JAC Board Class 10 Social Science Notes Economics Chapter 1 Development
→ Development has many aspects. Development goal and aspiration for everyone is different.
→ Every person can have different developmental goals. What may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may even be destructive for the other. Two people may have same but conflicting goals.
→ Earning better income, may be the aspiration of many; however people also seek things like equal treatment, freedom, security, and respect of others. They resent discrimination. All these are also important goals. People look for mix of goals.
→ Even the notion of national development could be different for every individual, different person could have different as well as conflicting notions of a country’s development.
→ National development means development for all sections of the society.
→ To compare development of different countries or a state’s per capita income is considered to be one of the most important attribute.. Per capita income is calculated on the basis of total income of the country divided by the total population.
→ In 2006, World Bank in its World Development report classified the countries as devejoped or less developed on the basis of the average income or per capita income of the country. Countries with per capita income of US $ 12,056 per annum and above in 2017, are called rich countries and those with per capita income of US $ 955 or less are called low-income countries. India comes in the category of low middle income countries because its per capita income in 2017 was just US $ 1820 per annum.
→ While average incomes are useful for comparison, but they also hide disparities within the country or a state. Even though the level of income is important, yet it is an inadequate measure of the level of development. Besides income, quality of life, education status, infant mortality rate, health standard, security, freedom and sustainability of environment are some basic criteria, to access development of an area or a region.
→ Human Development Report published by UNDP compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income. It is the people, their health, their well-being, that is most important aspect of human development. The other important aspect is sustainability of development. Sustainable development means to meet the demand of the current generation without compromising on the of the future generation resources.
→ Sustainable development is possible when we judiciously utilize the natural resources (both renewable and non-renewable) without impacting the ecological balance. Sustainability is important to enjoy the benefits of development in future as well.