JAC Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Economics Chapter 2 People as Resource
I. Objective type Questions
1. Which of the following has the stock of skill and productive knowledge embodied in them?
(a) Human capital
(d) Physical capital
(a) Human capital
2. Which of the following is a primary activity?
3. The work force population includes people from:
(a) 0-14 years
(b) 15-35 years
(c) 15-59 years
(d) None of these
(c) 15-59 years
4. In which of the following areas is disguised unemployment found?
5. Which type of unemployment is found in urban areas?
(a) Seasonal umemployment
(b) Disguised unemployment
(c) Educated unemployment
(d) None of these.
(c) Educated unemployment
II. Very Short Answer Type Questions
Define human capital.
When investment is made in the form of education, training and medical care, the quality of population improves and it becomes a great asset. This is called human capital.
How is human resource superior to land and capital?
Human resource is superior to land and capital as only it can make use of land and capital.
Which county has invested most in human resources?
Japan has invested most in human resources.
In how many sectors are economic activities classified?
Economic activities are divided into three major sectors, i.e. primary, secondary and tertiary.
Agriculture is an activity of which sector?
Agriculture is an activity of the primary sector.
Manufacturing is an activity of which sector?
Manufacturing is an activity of the secondary sector.
Banking is included in which sector of activity?
Classify economic activities.
Economic activities are classified into two types:
- Market activities
- Non-market activities.
What does the quality of the population depend upon?
The quality of the population depends upon the literacy rate, health of a person indictated by life expectancy and skill formation acquired by the people of the country.
Which type of population is an asset for an economy?
A literate and healthy population is an asset for an economy.
Name any two programmes being run to increase enrolment in elementary education.
- Bridge courses
- Back-to-school camps.
Which scheme is being implemented to encourage attendance and retention of chil-dren and improve their nutritional status?
Mid-Day Meal scheme.
Which age group of people are included in the workforce population?
The work force population consists of people in the age group of 15 to 59 years.
What do you mean by Infant Mortality Rate?
Infant Mortality Rate is the number of the deaths of infants under one year of age. Per 1000 live births.
What types of unemployment has been found in India?
- Seasonal unemployment,
- Disguised unemployment,
- Educated unemployment,
Which type of unemployment is seen in rural areas?
There is seasonal and disguised unemployment in rural areas.
What kind of unemployment is seen in urban areas?
Urban areas mostly witness educated unemployment.
Write any two disadvantages of unemployment.
- Unemployment leads to wastage of manpower resource.
- Unemployment tends to increase economic overload.
What does e increase in unemployment indicate?
Increase in unemployment is an indicator of a depressed economy.
III. Short Answer Type Questions
Explain population as an asset for the economy rather than a liability.
Often, population is considered as a liability and we talk only about its negative aspects like the problems of food, education and health facilities. But in fact, population is an asset for the economy. It becomes human capital when the investment made has; be.gr in the form of education, training and medical care. It makes a contribution in’the creation of the Gross National Product. It is called human resources and has much more important than other resources like land, capital, etc.
Why do educated parents invest heavily on the education of their child?
Educated parents invest more heavily on the education of their child because they have realised the importance of education for themselves. They are also conscious about proper nutrition and hygiene. They accordingly look after their children’s needs for education at school and for their good health. A child with investments made on his/her education and health, can yield a high return in the future in the form of higher earnings, resulting in greater contribution to society and country.
How did countries like Japan become developed?
These countries did not have natural resources. But they have invested on people, especially in the field of education and health. These people have made efficient use of other resources like land and capital. Efficiency and the technology evolved by people have made these countries rich and developed. So, human resource is the driving force behind the development of these countries.
What is the difference between market activities and non-market activities?
Explain market and non-market activities.
1. Market activities:
Market activities involve remuneration to anyone with performs them, i.e. activity performed for pay or profit. These include production of goods or services, including government service.
2. Non-market activities:
Non-market activities involve production for self-consumption. These can be consumption and processing of primary product for own use, and own account production of fixed assets. *
Mention any four causes responsible for unemployment in India.
Four causes responsible for unemployment in India are as follows:
- Population explosion,
- Low productivity in agriculture sector,
- Defective educational system,
- Defective economic planning,
Explain different types of unemployment found in India.
1. Seasonal Unemployment:
When people do not find jobs during some months of the year, this situation is known as seasonal unemployment.
In this situation, people appear to be employed while actually they are not contributing to the productivity.
3. Educated Unemployment:
When educated people even highly educated people, fail to get a good job, then the situation is called educated unemployment. Now this has become a common phenomenon in India.
“Employment structure is characterised by self-employment in the primary sector.” Explain this statement.
This statement refers to the agricultural sector, where most of the people are small farmers with land holdings of less than two hectares. They are self employed because the whole family works on the land, though not all are really needed. The whole family shares what has been produced. This concept of sharing of work in the farm and sharing the produce reduces the hardship of unemployment in rural areas.
IV. Long Answer Type Questions
How can a large population be turned into a productive asset? Explain.
People are the most important resource of a country. If a country invests more on its people’s welfare they can be turned into a productive asset.
The following points explain this:
- If a nation provides better education and training then this investment will develop a more skilled and innovative workforce. This can contribute in the growth of the economy.
- Investment in the form of education will ensure good employment opportunities to the people who can not only improve their living standard but also will be able to contribute to the national income of the country.
- Health is a very important aspect of life. Investment on healthcare facilities of the population will allow people to avail these facilities and this can lead to a healthy environment for them to develop.
- The government should invest in the rural and backward regions and in modernization of agriculture. Through this investment, the population of rural and backward areas can be transformed into an asset.
Throw light on the working women in India.
What is the condition of working women in India?
The condition of working women can be described as follows:
- A great number of women have less education and low skill levels.
- Women are paid less as compared to men.
- Most women work where job security is not available.
- Various measures relating to legal protection for women are weak.
- Most women work in unorganised sector.
- In unorganised sector, there is an absence of basic facilities like maternity leave, Childcare and other social security system
However, educated and skilled women are paid at par with the men. Some women have entered administrative and other services which need high levels of scientific and technological competence. Teaching and medicine sectors attract women the most.
Describe some measures taken by the government to spread education in India.
Some measures taken by the government to spread education in India are as follows:
- Our constitution has a provision to provide universal, free education up to the age of 14 years. So, our central government has started a project named “Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan” in partnership with the states to provide elementary education to all children.
- Mid-Day Meal scheme has been started to encourage attendence and retention of children and improve their nutritional status.
- ‘Bridge courses’ and ‘Back-to-School’ camps have been inititated to increase the enrolment in elementary education.
- Special schools like Navodaya Vidyalaya have been established in each district.
- Vocational streams have been developed to provide knowledge and skills related with various occupations for High School students.
- The primary school system has expanded to over 5,00,000 villages in India.
- Special emphasis has been laid on girls’ education.
What are the disadvantages of unemployment? Name two types of unemployment prevailing in India.
Disadvantages of unemployment: Disadvantages of unemployment are as follows:
- It is a wastage of manpower resource.
- It increases the economic overload.
- It tends to increase the number of dependent population.
- Increase in unemployment is an indicator of a depressed economy.
Two types of unemployment found in India are:
1. Seasonal unemployment:
When people do not find jobs during some months of the year, this situation is known as seasonal unemployment. This type of unemployment is seen in the agricultural sector. Agriculture being a seasonal activity, most of the labour is required during sowing and harvesting. At other times, the labourer is unemployed.
2. disguised unemployment:
This type of unemployment occurs when all the members of a family of a small farmer are working in the fields, but all may not be required. Similar is the case of family-owned shops, where all family members may be work-ing at the shop, but all are not required. Actually they are working at less than full productivity.