## JAC Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 1 Development

JAC Class 10th Economics Development InText Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Why do different persons have different notions of development? Which of the following explanations is more important and why?
(a) Because people are different.
(b) Because life situations of persons are different.
Life situations of different persons are different hence have different notions of development. Development goals of a landless farmer are different from prosperous farmer in Punjab. It is because their lifestyle, situations and status are very different from each other. With changing situations the goal of a person also changes.

Question 2.
(a) People have different developmental goals.
(b) People have conflicting developmental goals.
The above mentioned two statements means almost the same, as different persons could have different as well as conflicting developmental goals. For instance, an industrialist may favour construction of dam for electricity generation, while the locals may oppose large dams as this may submerge the land and disrupt the lives of the people.

Question 3.
Give some examples where factors other than income are important aspects of our lives.
Income in one way or the other is an important aspect of our lives; however people also seek things like freedom, equal treatment, security, and respect of others. They resent discrimination. Women desire respect and secure environment to take up diverse jobs or set up businesses. People
also seek political freedom and a healthy pollution free environment.

Question 4.
Explain some of the important ideas of the above section in your own words.
The above section highlights that development goals are different for every individual. Even national goals are different for every individual. Income is an important aspect of everyone’s life however, money or materialistic aspirations are not that every individual desires. People also seek better quality of life, environment, freedom, security, respect from others and equal treatment.

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Question 5.
Look at the picture. What should be the developmental goals for such an area?

The developmental goals of this area should include:

1. Making pucca houses for the occupants of the slums with proper toilet facilities.
2. Availability of basic services like water, electricity and sanitation.
3. Employment opportunites for the people to ensure that they can earn better living environment for themselves.

Question 6.
A vessel dumped 500 tonnes of liquid toxic wastes into open – air dumps in a city and in the surrounding sea. This happened in a city called Abidjan in Ivory Coast, a country in Africa. The fumes from the highly toxic waste caused nausea, skin rashes, fainting, diarrhoea etc. After a month seven persons were dead, twenty in hospital and twenty – six thousand treated for symptoms of poisoning. A multi – national company dealing in petroleum and metals had contracted a local company of the Ivory Coast to dispose the toxic waste from its ship.
(a) Who are the people who benefited and who did not?
(b) What should be the developmental goal for this country?
The local company who was supposed to dispose the waste benefitted as they got the money to dispose the waste from the multinational company.
(a) The people of Abidjan in Ivory Coast were badly impacted due to open – air waste disposal.
(b) The developmental goal would be to make people aware about the causes and effects of pollution. Also provisions should be made for proper waste disposal to avoid similar environmental and health crises.

Question 7.
What can be some of the developmental goals for your village, town or locality?
The developmental goal for our village, town or locality depends on the present situation. However, better farming facilities, employment opportunities and availability of basic services like schools, hospitals, electricity and good connectivity are general goals for a village. Increase in per capita income, better infrastructure, housing and better security are other developmental goals. aspired by people of towns.

Question 8.
Give three examples where an average is used for comparing situations.
Average is used to compare income of two countries. Average is also used to compare the life expectancy level of countries. Average can also be used to study pass percentage of girls and boys in a class or a school.

Question 9.
Why do you think average income is an important criterion for development? Explain.
Average income is an important criterion for development because if a country’s per capita income is high, it can be expected that the living standard of its people will also be better. With better income people can earn better living facilities for themselves and even the country prospers.

Question 10.
Besides size of per capita income, what other property of income is important in comparing two or more societies?
Besides per capita income the other important criterion for comparing two or more societies is the distribution of. income among the people. If the income is well distributed then every individual will benefit and the country or society will prosper. However, if higher – income is enjoyed by selected people then the societies don’t develop.

Question 11.
Suppose records show that the average income in a country has been increasing over a period of time. From this, can we conclude that all sections of the economy have become better? Illustrate your answer with an example.
The rising average income of a country cannot guarantee all sections of the economy to do better. For instance in a country like India though the per capita income is increasing due to improving service sector and manufacturing sector but agriculture and rural economy is yet to develop fully.

Question 12.
From the text, find out the per capita income level of low – income countries as per World Development Reports.
As per World Development Reports countries with per capita income of US $12,056 per annum and above in 2017, are called rich countries and those with per capita income of US$ 955 or less are called low – income countries.

Question 13.
Write a paragraph on your notion of what should India do, or achieve, to become a developed country.
India to become a developed nation need to achieve the following:

1. better economy with higher per capita income and employment opportunity,
2. developed rural economy,
3. better infrastructure in the rural areas as well as in urban areas,
4. education facilities for all,
5. better health facilities,
6. access to basic facilities like food, shelter, clean water for all.
7. last but not the least a healthy clean environment.

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Question 14.
Look at data in Tables 1.3 and 1.4. Is Haryana ahead of Kerala in literacy rate, etc., as it is in terms of per capita income?
Table 1.3. Per Capita Income of Select States

 State Per Capita Income for 2015-16 (in Haryana 1,62,034 Kerala 1,40,190 Bihar 31,454

Table 1.4. Some Comparative Data on Haryana, Kerala and Bihar

 State Infant Mortality Rate per 1,000 live births (2016) Literacy Rate (%) (2011) Net Attendance Ratio (per 100 persons) secondary stage (age 14 and 15 years) 2013 – 2014 Haryana 33 82 61 Kerala 10 94 83 Bihar 38 62 43

Yes, Haryana was ahead of Bihar m literacy rate as well as net attendance ratio for class 1 – 5 as in terms of the per capita income.

Question 15.
Think of other examples where collective provision of goods and services is cheaper than individual provision.
Collective provision of goods and services gets cheaper when production is done at mass scale or services are delivered at large scale. Such as in manufacturing industries if production is done on a large scale then the cost of product can be minimized, if production is done for individual provision then cost of the product can rise. Collective provision of goods and services are meant for public consumption.

Question 16.
Does availability of good health and educational facilities depend only on amount of money spent by the government on these facilities? What other factors could be relevant?
The availability of good health and educational facilities to a large extent depend on the amount of money spent by the government, quality of doctors and teachers are also relevant factors. Qualified good doctors and teachers can scale up the standard of the health and educational sectors. Even contribution of private sector or investment by private sector in this field is also very relevant. Investment by private sector would lead to competition, which ultimate lead to better facilities at reasonable cost.

Question 17.
In Tamil Nadu, 90 percent of the people living in rural areas use a ration shop, whereas in West Bengal only 35 percent of rural people do so. Where would people be better off and why?
Ration shops provide good quality food grains and other items at reasonable rate. Hence, the state, Tamil Nadu in this example with more people availing the facilities will be better off than the people at West Bengal.

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Question 18.
Study Table 1.5 carefully and fill in the blanks in the following paragraphs. For this, you may need to make calculations based on the table.
Table 1.5. Educational Achievement of Rural Population in Uttar Pradesh

 Category Male Female Literacy rate for rural population 76% 54% Literacy rate for rural children in age group 10 – 14 years 90% 87% Percentage of rural children aged 10 – 14 attending school 85% 82%

(a) The literacy rate for all age groups, including young and old, is ……….. for rural males and ………… for rural females. However, it is not just, that these many adults could not attend school but that there are ………… who are currently not in school.

(b) It is clear from the table that ……….. % of rural girls and ………… % of rural boys are not attending Therefore, illiteracy among children in the age group 10-14 is as high as ………… % for rural females and ………… % for rural males.

(c) This high level of illiteracy among …………. age group, even after more than 68 years of our independence, is most disturbing. In many other states also we are nowhere near realisation of the constitutional goal of free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14, which was expected to be achieved by 1960.
(a) The literacy rate for all age groups, including young and old, is 76% for rural males and 54% for rural females. However, it is not just that these many adults could not attend schools but that there are 36% of males and 69% of females who are currently not in school.

(b) It is clear from the table that 69% of rural girls and36% ofruralboys arenot attending schools. Therefore, illiteracy among children in the age group 10 – 14 is as high as 61% for rural females and 32% for rural males.

(c) This high level of illiteracy among 10-14 age group, even after more than 60 years of our independence, is most disturbing. In many other states also we are nowhere near realization of the constitutional goal of free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14, which was expected to be achieved by 1960.

JAC Class 10th Economics Development Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Development of a country can generally be determined by
(a) its per capita income
(b) its average literacy level
(c) health status of its people
(d) all the above
(d) all the above

Question 2.
Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?
(b) Sri Lanka
(c) Nepal
(d) Pakistan
(b) Sri Lanka

Question 3.
Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is ₹ 5000. If the income of three families is ₹ 4000, ₹ 7000 and ₹ 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
(a) ₹ 7500
(b) ₹ 3000
(c) ₹ 2000
(d) ₹ 6000
(d) ₹ 6000

Question 4.
What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?

1. Average income or per capita income is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries.
2. The limitation of this criterion is that it does not consider how the income is distributed among people of the country.
3. This criteria focus on the economic aspect and ignores the other developmental factors such as literacy rate, health status, infant mortality rate etc,. which are important indicators of development.

Question 5.
In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?

1. World Bank in its World Development Report, used per capita income in classifying countries as developed or less developed.
2. As per WDR, countries with per capita income of US $12,056 per annum and above in 2017, are called rich countries and those with per capita income of US$ 955 or less are called low – income countries.
3. The Human Development Report published by UNDP on the other hand compares countries based on the health status of the people, their educational levels and per capita income.

Question 6.
Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.

1. Averages are used to compare different factors or entities. For instance, since countries have different populations, just comparing total income cannot tell us what an average person earns.
2. Averages have many limitations such as an average does not reveal the true picture regarding the distribution of income or distribution pattern of other factors.
3. For example, consider two schools A and B. For easy understanding let’s assumed only female students of class 10th. Based on the data given in the table, let us calculate the average height for both the schools.
 Country Height of Class 10th girls student in (2007) I II III IV V Average School A 120 105 115 100 125 113 School B 90 90 90 90 205 113

Question 7.
Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.

1. Per capita income only highlights the economic factor, however factors like literacy rate, mortality rate and Net Attendance ratio are also important human development factors. In these factors Kerala is better than Haryana.
2. Hence, due to these advantages, Kerala has a better human development ranking than Haryana, in spite of lower per capita income.

Question 8.
Find out present sources of energy used by people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?

1. At present Indian people have more dependency on non-renewable sources of energy like coal, natural oil and gas.
2. With growing awareness and environmental Concerns and India’s agreement in Paris Climatic Convention, the chances are India will be utilizing more of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, geothermal energy etc.

Question 9.
Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?

1. Development is desired by everyone, even developed countries aspire to go up further or at least maintain development for future generation, which is possible with sustainable development.
2. Sustainable development is possible when all natural resources are judiciously used, so that future generation can also get the opportunity to utilize the resources for their development.

Question 10.
“The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person.” How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.

1. The earth has enough resources to meet our needs but often humans for the sake of development over utilizes resources, which can leads to environmental degradation.
2. Thus this is relevant to say that there is enough to meet the need but not greed.
3. For faster or more development humans resorts to activities like excessive utilization of fuels, deforestation, usage of chemicals in the forms of pesticides and fertilizers in farms etc., which leads to environmental degradation and ultimately results in declining development.

Question 11.
List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.
Activities such as deforestation, usage of chemical pesticides and fertilizers, excessive burning of fossil fuels, wastage of water and water pollution etc. are few common environmental degradation factors.

Question 12.
For each of the items given in Table 1.6, find out which country is at the top and which is at the  bottom. Table 1.6. Some Data Regarding India and Its Neighbours for 2017

 Country Gross National Income (GNI) per capita (2011 ppp $) Life expectancy at birth (2017) Mean years of schooling of people aged 25 and above (2017) HDI rank in the world (2018) Sri Lanka 11,326 75.5 10.9 76 India 6,353 68.8 6.4 130 Myanmar 5,567 66.7 4.9 148 Pakistan 5,331 66.6 5.2 150 Nepal 2,471 70.6 4.9 149 Bangladesh 3,677 72.8 5.8 136 Notes: 1. HDI stands for Human Development Index. HDI ranks in above table are out of 189 countries in all. 2. Life expectancy at birth denotes, as the name suggests, average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth. 3. Per Capita Income is calculated in dollars for all countries so that it can be compared. It is also done in a way so that every dollar would buy the same amount of goods and services in any country. Answer: 1. In Per Capita Income: Sri Lanka is at the top and Bangladesh at the bottom. 2. In life expectancy at birth Sri Lanka is at the top and Myanmar is at the bottom. 3. In literacy rate for 15+ years population Sri bottom. Question 13. The following table shows the proportion of adults (aged 15 – 49 years) whose BMI is below normal BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2015 – 16. Look at the table and answer the following questions.  State Male (%) Female (%) Kerala 8.5 10 Karnataka 17 21 Madhya Pradesh 28 28 All States 20 23 (a) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh. (b) Can you guess why around one- fifth of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words. Answer: (a) The nutritional level of the people of Kerala is comparatively higher than Madhya Pradesh for both males and females as. the proportion of undernourished adults is more in Madhya Pradesh. (b) There is enough food in the country but still many around one – fifth people in the country are undernourished because of the following reasons: 1. In most of the states, the Public Distribution System (PDS) does not function properly and the poor people cannot get cheap food items, so they remain undernourished. 2. Due to lack of proper health facilities in many parts of the country people remain backward and poor, and are not able to get nutritious food. #### JAC Class 10 Social Science Solutions ## JAC Class 10 Social Science Important Questions Economics Chapter 1 Development ## JAC Board Class 10th Social Science Important Questions Economics Chapter 1 Development Multiple Choice Questions Question 1. What does ‘HDR’ stand for? (a) Human Development Result (b) Human Development Report (c) Human Deliverable report (d) None of the above Answer: (b) Human Development Report Question 2. What is the most common indicator to measure development? (a) Per Capita Income (b) Infant mortality rate (c) Literacy level (d) Environmental degradation Answer: (a) Per Capita Income Question 3. What per capita income per annum makes a country rich as per WDR 2006? (a) ₹ 4,53,000 (b) ₹ 37,000 (c) ₹ 2,00,000 (d) ₹ 26,000 Answer: (a) ₹ 4,53,000 Question 4. What does IMR stand for? (a) International Mortality Rate (b) International Monetary Report (c) Infant Mortality Rate (d) Infant Mortality Report Answer: (c) Infant Mortality Rate Question 5. What BMI indicates that an adult person is overweight? (a) 25 (b) 18.5 (c) 18 (d) 22 Answer: (a) 25 Question 6. Which organization publishes Human Development Report? (a) World Bank (b) UNDP (c) International Monetary Fund (d) None of the above Answer: (b) UNDP Question 7. Which of the following is a renewable resource? (a) Groundwater (b) Coa (c) Crude oil (d) Nuclear energy Answer: (a) Groundwater Question 8. Which of the following country was ahead of India in both Per capita income and life expectancy at birth in 2004? (a) Myanmar (b) Nepal (c) Sri Lanka (d) Pakistan Answer: (c) Sri Lanka Question 9. ………. is a PDS shop in India. (a) Shoe shop (b) Vegetable shop (c) Chemist shop (d) Ration shop Answer: (d) Ration shop Question 10. Literacy rate measures the proportion of literate population in the ………. and above age group. (a) 7 (b) 10 (c) 14 (d) 6 Answer: (a) 7 Very Short Answer Type Questions Question 1. What could be at least one developmental goal of a landless rural labourer? Answer: One developmental goal of landless rural labourer would be more days of work and better wages. Question 2. What development goals people aspire? Answer: People look at a mix of goals for development. Question 3. What may allow women to take more variety of jobs? Answer: A secure and safe environment may allow more women to take up a variety of jobs. Question 4. What is Infant Mortality Rate? Answer: Infant Mortality Rate (or IMR) indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1000 live children bom in that particular year. Question 5. What is the role of Public Distribution System? Answer: The role of PDS is to make food available at lower cost to the public. Question 6. Which indicators are used to measure development by UNDP? Answer: Human Development Report published by UNDP measures development based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income. Question 7. What is BMI? Answer: BMI stands for Body Mass Index, which calculates the nutrition level of a body. It is calculated by dividing weight of a person by the square of his height. Question 8. In which currency the per capita income of all countries is made? Answer: US Dollar$ is used to calculate the per capita income of all countries.

Question 9.
Mention any two renewable and two non-renewable resources.
Solar energy and wind energy are renewable sources of energy. Thermal energy and nuclear energy are nonrenewable sources of energy.

Question 10.
Why Kerala has low Infant Mortality Rate?
Kerala has a low Infant Mortality Rate because it has adequate provision of basic educational facilities and health facilities.

Question 1.
What is average income?
Average income is also called per capita income. It is the total income of the country divided by its total population.

Question 2.
What could be developmental goal of prosperous farmers from Haryana?
Developmental goals that a prosperous farmer from Haryana aspires could be assured high family income through higher support prices for their crops, through hardworking and cheap labourers. Many also aspire to settle their children abroad.

Question 3.
What is Human Development?
Human development means development of people in such a way that they can lead a happy and good quality life, with proper education, health, security, freedom and income.

Question 4.
Why India comes under low middle – income category as per World Development Report?
India is a low – middle income category country as per WDR because of lower per capita income. India’s per capita income in 2017 was US \$ 1820 per year. Look at the table and answer the question numbers 5 and 6.

 State Per Capita loco me for 2015 – 16 (in ₹) Infant Mortality Rate per 1.000 (2016) Literacy Rate (%) (2011) Haryana 1,62,034 33 61 Kerala 1,40,190 10 83 Bihar 31,454 38 43

Question 5.
Why Haryana with high per capita income (2015-16) than Kerala lags behind Infant Mortality Rate and literacy rate?

1. This is because higher income does not guarantee one to get all the goods and services that one may need to live well. So, income by itself is not a complete adequate indicator of material goods and services that citizens are able to use.
2. For example, money does not guarantee pollution free environment, it may not be able to protect us from infectious diseases, unless the whole of the community takes preventive steps.
3. Money does not ensure that everyone (including girl child) enjoy the right to education, for this the attitude of the community needs to change.
4. Thus, Haiyana even with high per capita income lags behind Kerala in IMR and literacy rate.

Question 6.
What could be the reasons behind higher infant mortality rate in Bihar?
Lack of basic health facilities, under nourishment of kids, gender discrimination with female child getting neglected are few reasons behind high infant mortality rate in the state.

Question 7.
What is sustainable development?

1. Sustainable development means development that guarantees availability of resources for future generation so that they are able to fulfill their needs like us.
2. It is to improve the current level of development or maintain the pace of development in future as well.

Question 8.
What is renewable and non-renewable resources?

1. Renewable resources are the ones, which are replenished by nature such as vegetation, crops, groundwater etc.
2.  Non – renewable resources are the one’s which will get exhausted after use. Such resources do ot get replenished, as have limited stock on the earth. Such as coal, natural oil etc.

Question 9.
What is Net Attendance Ratio?
It’s an indicator to assess the education level of a state, region or a country. Net Attendance Ratio is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.

Question 10.
Why is groundwater under serious threat in India?
Groundwater is under serious threat because of over usages. In states like Punjab and western Utter Pradesh groundwater is used on regular basis for agricultural purposes, even in urban areas or big cities dependency on groundwater is high due to higher demand for water by increasing population.

Question 1.
Why is sustainable development important?

1. Sustainable development is important because even for developed countries to maintain the current level of development or aim to do better, development needs to be sustained.
2. Sustaining development is possible with judicious usage of natural resources especially the non -renewable resources.
3. Development should not be done at the cost of environmental degradation; resources should not be overused so that future generation is able to utilize the resources for their development.
4. The present levels of development are not sustainable. Post industrial revolution and at the current level of industrialization, the natural resources such as fossil fuels, water, forest etc. are getting overused and misused, which is resulting into environmental degradation.
5. Depleting stock of non – renewable resources from the earth would hamper the chances of development for future generation.
6. Hence sustainable development with conservation of nature and natural resources is important.

Question 2.
What would result due to over usage of non-renewable resources?

1. Non – renewable resources are resources, which cannot be replenished by nature.
2. Since industrial revolution non – renewable resources such as coal, crude oil and natural gas have been extensively used for development.
3. Countries all over the world are still dependent on fossil fuels as major sources of energy. The challenge is due to overutilization stock of resources is reducing from the earth.
4. Chances are our future generation may not get to use these resources at all for their development.
5. Though new resources can be discovered, which were not discovered earlier, but overutilization of resources will ultimately exhaust the non – renewable resources.

Question 3.
What is national development?

1. National development is when a country or a nation is able to provide good quality life to its people. Every individual has different goals and aspiration.
2. People’s notion for national development is different. People may have different as well as conflicting notions of a country’s development.
3. A country can mainly develop when it is able to meet the basic requirement of its people without impacting the environment or causing environment degradation.
4. A country can develop not only with higher per capita income but when its people have all the basic facilities like health facilities, education facilities, security, freedom to live, clean environment and ample resources for future.

Question 4.
Compare developed and developing countries? Give example.

 Developed Countries Developing Countries (i) These countries have higher per capita income. (i) They have lower but increasing per capita income. (ii) Living standards of its people are high. (ii) Living standards of all people are not high. (iii) Literacy rate is high due to better educational infrastructure and facilities. Also, due to easy accessibility to education, the literacy rate of these countries is better. (iii) Literacy rate is low due to lack of proper educational infrastructure and facilities for all. Education is not easily accessible to many. (iv) Lower infant mortality rate and high life expectancy due to better health facilities. (iv) High infant mortality rate and low life expectancy due to less health facilities. (v) Developed countries are Australia, USA, Japan etc. (v) Developing countries are India, China etc.

Question 5.
What are public facilities?

1. Public facilities are facilities offered by the government for the people of the country. Better public facilities are indicators of the level of development of the country or state or a region.
2. Public facilities include affordable housing, education and health facilities for all, ensuring access to clean environment and safe drinking water for all preventing health hazards and spread of infectious diseases, better infrastructure for easy and affordable transport etc.
3. Public facilities are required for people to lead an affordable, comfortable and good quality life.
4. Examples of public facilities are rail services, government schools, public transport such as bus, metro etc.

Activity Based Questions

Question 1.
Compare per capita income of the city A and city B. Assuming that both cities have five people, calculate the per capita income and find out which city is better to live in? Monthly income of each person

 City 1 2 3 4 5 Per capita income A 9500 10000 9800 10200 10500 B 1000 1000 1000 1000 46,000