JAC Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
I. Objective Type Questions
1. It is a system under which the means of production are controlled and managed by the people of the government
2. Suffregated movement means a movement to give women the right to.
(d) None of these.
3. Who was Robert Owen?
(a) A socialist who believed in the idea of cooperatives
(b) A leading English manufacturer
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above.
(c) Both (a) and (b)
4. The majority religion in Russian empire was:
(b) Orthodox Christianity
(b) Orthodox Christianity
5. When was the Russian Social Democratic Workers party founded?
(a) In 1895
(b) In 1840
(c) In 1898
(d) In 1820.
(c) In 1898
II. Very Short Answer Type Questions
What were the views of the liberals regarding universal adult Franchise?
The liberals were opposed to universal adult franchise. They felt that only men owning property should have the right to vote.
Mention the objective of the women’s suffragette movement.
Objective of the women’s suffrange movement was to get the right to vote for women.
Who opposed the ideas of both radicals and liberals?
Conservatives opposed the idea of both liberals and radicals.
By the 19th century, how conservatives wanted a change in the society?
By the 19th century, conservatives wanted a gradual change in society. The believed that the change should be done by respecting the past.
Who was Robert Owen?
Robert Owen was an English manufacturer who started a cooperative community called New Harmony. It was started in Indiana (USA).
Name any two advocates of co-operatives in Russia.
- Robert Owen, and
- Louis Blanc.
Name some major socialists of the 19th century Europe.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were major socialists of the 19 century Europe.
Who was the rular of Russia at the start of the first World War?
Tsar Nicholas II was the ruler of Russia at the start of the First World War.
What was the other name of Commune in Russia?
In Russia, the Commune of farmers was known as Mir.
When was the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party founded?
The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party was founded in 1898.
What was RSDWP?
RSDWP stood for the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party.
How did the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party (RSDWP) enlist support?
The RSDWP enlisted support by setting up a newspaper, mobilising workers and organising strikes.
Name the prominent groups into which the Russian Socialist Democratic Labour Party war divided in 1898.
- Bolsheviks, and
Who led the Bolshevik group in Russia during Russian Revolution?
Vladimir Lenin led the Bolshevik group in Russia during Russian Revolution.
What was the outcome of the 1905 revolution in Russia?
Tsar allowed the creation of Duma- an elected consultative parliament.
By what name, the event ‘Bloody Sunday’ was called later?
The event Bloody Sunday was called as the 1905 Revolution.
After 1905, which elected representative body was formed in Russia?
The elected representative body formed in Russia after 1905 was the Duma.
What kind of members were incorporated in the Duma under the Tsar in Russia?
Conservatives politicians were incorporated members of Duma under the Tsar in Russia.
What was the new name given to the St. Petersburg?
Petrograd was the new name given to the St. Petersburg.
What was called “Russian Steam Roller”?
The Imperial Russian army came to be known as the “Russian Steam Roller”. It was the largest armed force in the world.
Who led the February Revolution that brought down the monarchy in February 1917?
The Petrograd Soviet led the February Revolution that brought down the Monarchy in February, 1917.
Why is International Women’s Day celebrated on February 23rd?
International Women’s Day is celebrated on February 23rd, as a mark of honour, because on this day, in Russia, many women led the way to strikes in factories.
State the three demands of Lenin.
In 1917, Lenin demanded that the war be brought to a close, land be transferred to the peasants and banks be nationalised.
These three demands of Lenin were called Lenin’s ‘April Theses’.
Name the ship which played an important role in the assault of the Winter Palace.
What was ‘Cheka’ in Russia?
The Russian secret poice under Bolshevik rule was referred to by the name ‘Cheka’.
Who succeeded to power after Lenin?
Joseph Stalin succeeded to power after Lenin.
What emergency measure did Stalin introduce?
Stalin introduced collectivisation measure for emergency.
What was ‘Kolkhoz’?
‘Kolkhoz’ was the collective farm in Russia.
Name two Indian reformers who told the importance of Russian Revolution.
- Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru and
- Rabindranath Tagore.
What was the new name given to Bolshevik Party?
Russian Community Party was the new name given to Bolshevik Party.
Who were the ‘Reds’?
The Bolsheviks were called the ‘Reds’.
Who were called ‘Whites’ and ‘Greens’?
The Pro-Tsarists were called ‘Whites’ while the socialist revolutionaries were called ‘Greens’.
Who were ‘Kulaks’?
Rich farmers of Russia were called ‘Kulaks’.
III. Short Answer Type Questions
Distinguish between the ideas of liberals and the radicals.
|1. Liberals argued for a represent¬ative, elected parliamentary government, but did not believe in universal adult franchise.||1. They also argued for a represent¬ative, elected parliamentary government, but believed in universal adult franchise.|
|2. They felt men of property should have the right to vote.||2. They felt all citizens should have the right to vote.|
|3. They were in favour of giving privileges to the rich or the men of property.||3. They opposed the privileges of the rich or the men of property.|
How did the radicals and the liberals wanted to transform the Russian Society?
- They were in favour of industrialisation.
- They firmly believed in the value of individual effort, labour and enterprise.
- They were in favour of the freedom of individuals.
- They were against aristocracy.
Explain the views of different socialists and philosophers regarding the vision of the future or to transform the society.
- Robert Owen, a leading English manufacturer and a socialist, sought to build a co-operative community called the New Harmony in Indiana (USA).
- Louis Blanc of France wanted the government to encourage co-operative and replace the capitalists.
- Karl Marx believed that to free themselves from capitalist exploitation, workers had to construct a radically socialist society, where all the properties were socially controlled. Friedrich Engels, a German revolutionary was also against capitalism.
Explain the ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels about the capitalists.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels gave an apparent idea about how the society should be structured under socialism. They argued that industrial society was capitalist. Capitalists owned the capital invested in factories. They accumulated wealth by the profit produced by the workers. Workers were not getting any profit for their hardwork.
Marx believed that to free workers from capitalists exploitation, workers had to construct a radically socialist society where all property was socially controlled. Both Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels believed that workers would triumph in their conflict with capitalists.
Explain the economic condition of Russia at the beginning of the 20th century.
At the beginning of this century, about 85 percent of the Russian population was agriculturist which was much higher than other European countries. Industry in Russia was developed in some pockets likest. Petersburg and Moscow. Large factories existed along side craft workshop. Many factories were setup in the 1890s. The reason behind it was the extension of the railway network and the increase in foreign investment.
Coal production doubled and iron and steel output quarupled at that time. Most Industries were the private property of industrial government supervised large factories to ensure minimum wages and limited hours of work. But factory inspectors could not prevent rules being broken.
Differentiate between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.
|1. The Bolsheviks were in majority, They wanted to transform Russian society by uprooting the autocratic ruler.||1. The Mensheviks were in minority. They wanted to transform Russian society through education and revolution reforms among the workers.|
|2. This party was disciplined and controlled the number and quality of its members.||2. This party was liberal and open to and all.|
|3. Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the party.||3. Alexander Kerenskii was the leader of the party.|
Explain the term ‘Bloody Sunday”.
On January 9, 1905, a mass of peaceful workers, with their wives and children, was fired at St. Petersburg while on their way to the Winter Palace to present a petition to the Tsar. More than 100 of them were killed and 300 of others were wounded. The events of the Bloody Sunday provoked unprecedented disturbances throughout Russia. Sections of the army and the navy also revolted.
What was the Duma? To what extent was it successful?
The Tsar of Russia allowed the creation of an elected consultative parliament which was known as Duma. Duma had representatives from the third estate. The Tsar dismissed the first Duma within 75 days and reelected second Duma within 3 months. He did not want any questioning of his authority. He changed the voting laws and packed the third Duma with conservative politicians. Thus the Duma was largely unsuccessful.
Describe the condition of Russia during the First World War.
In Russia, the war was intially popular and the policies of Tsar Nicholas II were supported by the people. The First World War on the Eastern front differed from that on the western front. In the west, armies fought from trenches, but in the East, armies moved a good deal and fought battles leaving large casualties.
Russia’s F-my lost badly in Germany and Austria between 1914 and 1916. There were over 7 million casualties by 1917. As the German armies moved forward, the Russian army started leaving land. The situation discredited the Russian Government and the Tsar. The Russian soldiers did not wish to fight such a war.
Describe briefly the effects of the First World War on the Russian economy.
Following were the effects of the First World War on the Russian economy:
- Russia had few industries and the country was cut off from other supplies of industrial goods by German control of the Baltic Sea.
- Industrial equipment disintegrated more rapidly in Russia than elsewhere in Europe. By 1916, railway lines began to break down.
- Able bodied men were sent to fight war. Thus, labour shortages resulted, shutting down industries and small workshops producing essentials. Large supplies of grain were sent to feed the army. For the people in the cities, bread and flour became scarce.
Who was the ruler of Russia during October Revolution? How and why was the provisional government of Kerenskii overthrown by the Bolsheviks?
Alexander Kerenskii was the ruler of Russia during October Revolution.
1. Kerenskii’s government was overthrown because it was unpopular with the people. It failed to meet the demands of the people for peace, land to the tiller, control of industries to workers and equal status to Non-Russian nationalities.
2. It sought to establish political democracy through constitutional means, but the Bolsheviks wanted to establish a socialist state immediately, even if it meant taking recourse to violent means.
3. The Bolsheviks campaigned against the war and for peace, on the basis of no annexations and no indemnities. They successfully staged a coup in October 1917 and overthrew the Provisional Government of Kerenskii.
State any three reasons for the success of socialist economy in post revolution Russia.
Following were the reasons for the success of socialist economy in post revolution Russia.
- The Bolsheviks nationalised industries and banks. A process of centralised planning war introduced. Officials assessed the condition of the economy and made the five year plans on its basis.
- The government fixed all prices to promote industrial growth during the first two five year plans. It led to economic growth and increase in industrial production, with new industrial cities coming into being.
- Stalin introduced a collectivisation programme under which the peasants were forced to cultivate in collective farms (Kolkhoz) and the government fixed the prices of grains sold to it.
IV. Long Answer Type Questions
Describe the ideology of the three power groups present in the Russian society.
Following was the ideology of the three power groups present in the Russian society
- Liberals were one of the groups which looked to change.
- They wanted a representative elected parliamentary government and a well- trained judiciary that was independent of the ruler and officials.
- They opposed religious discrimination and uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They wanted to safeguard the rights of the individuals.
(i) They wanited a government based on the majority of country’s population. They supported 1 universal adult suffrage, including voting right for women.
(ii) Unlike they opposed the privileges granted to rich landowners and wealthy ictory owners.
(iii) They were not against private property, but Opposed the concentration of property in the lands of a few people.
- They opposed liberals and radicals. They generally opposed the idea of change in the 18th century.
- By the 19th century, they accepted that some change was inevitable, but believed that it had to be brought through a gradual process.
- They respected past/old traditions and customs.
How did Russia’s involvement in the First World War contribute to the fall of Russian autocracy and the Revolution of 1917?
Russian involvement in the First World War contributed to the fall of Russian autocracy in the following ways:
- The Tsar took Russia into the war. This proved fatal and brought about the final breakdown of Russian autocracy.
- During the war, Russia lost more than 7 million soldiers. In order to increase the strength of army, farmers and workers were forcibly recruited to the army. So there was discontent among the masses.
- The war led to the destruction of crops, homes and industries. So, over 3 million people became refugees.
- Shortage of production gave birth to an economic crisis. Means of transport and communication were also destroyed in the war.
- There was shortage of workers and food grains in the country. So, the riots at breadshops were common.
- Because of the above reasons, the Russian people were discontent and opposed against Tsar’s autocracy and led the revolution of 1917.
What was October Revolution? Examine the circumstances that led to a civil war in Russia after the October Revolution.
It was the revolution which occured in October 1917. It was led by Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party under the leadership of Lenin. The uprising began on 24 October. Though Prime Minister Kerenskii resisted, the seizure was complete within a day. When the Bolsheviks ordered land redistribution, the Russian army began to break up.
Soldiers and peasants wished to go home for the redistribution and were deserted. Non-Bolshevik socialists, liberals and supporters of autocracy condemned the Bolshevik uprising. Their leaders moved to south Russia and organised troops to fight the Bolsheviks (the Reds). During 1918 and 1919, the ‘Greens’ (Socialist Revolutionaries) and the ‘Whites’ (Pro-Tsarists) controlled most of the Russian empire.
They were backed by French, American, British and Japanese troops. All these forces were worried at the growth of socialism in Russia. Hence, there occurred a civil war amongst all these troops and the Bolsheviks. As a result, looting, banditry and famine became common.
Briefly describe the role of Lenin in Post 1917 Russian reconstruction.
After the civil war ended, Lenin sought to fulfil his priorities to eliminate capitalism and rapidly industrialise Russia through the following ways:
- He organised the economy like an army. On orders from the high command, state appointed managers who operated various functions of the economy.
- The New Economic Policy was implemented, whereby peasants were allowed to keep surplus production after payment of tax. Private trade was allowed to a limited extent.
- While major industries were under government control, small businesses and home industries could be privately owned and operated for profit.
- Foreign capital was encouraged for the development of state industries. This helped revive the Russian economy and in improvement in the conditions of the common people.
- On the political front, Lenin banned differences within the communist party. Those who held a different view from the official party line were either expelled or shot dead.
- Lenin succeeded in destroying the feudal structure of Russia and establishing the World’s first communist state.
Write the impact of the Russian Revolution on Russia.
The impact of the Russian Revolution on Russia was as follows:
1. End of Autocratic Rule and Establishment of a socialist government:
The Revolution put an end to the autocratic monarchy in Russia. With the murder of Tsar Nicholas II and his wife, the Romanov dynasty which was in power for the last three centuries came to an end. The most important result of the Revolution was the establishment of a socialist government in Russia. All the means of production were nationalised.
2. Russia’s Withdrawal from the War:
After the revolution, the Russian government decided to withdraw from the war because of the following reasons:
(a) Most of the revolutionaries thought that the war was being fought to satisfy the imperialistic designs of the Tsar.
(b) Russia lost its 700,000 soldiers.
(c) The new government wanted economic development and modernisation of the country. So it was not possible for them to spend money on war.
3. Industrial Growth and Economic Development:
The new government followed socialism. A new Economic Policy was adopted in 1921. Under this policy, it was decided to develop the economy through Five-year plans. With the growth of industrial and agriculture production, poverty started disappearing and the country moved on to the path of prosperity.
4. Equal Rights to all the Nationalities:
The policy of discrimination towards Non-Russian nationalities was abandoned and equality of all the nationalities in the USSR was recognised. The Non-Russian were given freedom to develop their own languages and cultures. –
5. Emergence of Russia as a World Power:
The new government adopted the policy of economic development which promoted modem technology. It gave a boost to industry and agriculture. Economic and social policies adopted by the government made Russia not only a major power of Europe, but also of the whole world.
Describe the international effects of Russian Revolution.
Write in detail the impact of Russian Revolution on the world.
Impact of the Russian Revolution on the World:
The Russian Revolution affected the world in the following ways:
1. Promotion of Socialism and Communism:
The Russian Revolution helped in the spread of socialism and communism in the world. The communist parties were formed in most countries of the world. Communist government was established in many countries like Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and China.
2. Redefinition of Democracy:
After the Revolution, it was felt that mere political democracy had no meaning without social and economic equality.
3. Right of Workers:
It united the workers of the world on the basis of equality. It also enhanced the prestige of workers.
4. Rise of Nationalism:
It revolutionised the minds of people of Asia and Africa who were being exploited by their imperialist masters. The revolution contributed greatly in weakening the policy of imperialism.
5. Encouraged Struggle Between Capitalists and Workers:
It gave birth to direct struggle between Marxism and Capitalism. It terrified the capitalists of the world so much, that they began to give due attention to the welfare of workers.
6. Division of World and Cold War:
It divided the world into two groups, i.e. Socialists and Capitalists. The rivalry between these two blocs posed a great threat to the world peace for a long time.
7. Economic Planning:
The idea of state playing an active role in regulating the economy and planning the economy, to improve the conditions of the people gained wide acceptance.
Some developments in USSR were not in conformity with the ideals of Socialism. Discuss.
It is true that some developments in USSR were not in conformity with the ideals of socialism. The following points favoured this view:
- The social and economic developments in USSR were accompanied by many serious failures. Within a few years of the Revolution, political power came to be concentrated in the hand of a single man Stalin. Russia became a one-party state.
- Discussion and debate over policies within the ruling party had ceased. Critics within the party were charged withconspiracy against socialism and sent to labour camps or prisons.
- Civil liberties were curbed. A large number of people, many talented professionals were forced to make false confessions under torture and executed.
- Some economic policies of the government brought terrible misery to the people especially peasants.
- Russian revolution led to establishment of totalitarianism and regimentation of life. Life of an individual came to be controlled by the state.
- Dictatorship of the Tsar came to be replaced by tyranny of the State.
On an outline map of world, locate /label/identify the following: Major countries of First World War (Central Powers and Allied Powers)
- Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey (Ottoman Empire)
- Allied Powers: France, England, Russia, America.