JAC Board Class 9th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 3 Nazism and the Rise of Hitler
JAC Class 9th History Nazism and the Rise of Hitler InText Questions and Answers
Activity (Page No. 61)
Read Sources A and B :
1. What do they tell you about Hitler’s imperial ambition?
2. What do you think Mahatma Gandhi would have said to Hitler about these ideas?
1. The two texts (Source ‘A’ and Source ‘B’) tell that Hitler’s imperialistic ambition was to expand the boundaries of Germany till wherever they could possibly reach. In Source ‘A’ he believed that an aggressive nation will find methods to adjust its teritory to its population’s size. In source ‘B’, he was comparing Germany’s size to that of Russia and wanted Germany to become a world power of similar size.
2. Mahatma Gandhi held a strongly opposite view. He believed in non-violence and peaceful co-existence of different races, communities and nations. Gandhi would have told Hitler to drop the idea of aggression against other nations from his mind, as violence begets violence.
Activity (Page No. 63)
What does citizenship mean to you? Look at Chapters 1 and 3 and write 200 words on how the French Revolution and Nazism defined citizenship.
For me, Citizenship is a fundamental right of any person to live in his birth country or any favourable country. The French Revolution and Nazism both defined citizenship with different points of view.
1. French Revolution:
As per the French Revolution, all men are equal and free by birth and their rights are also equal. Freedom, prosperity, protection and protest against exploitation are the initial rights of a citizen. All men are free to express their views and to reside at any place of their choice. In a democratic country, there is rule of law and no one is above the law.
2. Citizenship in the view of Nazism:
Nazism defined citizenship on the basis of racial hierarchy. Therefore, they denied the citizenship of the Jews. Moreover, they treated them very cruelly and threw out them from Germany.
What did the Nuremberg Laws mean to the ‘undesirables’ in Nazi Germany? What other legal measures were taken against them to make them feel unwanted?
Basically, The Nuremberg Laws of citizenship of September 1935, meant that the ‘undesirables’ had no right to live along with the other citizens. These included Jews, Gypsies, Blacks and other nationalities like Polish and Russian people. Following other legal measures were taken against them to make them feel unwanted :
- Only persons of German or related blood would henceforth to be German citizens, enjoying the protection of the German empire.
- Marriages between Jews and Germans were forbidden.
- Extramarital relations between Jews and Germans were declared a crime.
Activity (Page No. 66)
If you were a student sitting in one of these classes, how would you have felt towards Jews?
If I had been a student sitting in one of these classes, I would have felt very bad as I would be missing my friends who used to play with me earlier. I would have felt sympathetic towards them and would have hated the Nazi government for this action. Other legal measures included:
- Boycott of Jewish businesses.
- Expulsion from government services.
- Forced selling and confiscation of their properties.
- Jews were forbidden to hoist the national flag.
Have you ever thought of the stereotyped of other communities that people around you believe in? How have they acquired them?
I have thought about the stereotypes of other communities that we believe in. They usually inherit from their forefathers and the traditions and customs of the community to which they belong.
Activity (Page No. 67)
Look at Figs. 23, 24 and 27. Imagine yourself to be a Jew or a Pole in Nazi Germany. It is September 1941, and the law forcing Jews to wear the Star of David has just been declared. Write an account of one day in your life.
I was roaming on the streets of Berlin. I was very hungry and thirsty. I was searching for a gentle German lady who could give me a loaf of bread. But Alas! This could be my never ending search. Soon I heard a noise of a crowd which was chasing some boys. The people told me to enter in that crowd. All people wore a Star of David. As I felt that they were also Jews like me, I also ran along with them but unfortunately I was caught with them and all of us were thrown into the concentration camp.
Activity (Page No. 69)
How would you have reacted to Hitler’s ideas if you were:
1. A Jewish woman
2. A non-Jewish German woman
- As a Jewish woman, I would have reacted with fear sense of insecurity, anger and hatred.
- As a non-Jewish German woman, I would try to mobilise support secretly and help the victims of Nazi persecution.
What do you think this poster (Fig. 28) is trying to depict?
I think this poster is trying to make mockery of the Jews by projecting them as money hungry.
Activity (Page No. 70)
Look at Figs. 29 and 30 and answer the following: What do they tell us about Nazi propaganda? How are the Nazis trying to mobilise different sections of the population?
From figure 29 and 30, we learn about the Nazi propaganda that they conduct in order to win the support of the working classes. The second poster is telling them to vote for Hitler, who has fought of the frontline in World War II. The first poster is condemning the Capitalists and Bolsheviks, because they are enemies of Nazism. By this method, the Nazis tried to mobilise different sections of the society to their cause.
Activity (Page No. 71)
Why does Erna Kranz say, ‘I could only say for myself? How do you view her opinion?
Erna Kranz was telling Lawrence Rees about his personal experiences of the 1930s. According to him, people were now seeing hope. People’s salary has increased. Germany will develop again afresh. Now a good era is about to begin.
Activity (Page No. 74)
Write a one page history of Germany.
1. As a school child in Nazi Germany.
2. As a Jewish survivor of a concentration camp.
3. As a political opponent of the Nazi regime.
1. As a school child in Nazi Germany:
In Nazi Germany, the condition of school children was very miserable. The Nazis started their ideological training when the child was three years old. As soon as he even started to think, he was given a small flag to wave. Ten-year-olds had to enter Jungvolk, a Nazi school. At 14, all boys had to join the Nazi youth organization, Hitler Youth, where they learnt to worship war, glorify aggression and violence, condemn democracy, and hate Jewish communities, gypsies and all those categorised as ‘undesirable’.
After a period of rigorous ideological and physical training, they joined the labour service, usually at the age of 18. Then they had to serve in the armed forces and enter one of the Nazi organisations. In this way, their whole life was spent under the conservative thinking which was forced on them. School children were segregated from their Jewish friends. They had to read textbooks that were prepared only for advertising the Nazi ideas. Even the function of sports was to nurture a spirit of violence and aggression among children. They were forced to choose boxing for sport.
2. As a Jewish survivor of a concentration camp:
The German Nazis will be always remembered for their brutality towards the Jews. This is a black chapter of German history. Jews from Jewish houses, concentration camps and ghettos from different parts of Europe were brought to death factories by goods trains where they were brutally tortured. I am afraid still now to remember those incidents.
Although I was alive there, but I felt my death hundred times. Jews were often persecuted through periodic organised violence and torture and then sent to concentration camps. Finally, they were left in gas chambers for death. The life of Jews were very miserable even out of the concentration camps. They were terrorised, pauperised and segregated from the society, and forced to leave the country.
All Jews had to wear a yellow Star of David on their breasts. This identity mark was stamped on their passport and houses too. They were kept in Jewish houses like ghettos that became sites of extreme misery and poverty. In any case of suspection or violation of law, they were sent to concentration camps where a new period of torture was started which resulted into their death. Millions of Jews were killed in gas chambers in front of our eyes.
3. As a political opponent of the Nazi regime:
Nazi rule in Germany was built up on the foot of propaganda. Nothing would be found to acquire new territories by war. This never brings a long peace and prosperity in any country. Although, I am a strong supporter of nationalism, but Nazi meaning for nationalism was totally disagreeable to me.
To achieve German nationalism, an investment of large amount on army is not right from any point of view. Nazi behaviour towards women and children was totally unfair. To hate the Jews and worship Hitler was complete injustice to them. The history will never forgive the Nazis for their failed trial to mislead the German masses by the propaganda of their uncivilian characters.
Imagine that you are Helmuth. You have had many Jewish friends in school and do not believe that Jews are bad. Write a paragraph on what you would say to your father.
Dear Papa, I have many Jewish friends. We are learning to hate the Jews in our school. Jews have been thrown out from the school and taken to gas chambers for death. After all, what sin have they committed for which they are being treated like this? Why they are doing this to the Jews? Why Jews are sentenced to death illegally?
Are they not human beings like us? Do they not feel like us? Can you imagine if someone brought me to gas chamber and leave me there for death? Is the acceptance of Jewish religion a crime? If yes, then what will be the punishment for Christians whatever they are doing with Jews? Jesus will never forgive the Nazis for their brutality towards The Jews.
JAC Class 9th History Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Textbook Questions and Answers
Describe the problems faced by the Weimar Republic.
Weimar Republic faced many problems right since its birth. These were as follows:
- This Republic carried the burden of war guilt and was financially disabled by being forced to pay war compensation.
- Hyperinflation made the German mark valueless and caused immense hardship for the common man.This economic crisis led to widespread inflation, misery and despair.
- In the Weimar Republic, both the communists and socialists became staunch enemies and could not make common cause against Adolf Hitler.
- Both revolutionaries and militant nationalists craved for radical solutions, which was not easy. Within its short life, the Weimar Republic saw twenty different cabinets and the liberal use of Article 48. All this created a political crisis in Germany.
- It became very unpopular among the Germans because it lost the vanity of the nation to the hands of Allied powers.
Discuss why Nazism became popular in Germany by 1930.
The principal causes responsible for popularising Nazism in Germany can be summed up as follows :
1. Discontent due to the Treaty of Versailles:
After defeating the Germany, Allies had imposed many unjust conditions on Germany. It was forced to accept them under the threat of aggression. The aggression gave rise to Nazism in Germany.
2. Political Instability in Germany:
Under the Weimar Republic, there existed political instability. Between 1919-1933 A.D. as many as 21 coalition governments were formed and dissolved. Policies changed frequently. Democracy failed to give any relief to the people. Hitler promised a stable and strong government. He won the support of the people.
3. Unfaithful democracy in Germany:
Germany had no tradition of running a parliamentary democracy. Germany to say the least was “a democracy without democrat”. The democracy was against the German culture and tradition. Therefore, people could not understand the functional activities of parliamentary institutions. There were deep political differences between the communists and the Nazis. Because of above reasons democracy failed to achieve faith among German citizens.
4. The Economic Crisis:
Unemployment, inflation, price-rise, ruin of German trade and industry, coupled with general world depression created economic disaster of the worst order in Germany. Hitler blamed the Weimar republic for the plight of the masses and promised relief to the people on economic front, and he won their confidence.
5. Threat of Communism:
The communists in Germany tried to stage a revolution on the pattern of the Soviet revolution of 1917 A.D. Thus, the German capitalists extended full support to Hitler’s Nazi Party as the party was against socialism.
6. Hitler’s Dynamic Personality:
Hitler had a dynamic personality. He was influential and charming. He was a great organiser, an excellent orator and a tireless worker. His passion and his words moved people. He promised to build a strong nation, undo the injustice of the Versailles Treaty and restore the dignity of the German people. His appeal touched the emotions of the people.
What are the peculiar features of Nazi thinking?
The peculiar features of Nazi thinking were as follows:
- They believed that the strong should rule the world and the rest should accept their leadership.
- They believed in racial hierarchy, where the Nordic German1 Aryans were at the top and the Jews at the lowest rung.
- The Nazis believed that the Jews were their irreconcilable enemies. So the Jews were victimized and killed.
- The Nazis believed in the geopolitical concept of ‘Lebensraum’ or living space i.e., new territories had to be acquired for the German nation.
- Women were seen as mere bearers of the Aryan culture and race.
Explain why Nazi propaganda was effective in creating a hatred for Jews.
Nazi propaganda was effective in creating a hatred for Jews because of the following reasons :
1. Role of Traditional Christians:
Jews remained the worst sufferers in Nazi Germany. Nazi’s hatred for Jews had a precursor in the traditional Christian hostility towards Jews. They had been stereotyped as killers of Christ and usurers. Until medieval times, Jews were barred from owning land. They survived mainly through trade and money lending.
2. Various Theories:
The Nazis started using theories of Darwin” and Herbert Spencer to propagate against Jews. So, people started justifying their hatred for Jews as they were considered inferior race and had no right to survive according to these two theories.
3. Propaganda at School Level:
Nazis started their propaganda right from school level. School textbooks were rewritten to justify ideas of race.
4. Propaganda at Home:
Motherhood was also used by Nazis to propagate against the Jews. Mothers were supposed to teach their children Nazi values. There was a code of conduct for all the women.
5. Propaganda through Press and Radio:
The Nazi regime needed languages and media with care to propagate against the Jews. Nazi ideas were spread through visual images like films, radio, movies etc. Jews were shown as rats and pests. Various code words were used to eliminate the Jews to protect the government from the world’s reaction.
Explain what role women had in Nazi society. Return to Chapter 1 on the French revolution. Write a paragraph comparing and contrasting the role of women in the two periods.
Role of Women in Nazi Society : Equality of opportunity for both sexes had become an accepted principle by democracy everywhere in the world, but in Nazi Germany, a woman was valuable only as “a mother of pure Nordic (Aryan) children”. She was encouraged to preserve the purity of Aryan race and never to get involved in love affair with a Jew or a Russian or a Pole.
Those held guilty of love making with such persons were paraded with “shaven heads” through the streets. On the other hand, women would take pride in giving birth to as many children as they could. A comparative study of the Role of Women during Nazi Rule and the French Revolution:
- Women played an important role in the French Revolution. They took equal part in social and political developments of their country. On the other hand, the Nazis thought that it was wrong on the part of women to demand their rights.
- Most of the French women had to work for a living along with the men, but German women were not allowed to work along with men.
- In France, both men and women were treated equal, but in Germany, women were considered nothing more than the bearers of the Aryan culture and race.
- French women were free to change their patterns, but there was a code of conduct for the German women. They were not allowed to mix with anyone except Nordic Aryans.
In what ways did the Nazi state seek to establish total control over its people?
The Nazi state seek to establish total control over its people in the following ways:
1. Political control:
Politically Germany was a single-party system where only the Nazi party could wield power. All the other parties had been banned. The state was led by as all powerful leaders. Even the army and the judiciary were controlled by the Nazi party.
2. Economic Control:
The Minister of Economies controlled all financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies. He also exercised rigid control over industries, factories and trading and commercial activities. In order to supply food to soldiers, many articles of food were rationed. Wage rates and prices of all articles of daily use were fixed.
3. Control over Education:
To propagate Nazism, the whole education system was put under the control of the state. School textbooks were rewritten. Racial science was introduced to justify the idea of race. Jewish teachers and Jewish children were thrown out of the school.
4. Control over social and cultural life:
The whole of the media, educational system and sports activities were controlled by the state. Women were declared second class citizens in Germany. Their concern should be their kitchens and giving birth to healthy children. Hundreds of thousands of Germans suffering from hereditary diseases were sterilized and thus prevented from giving birth to weak and unhealthy children.