JAC Board Class 9th Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 6 Population
- The people are important to develop the economy and society. They make resources and use them.
- Population is the pivotal element in social studies. It is the point of reference from which all other elements are observed and from which they derive significance and meaning.
- The census of India provides information regarding the population.
- The three aspects concerned with population are as follows:
- Size and distribution of population. It refers to the total number of people in the country and where they are located.
- Population growth and processes of population change. It refers to how the population has grown and changed in its composition.
- Characteristics or qualities of the population. It refers to age, sex-ratio, literacy levels, occupational structure and health conditions of people.
→ Population Size and Distribution
- Size of population and its distribution can be studied under two heads ‘one is population size and distribution by number and other is population distribution by density.
→ India’s Population Size and Distribution by Number
- India’s population as on March 2011 stood at 1,210.6 million, which accounts for 17.5 per cent of the world population.
- The 2011 census data reveals that Uttar Pradesh with a population size of 199 million people is the most populous state of India. On the other hand, the Himalayan state of Sikkim has a population of just about 0.6 million and Lakshadweep has only 64,429 people.
- Almost half of India’s population lives in just five states: Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh.
- Rajasthan the biggest state in terms of area, but has only 5.5 percent of the total population of India.
→ India’s Population Distribution by Density
- The population density of India in the year 2011 was 382 persons per sq. km. Density varies from 1,102 persons per sq. km in Bihar to only 17 persons per sq. km in Arunachal Pradesh.
- Assam and most of the peninsular states have moderate population density, while the Northern Plains and Kerala have high to very high population density.
→ Population Growth and Processes of Population Change Population Growth
- The change in the number of people of a country or state during a specific period of time is called growth of population. Usually, it is calculated at an interval of 10 years.
- The change can be expressed either in terms of absolute numbers or in terms of annual growth rate.
- India’s population has been steadily increasing from 361 million in 1951 to 1210.6 million in 2011. Since 1981, however, the rate of growth started declining gradually. Still, 182 million people were added to the total population in the 1990s alone.
- If this rate of increase continues, then India will overtake China by 2045 to become the most populous country in the world.
→ Processes of Population Change/Growth
- There are three main processes of change of population: birth rate, death rate migration.
- Till 1980, high birth rates and declining death rates resulted into high population growth.
- After that, due to government efforts and increased awareness, the birth rate also started to decline, resulting in gradual decline in the population growth rate.
- Internal migration does not change the population size, but it changes the population distribution of an area.
- International migration changes the population size of the country as well as the population distribution.
- In India, most migration has taken place from rural to urban areas.
- The urban population has increased from 17.29 per cent of the total population in 1951 to 31.80 per cent in 2011.
→ Age Composition
- The number of people in different age groups in a country is called its age composition.
- The population of a nation is generally grouped into three broad categories: Children (generally below 15 years), Working Age (15-59 years) and Aged (Above 59 years).
- As per census 2011, the age composition in India is: (i) Children (below 15 years 34.4 per cent, (ii) Working age (15-59 years) 58.7 per cent, (iii) Aged (above 59 years) 6.9 per cent.
→ Sex Ratio
- The sex ratio is the number of females per 1000 males in the population. In India, sex ratio has always been unfavourable to females.
- Kerala has a sex ratio of 1084 females per 1000 males, Puducherry has 1038 females per 1000 males, while Delhi has only 866 females per 1000 males and Haryana has just 877 females per 1000 males.
→ Literacy Rate
- The literacy rate in the country as per the census of 2011 is 73 per cent and it is 80.9 per cent for males and 64.6 per cent for females.
→ Occupational Structure
- The distribution of the population according to different types of occupations are referred to as occupational structure. Occupations are generally classified as primary, secondary and tertiary.
- In India, about 64 per cent of the population is engaged only in agriculture. The proportion of population dependent on secondary and tertiary sectors is about 13 and 20 per cent respectively.
- Death rates have declined from per 1000 population in 1951 to 7.2 per 1000 in 2011 and life expectancy at birth has increased from 36.7 years in 1951 to 67.9 years in 2012.
- The level of nutrition and per capita calorie consumption is much below the recommended level.
- Availability of safe drinking water and proper sanitation are major problems in rural areas and they need urgent action. Only one-third of the rural population has these basic amenities.
→ Adolescent Population
- Adolescent population is aged between 10 to 19 years. They comprise about 20% of India’s population.
- Adolescents require more nutrition, but in our country, diet available for them is inadequate. Many adolescent girls suffer from anaemia.
- Awareness about better education, health etc. is essential for adolescents.
→ National Population Policy
- Recognising that the planning of families would improve individual health and welfare, the
- Government of India initiated the comprehensive Family Planning programme in 1952.
- The National Population Policy 2000 is a culmination of years of planned efforts.
- National population policy providing a policy framework for imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age.
→ NPP 2000 and Adolescents
- National population policy (NPP) 2000 provides greater emphasis on the important needs of adolescents, including protection from unwanted pregnancies, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and risk of unprotected sex.
- It focusses on programmes that aim towards encouraging delayed marriage and child bearing, education of adolescents, providing food supplements and nutritional services and strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage etc.
→ Population: A population is the number of organisms of the same species that live in a particular geographic area at the same time with the capability of interbreeding.
→ Resource: A resource is any physical material constituting part of earth that people need and value.
→ Flood: A large amount of matter that has spread from a river, sea etc. that covers an area which sh’ uld be dry.
→ Tsunami: A t inami is a natural disaster which is a series of fast-moving waves in the ocean cause by powerful earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides or simply an asteroid or a m teor crash inside the ocean.
→ Disaster: Disaster is a sudden accident or a natural destruction that causes great damage or loss of life.
→ Census: It is an official enumeration of population conducted periodically after every 10 years.
→ Demography: A study of population statistics.
→ Population Growth: It refers to the change in number of people of a territory during a specific period of time.
→ Birth Rate: It is the number of deaths per 1000 persons in a year.
→ Migration: Movement of people from one place to another.
→ Density of Population: It refers to the number of persons present in per unit area. Internal Migration Migration within a country.
→ International Migration: Migration between the countries.
→ Age composition: It refers to the distribution of the population among different age groups.
→ Sex Ratio: It is defined as the number of females per 1000 males.
→ Literate: A person aged 7 years and above who can read and write.
→ Occupational Structure: It refers to the distribution of population according to different types of occupations.
→ Urbanisation: The process of an increasing concentration of people in towns.
→ Life expectancy: The average number of years one is expected to live.
→ Infant Mortality Rate: It refers to the number of infants dying under one year of age per thousand births in a year.