JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes History Chapter 3 The Making of Global World

JAC Board Class 10 Social Science Notes History Chapter 3 The Making of Global World

→ Human societies have become steadily more interlinked.

  • Travellers, traders, priests and pilgrims travelled vast distances for carrying goods, money, ideas, skills, inventions and even germs and diseases.
  • Indus Valley Civilisation was linked with present West Asia. Cowries was a form of currency from the Maldives.

→ Silk Routes Link the World:

  • The Silk routes proved to be a great source of trade and cultural link between distinct parts of the world.
  • The silk routes were regarded as the most important routes linking the distant parts of the world.
  • These routes existed even before the Christian Era and flourished till the 15th century.
  • The Buddhist preachers, Christian missionaries and later on Muslim preachers used to travel by these routes.
  • Food Travels: Food offers many examples of long distance cultural exchange. Foods like potatoes, soya, maize, etc., were not known to our ancestors.

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes History Chapter 3 The Making of Global World

→ Conquest, Disease and Trade:

  • The world shrank in the 16th century after the European sailors found a sea route to Asia and America.
  • The Indian subcontinent had been known for bustling trade with goods, people, customs and knowledge. It was a crucial point in their trade network.
  • After the discovery of America, its vast lands, abundant crops and minerals began to transform trade and lives everywhere.
  • Precious metals, particularly silver from mines located in Peru and Mexico enhanced Europe’s wealth and financed its trade with Asia.
  • The Portuguese and Spanish conquest and colonisation of America was underway.
  • The most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon but germs of small pox which they carried.
  • America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against such types of diseases.

→ A World Economy Takes Shape:

  • Abolition of the com law.
  • Under pressure from the landowners’ groups, the government restricted the import of foodgrains.
  • After the com laws were scrapped, food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced in the country.
  • British farmers were unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were left uncultivated.
  • As food prices fell, consumption in Britain rose.
  • Faster industrial growth in Britain led to higher incomes and more food imports.

→ The Role of Technology:

  • Technology had a great impact on the transformation of the 19th century world such as railways, steamship and telegraph.
  • Technological advances were often the results of social, political and economic factors.
  • The refrigerated ships helped to transport the perishable food items over a long distance.
  • It facilitated the shipment of frozen meat from America, Australia or New Zealand to different European countries.

→ The Nineteenth Century (1815 to 1914)

  • In the 19th century, economic, political, social, cultural and technological factors interacted in complex ways to transform societies and reshape external relations by European cqnquests.
  • Rinderpest or the cattle plague: It was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed Italian soldiers. Rinderpest killed 90% of the cattle and destroyed African livelihoods.
  • Meaning of ‘Indentured labour’ – ‘Indentured labour’ means labour by a bonded labourer under contract to Work for an employer for a specific period of time.
  • It brought higher income for some and poverty for others.
  • In the 19th century indenture was described as a new system of slavery.
  • Living conditions were harsh but workers discovered their own ways to survive.
    • Indian bankers financed export agriculture in Central and South-East Asia
    • Britain had ‘Trade surplus’ with India- Value of British exports were bigger than the value of imports from India.

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes History Chapter 3 The Making of Global World

→ The Inter War Economic:

  • The First World War was mainly fought in Europe.
  • During this time, the world experienced economic and political instabilities and another miserable war.
  • The First World War was fought between ; two power blocs. On the one hand were the allies – Britain, France, Russia and later joined the US, and on the opposite side- Germany, Austria, Hungary, Ottoman and Turkey.
  • This war lasted for four years.

→ Technological Transformations:

  • Modem industrial war- First-time modem weapons like machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc., were used on a massive scale.
  • Millions of soldiers had to be recruited from around the world, and most of them were men of working age.
  • British borrowed large sums from US banks.
  • The war transformed the US from being an international debtor to an international creditor.
  • US recovery was quicker after the war.
  • Important feature of the US economy of 1920’s was mass production.

→ The Great Depression:
Factors responsible for depression

  • Agricultural overproduction made the price of agriculture products slumping.
  • Many countries financed their investment through the loan they got from the USA.
  • American capitalists stopped all loans to European countries.
  • In Europe, it led to a failure of some major banks and collapse of currencies like Sterling.
  • Doubling the import duties by the USA, which hit the world trade badly.

→ Bretton Woods Institutions:

  • To deal with external surpluses and deficits a conference was held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, the USA.
  • International Monetary Fund and World Bank were set up to finance post war restructuring.
  • The post war international economic system is known as Bretton Woods system.
  • This system was based on fixed exchange rates.
  • IMF and World Bank are referred to as Bretton Woods Twins.
  • The US has an effective right of veto over key IMF and World Bank.

→ Decolonisation and Independence:

  • Most developing countries did not benefit from the fast growth of Western economies in the 1950s and 60s.
  • They organised themselves as a group, the group of 77 or G-77 to demand a New International Economic Order (NIEO).
    • The relQcation of industry to low wage countries stimulated world trade and capital flow.
    • Because of New economic policy, china became a favourite destination for the MNCs to invest.
  • It was a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, more development assistance, fairer prices for I raw materials and better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries, markets.
  • In last two decades, the economy of the world has changed a lot as countries like China, India and Brazil have achieved rapid economic development.

→ End of Bretton Woods and the Beginning of ‘Globalisation’

  • The US dollar could not maintain in relation to gold
  • It led collapse of the system of fixed exchange rates and introduction of floating exchange rates.
  • 1970’s MNCs also started shifting production to low-wage countries.
  • The relocation of industries to low wage countries stimulated the world trade and capital flow.

JAC Class 10 Social Science Notes

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