JAC Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries
JAC Class 10th Geography Manufacturing Industries InText Questions and Answers
Do you have some ideas about these industries?
The diyas are usually handcrafted by the people in the cottage industries. Factories which make sugar are agro – based industries. Industries which depend on agricultural raw materials for manufacturing products are known as agro – based industries, e.g. sugar, tea, coffee. Shoes, utensils and clothes are made in factories which may be small or large, may be owned jointly or by the government or by an individual or a group.
Classify the following into two groups on the basis of bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods. Oil, Knitting needles, Brassware, Fuse wires, Watches, Sewing machines, Shipbuilding, Electric bulbs, Paint brushes, Automobiles
On the basis of bulk and weight of raw materials and finished goods, industries can be classified as heavy industries and light industries.
1. Heavy industries:
Oil, brassware, ship-building, automobiles.
2. Light industries:
Knitting needles, fuse wires, watches, sewing machines, electric bulbs, paint brushes.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi lay emphasis on spinning yarn and weaving khadi?
Mahatma Gandhi laid emphasis on spinning. yam and weaving khadi because it could generate employment in rural areas and make the villagers more self – sufficient. It encouraged the use of country – made clothes instead of purchasing imported machine – made clothes.
Why is it important for our country to keep the mill sector loomage lower than power loom and handloom?
The mill sector employs less people than the power loom and handloom industries. Less importance is to be given to mill sector loomage to encourage the power looms and handloom which generates lot of employment in the rural areas. It gives a boost to the rural economy and tries to make the villagers self – sufficient. It is to sustain the livelihoods of the weavers and the growth of the village community.
Why is it important for us to improve our weaving sector instead of exporting yarn in large quantities?
Yam is an unprocessed product. Therefore, exporting it would bring less profit. If the weaving sector is improved, it will offer employment to many workers and the fabric can be sold at a much higher value. This will bring in more profit.
Make a list of all such goods made of steel that you can think of.
Some goods made of steel are auto parts, surgical tools, defence equipment, household items like cutlery, etc.
Why is the per capita consumption of steel so low in India?
The per capita consumption of steel is low in Iqdia because:
- Infrastructure is poor. Steel needs to be transported and hence, transport network needs to be improved. Power supply is erratic.
- High cost of steel makes it difficult to manufacture it and many to buy it.
Collect information about products of steel plants in India.
Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods.
Have you read about the Kalinganagar controversy? Collect information from different sources and discuss.
Kalinganagar is a planned industrial town in Jajpur district, Odisha. It is rich in iron ore. It is a tribal area and when Tata Steel decided to set up their plant, there was resistance by the local tribal people of the region as they would have lost their land and subsequently their livelihood. On January 2, 2006 there was police firing where few tribals were killed. This led to issues of setting up of steel plant and industrialisation in Odisha. Read journals, magazines and visit the archives to read the old newspapers to find out details of the controversy.
A factory produces aluminium sauce pans with plastic handles. It obtains aluminium from a smelter and a plastic component from another factory. All the manufactured saucepans are sent to a warehouse.
(a) (i) Which raw material is likely to be most expensive to transport and why?
(ii) Which raw material is likely to be the cheapest to transport and why?
(b) Do you think the cost of transporting the finished products after packaging is likely to be cheaper or more expensive than the cost of transporting aluminium and plastic? Why?
(a) (i) Aluminium smelting requires bauxite which is very bulky and heavy. Therefore, aluminium is likely to be expensive to transport as aluminium smelting becomes expensive.
(ii) Plastic is likely to be cheapest to transport because plastic factories are widely spread all over the country. Plastic is not heavy and can be easily transported.
(b) Transporting the finished product after packaging will be expensive because packaging needs care and the finished products need to be handled carefully.
Where would it be economically viable to set up the cement manufacturing units?
Cement requires heavy raw materials like limestone, silica, gypsum and alumina. It also requires coal and power. Therefore, cement industries will be ideally located near the source of raw material and where coal is found in abundance, andthere is a good power supply.
Find out where the plants are located in other states of India. Find their names.
The names of the major companies in cement industry and locations of their major eement plants in India are given below:
1. India Cements:
4 plants in Andhra Pradesh at Yerraguntla, Chilamkur, Vishnupuram and Malkapur. 3 plants in Tamil Nadu at Sankir Nagar, Dalavoi and Sankari.
2. Jaypee Group Century Cement:
- Cluster of plants at Satna, Madhya Pradesh Plants at
- Baikunth, Dist. Raipur in Chhattisgarh,
- Sarlanagar, Dist. Satna, in Madhya Pradesh
- Gadchandur, Dist. Chandrapur, Maharashtra
- Sagardighi, Dist. Murshidabad, Paschim Banga
3. L & T Cement: 5 plants at:
- Jafrabad, Gujarat
- Hirmi, Chhattisgarh
- Chandrapur, Maharashtra
- Tadipatri, Andhra Pradesh
- Arakonam, Tamil Nadu
4. ACC Cement:
17 plants spread over the states of Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Paschim Banga
5. Cement Corporation of India: 41 plants all over India
6. Ambuja Cement:
16 plants spread over the states of Gujarat, Paschim Banga, Chhattisgarh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Kerala and Maharashtra
7. JK Cement: Gotan, Mangrol and IMiimbahera, all in Rajasthan
JAC Class 10th Geography Manufacturing Industries Textbook Questions and Answers
What are the different forms of power sharing in modern democracies? Give an example of each of these.
(i) Which one of the following industries uses limestone as a raw material?
(ii) Which one of the following agencies markets steel for the public sector plants?
(c) TATA Steel
(iii) Which one of the following industries uses bauxite as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium Smelting
(a) Aluminium Smelting
(iv) Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computer, etc.
(c) Aluminium Smelting
(d) Information Technology
Answer the following briefly in not more than 30 words.
(a) What is manufacturing?
(b) Namp any three physical factors for the location of the industry.
(c) Name any three human factors for the location of an industry.
(d) What are basic industries? Give an example.
(e) Name the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement?
(a) Manufacturing is production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products.
(b) Three physical factors for the location of the industry are:
- Availability of raw material
- Cheap and efficient power supply
- Suitable climate for the establishment of an industry, especially the agro-based industries.
(c) Three human factors for the location of an industry are:
- Availability of cheap and skilled labourers.
- Availability and access to services, such as banking, insurance, consultants and financial advice, etc.
(d) Basic industries are those industries on which other industries depend for the supply of raw materials to produce other goods. For example, iron and steel industry is a basic industry, which is required for the manufacture of automobiles, engineering goods, medicines, scientific equipment, etc.
(e) The important raw materials used in the manufacture of cement are limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum.
Write the answers of the following questions in 120 words.
(a) How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?
(b) How do industries pollute the environment?
(c) Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry?
(a) An integrated steel plant is large. It handles everything in one complex from putting together raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping. Mini steel plants are smaller than the integrated steel plants. They have electric furnaces, use steel scrap and sponge iron. They produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications. Though India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world, it is not able to perform to its full potential because of the following problems:
- high costs and limited availability of coking coal,
- lower productivity of labour,
- irregular supply of power, and
- poor infrastructure.
Liberalisation and Foreign Direct Investment along with the efforts of private entrepreneurs have given a boost to the industry. There is a need to allocate resources for research and development to produce steel more computatively.
(b) Industries cause four types of pollution: air, water, thermal and noise.
(i) Air pollution:
It is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide; solid and liquid air – borne particulate matters like dust, smoke, etc. Smoke is emitted by various factories, refineries, and by burning of fossil fuels. Gas leaks can be hazardous with long term effects.
(ii) Water pollution:
It is caused by the organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents discharged into rivers from factories, such as paper and pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries, electroplating industries, etc. Pollutants like dyes, detergents, acids, mercury, pesticides, and fertilisers get released into water bodies. Fly ash, phosphogypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes in India.
(iii) Thermal pollution:
It occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling. Wastes from nuclear power plants and weapon production facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages. Soil becomes polluted from dumping of wastes, such as glass, chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging, etc. which contaminate the ground water.
(iv) Noise pollution:
It results in irritation and anger, also causes hearing impairment, increase in heart rate, blood pressure and psychological effects also. It is a source of stress.
(c) Various steps can be taken to minimise environmental degradation by an industry:
- Minimising the use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages.
- Harvesting rainwater to meet water requirements
- Treating hot water and effluents releasing them in rivers and ponds. Industrial effluents can be treated in three phases
- Primary treatment by mechanical means, such as screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation.
- Secondary treatment by biological process.
- Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes. This involves recycling of wastewater.
- Overdrawing of groundwater should be regulated.
- Factories should be fitted with smoke stacks, electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators to reduce particulate matter and smoke.
- Oil and gas can be used instead of coal.
- Machineries and generators should be fitted with silencers.
Give one word for each of the following with regard to industry. The number of letters in each word are hinted in brackets.
(a) Used to drive machinery
(b) People who work in a factory
(c) Where the product is sold
(d) A person who sells goods
(e) Thing produced
(f) To make or produce
(g) Land, Water and Air degraded
NCERT ‘Project’ Work
Select one agro-based and one mineral based industry in your area.
1.What are the raw materials they use?
2. What are the other inputs in the process of manufacturing that involve transportation cost?
3. Are these factories following environmental norms?
- Take an appointment with the owner or manager of these industries and arrange a visit.
- List the raw materials, machines and number of people employed.
- Classify the industry.
- Where do the processed goods go? Are these goods sold in the market or they go for further processing?
- Who are the buyers or consumers of these products?
- Find out what steps they are taking to control the pollution from their factories. Find out if any nearby river or any water body is getting polluted by the discharge from the industries.
Solve the puzzle by following your search horizontally and vertically to find the hidden answers.
- Textiles, sugar, vegetable oil and plantation industries deriving raw materials from agriculture are called.
- The basic raw material for sugar industry.
- This fibre is also known as the ‘Golden Fibre.
- Iron – ore, coking coal, and limestone are the chief raw materials of this industry.
- A public sector steel plant located in Chhattisgarh.
- Railway diesel engines are manufactured in Uttar Pradesh at this place.
- IRON AND STEEL