JAC Board Class 7 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 6 Natural Vegetation and Wild Life
→ As their is change in height, the climate also changes and that changes the natural vegetation. The growth of vegetation depends on temperature and moisture. It also depends on factors like slope and thickness of soil.
- From place to place, the type and thickness of natural vegetation varies.
- Natural vegetation is classified in to three broad categories:
- Forests: Grows where temperature and rainfall are plentiful to support a tree cover. Depending upon all these factors, dense and open forests grown.
- Grasslands: Grows in the region of moderate rain.
- Shrubs: Thorny shrurbs and scrubs grows in the dry region.
- Due to the changes of climatic condition occurs mainly because of the type of natural vegetation.
- Tropical Evergreen Forests
- These forests are also known as tropical rainforests. These thick forests are found mainly in the regions- near the equator and close to the tropics. These regions are hot and receive heavy rainfall throughout the year and no particular dry season, thus the trees do not shed their leaves altogether. Hence, they are called evergreen.
- Rosewood, ebony, mahogany are common trees are also known as hardwood trees.
→ Tropical Deciduous Forests
- These are the monsoon forests which are found in the large part of India, northern Australia and in central America. These regions experience seasonal changes and trees shed their leaves in the dry season to conserve water.
- The trees found in these forests are sal, teak, neem and s his ham. These are extremely useful for making furniture, transport and constructional materials.
- The common animals of these regions are tigers, lions, elephants, langoors and monkeys.
→ Temperate Evergreen Forests
- These forests are located in the mid latitudinal coastal region.
- They are found along the eastern margin of the continents, e.g., in southeast USA, South China and in South East Brazil.
- Trees found are oak, pine, eucalyptus, etc. which are both hard and soft wood trees.
→ Temperate Deciduous Forests
- These are found in the north eastern part of USA, China, New Zealand, Chile and in the coastal regions of Western Europe,
- They shed their leaves in the dry season.
- The trees found are oak, ash, beech, etc.
- The animals found are deer, foxes, wolves.
- Birds like pheasants, monals are found here.
→ Mediterranean Vegetation
- The west and south west margins of the continents are different. They have Mediterranean vegetation.
- It is found in the areas around the Mediterranean sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
- This kind of vegetation is also found outside the actual Mediterranean region in California in the USA, south west Africa, South America and South west Australia.
- These regions are having hot dry summers and mild rainy winters.
- Oranges, figs, olives and grapes are citrus fruits which are cultivated here because people have removed the natural vegetation in order to cultivate what they wish to.
- Wildlife is not present here that much.
→ Coniferous Forests
- The important variety of trees in these forests are Chir, pine, cedar.
- Trees are tall, softwood evergreen trees.
- These woods are very useful for making pulp, which is used for manufacturing paper and newsprint.
- Match boxes and packing boxes are also made from softwood.
Two types of grasslands:
- Tropical and
- Temperate Grasslands.
→ Tropical Grasslands
- These grow on either side of the equator and extend till the tropics.
- This vegetation grows in the areas of moderate to low amount of rainfall.
- These can grow very tall, about 3 to 4 metres in height.
- Savannah grasslands of Africa are of this type.
- In tropical grasslands, animals found are elephants, zebras, giraffes, deer, leopards.
→ Temperate Grasslands
- These are found in the midlatitudinal zones and in the interior part of the continents.
- Grass is short and nutritious.
- In the temperate region, the animals which are found are wild buffaloes, bisons, antilopes.
→ Thorny Bushes
- These are found in the dry desert such as tropical deserts which are located in the western margins of the continents.
- The vegetation cover is scarce here because of scanty rain and scorching heat.
→ Tundra Vegetation
- The polar region is extremely cold.
- The growth of natural vegetation is very limited here.
- Only mosses, lichens and very small shrubs are found here.
- It grows during the very short summer. These are known as Tundra type of vegetation.
- They are found in the polar areas of Europe, Asia and North America.
- The animals have thick fur and skin to protect themselves from the cold climatic conditions. Some of the animals are seal, walruses, musk-oxen, Arctic owl, Polar bear and snow foxes.