trust of India.


Question 1.
Which organisation(s) is/are active to spread awareness about conservation of our environment and natural resources in your village / town / city?

  • Natural resource management
  • Core environmental NGOs
  • Centre for Environment and Social Concerns.

Question 2.
How you can contribute towards the conservation of our environment and natural resources.
We can contribute towards the conservation of our environment and natural resources by following:

  • Limit the use personal vehicle, instead use public transport.
  • Minimise the wooden furniture at our home.
  • Do not waste paper and other natural resources.
  • Do not pollute water reservoirs.
  • Do not use insecticides / pesticides.
  • Do not cut trees, do not clear forests.

Activity 16.3 [T. B. Pg. 268]

To check the pH of tap water and compare it with pH of the water in the local water body.

Apparatus: Test tubes or beaker

Materials : Universal pH indicator / litmus paper


  • Take water sample from tap of your home in a test tube.
  • Add few drops of the universal indicator into the test tube containing tap water.
  • Observe the water sample in the test tube for colour change.
  • Test pH using a litmus paper, in the water sample placed in a beaker.
  • Dip the litmus paper into the water in the local water body.
  • Observe colour changes of the litmus paper.


  • Test tube containing tap water, turns yellow colour with addition of pH indicator.
  • Litmus paper does not show colour change with tap water.
  • Water sample collected from pond shows red colour with pH indicator.
  • Litmus paper turns red as it is dipped in water of local water body.

The uncontaminated tap water is neutral while water of local water body is acidic.


Question 1.
What is the cause for acidic water in water body?
Pollution is the main cause for acidic water in water body.

Question 2.
Can aquatic life survive in acidic water of water body?
No, aquatic life cannot survive in acidic water.

Question 3.
Can you say whether the water is polluted or not on the basis of your observations?
Yes, tap water is clean and non-polluted. Water of water body is polluted.

Activity 16.4 [T. B. Pg. 269]

To visit a town or village after a few years of absence, note down the major developmental changes there.

Major developmental changes in a village are

  • New roads have been built
  • New houses have been constructed.
  • Factory and new market have been setup.

Questions :

Question 1.
Make a list of the materials for making roads and buildings with their probable sources.

Materials Probable sources
Granite Rocks
Cement Factories. Raw materials obtained from nature.
Bricks Soil
Steel Mined from the soil
Wood Forest

Question 2.
What are the ways in which the materials used in construction can be reduced?

  • Roads can be built with cement or with polymer plastic mix instead of coaltar.
  • By using cement and iron to make beams and by using aluminium or fibreglass to make windows and doors, we can reduce the usage of wood.

Activity 16.5 [T. B. Pg. 270]

To prepare a report on traditional practices for conservation of nature in day-to-day life.

Traditional practices for conservation of nature :

  • Tulsi, Calotropis, Asopalav, Ficus (Pipal), Khejdo, Banyan trees and various other trees are planted, which are considered sacred and worshipped by the people in . majority of Indian villages and towns.
  • Several birds, cow and even snakes have been considered sacred. Therefore, they are protected.
  • The concept of cultural landscape such as sacred forests, sacred corridors and a variety of ethno-forestry practices are the means for protection of nature and natural resource. They are observed by people.
  • Several rivers have been considered sacred.

Activity 16.6 [T. B. Pg. 271]

To know about our dependency on forest resources.

Questions :

Question 1.
Make a list of forest products that we commonly use.
Wood, bamboo, fuel, timber, fruits, herbs, paper, medicine and many other products that we commonly use come from forests.

Question 2.
What do you think a person living near a forest would use?
A person living near a forest might use wood, fodder, dry leaves, bamboo, fruits, vegetables, herbs, etc.

Question 3.
What do you think a person living in a forest would use?
A person living in a forest is almost entirely dependent on the forest for all basic needs, i.e., fire wood, small timber, fodder and grass, bamboo, nuts and medicines, food, clothing, shelter, fishing, hunting, etc.

Question 4.
How these needs depend upon the person’s area in which they live?
People who live in a village or town are less dependent on forest than those who live in or near the forest.

Activity 16.7 [T. B. Pg. 272]

To name any two products of forest used in an industry and find out a sustainable alternative for such products.

  • Tendu leaves are used in Bidi industry. Essential oils are used in the manufacture of soaps and cosmetic industry.
  • Over exploitation of forests is not sustainable in the long run. We need to control our consumption. Plantation of trees is necessary.

JAC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources

Activity 16.8 [T. B. Pg. 275]

To debate following topics which are concerned with the damage caused to forests:

  • Building rest houses for tourists in national parks.
  • Grazing domestic animals in national parks.
  • Tourists throwing plastic bottles / covers and other litter in national parks.

(a) The rest houses made in national park for tourists become hub of activities, which damage ecology of forests. Tourists see forest as travel destination. They cause pollution and disturb natural environment of forests.

(b) Over grazing of domestic animals leaves little or no grass for the herbivores animals that live in forests. Thus their number slowly decreases, in turn disturbs the upper trophic levels of the food chains in the forests.

(c) Tourists throwing plastic wastes in national parks cause pollution. Plastic is non-biodegradable wastes.

Decomposers cannot decompose it and such dumped waste piles up. Biotic components of national parks are adversely affected.

Activity 16.9 [T. B. Pg. 275]

In Maharashtra, the village suffering from chronic water shortage surround a water theme park to get water for their needs.

Debate whether they get optimum use of available water or they should search for alternative rain water harvesting.


  • No, the construction of a water theme park in the region of water scarce area in wrong decision.
  • Water is a basic need for all living organisms. If people are suffering due to lack of drinking water and water for other uses too, how will they amuse themselves with a water park.
  • This is unequal distribution of water resources. People should oppose this and the authorities should first provide adequate supply of water to people. People should also search for alternative rain water harvesting.

Activity 16.10 [T. B. Pg. 275]

Study the pattern of rainfall in various parts of India from atlas.

Do by yourself.

Conclusion :
Rainfall more than 200 cm in North-East part of India and the regions of water scarcity where rainfall is less than 25 cm are part of Rajasthan and Gujarat.

Activity 16.11 [T. B. Pg. 279]

To find ways to reduce our consumption of coal and petroleum.

Some ways to reduce our consumption of coal and petroleum are as follows :

  • Take a public transport instead of using your personal vehicle.
  • Use CFL instead of bulbs.
  • Install solar water heater.
  • Walk or cycle to nearby places instead of using motorised vehicles.
  • Switch off vehicles at red lights.
  • Use pressure or solar cookers to cook food, keep proper air pressure in tires, etc.
  • Wearing an extra sweater instead of using heater or sigri in cold days.
  • Taking the stairs instead of using the lift up to 3-4 floors.
  • Using efficient engines that ensures complete combustion of fuels.

Activity 16.12 [T. B. Pg. 279]

To find out the norms for emission from vehicles.

  • Euro norms refer to the permissible emission level from petrol and diesel vehicles, which have been implemented in Europe.
  • These norms require manufacturers to reduce pollution emission levels in an efficient manner by making technical changes in the vehicles they manufacture.
  • Under the Euro norms, emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), burnt hydrocarbons (HCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) are regulated.
  • The European Union has been upgrading emission norms as well as the fuel quality standards in stages :
    Norms Implemented
    Euro I → 1992 – 93
    Euro II → 1996 – 97
    Euro III → 2000
    Euro IV → 2005
  • The enforcement of these norms help in reducing air pollution due to vehicular s emissions.

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