## JAC Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of Indian Economy

JAC Class 10th Economics Sectors of Indian Economy InText Questions and Answers

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Question 1.
Complete the table to show how sectors are dependent on each other.  Examples of Economic Activities

 Example What Does This Show? Imagine what would happen if farmers refuse to sell sugarcane to a particular sugar mill. The mill will have to shut down. This is an example of the secondary or industrial sector being dependent on the primary. Imagine what would happen to cotton cultivation if companies decide not to buy from the Indian market and import all cotton they need from other countries. Indian cotton cultivation will become less profitable and the farmers may even go bankrupt, if they cannot quickly switch to other crops. Cotton prices will fall. Farmers buy many goods such as tractors, pumpsets, electricity, pesticides and fertilisers. Imagine what would happen if the price of fertilisers or pumpsets go up Cost of cultivation of the farmers will rise and their profits will be reduced. People working in industrial and service sectors need food. Imagine what would happen if there is a strike by transporters and lorries refuse to take vegetables, milk, etc. from rural areas. Food will become scarce in urban areas whereas farmers will k be unable to sell their products.

 Example What does this show? Imagine what would happen if farmers refuse to sell sugarcane to a particular sugar mill. The mill will have to shut down. This is an example of the secondary or industrial sector being dependent on the primary. Imagine whjit would happen to cotton cultivation if companies decide not to buy from the Indian market and import all cotton they need from other countries. Indian cotton cultivation will become less profitable and the farmers may even go bankrupt, if they cannot quickly switch to other crops. Cotton prices will fall. This situation highlights the dependency of primary sector on secondaiy or industrial sector. Farmers buy many goods such as tractors, pumpsets, electricity, pesticides and fertilizers. Imagine what would happen if the price of fertilizers or pumpsets go up. Cost of cultivation of the v farmers will rise and their profits will be reduced. This is also an example of primary sector dependency on secondary sector and vice a versa. People working in industrial and service sector need food. Imagine what would happen if there is a strike by transporters and lorries refuse to take vegetables, milk, etc. from rural areas. Food will become scarce in urban areas whereas farmers will be unable to sell their products. This is an example of primary sector’s dependency on tertiary sector and rural and urban areas interdependence

Question 2.
Explain the difference between primary, secondary and tertiary sectors using examples other than those mentioned in the text.

• Primary Sector: It includes all the activities in which natural resources are directly used, e.g., quarrying, mining, grazing, etc.
• Secondary Sector: Activities in which natural products are changed into other forms through ways of manufacturing that we associate with industrial activity, e.g., oil refinery, furniture making
• Tertiary Sector: This sector includes activities that provide services. These activities provide support or aid for the development of primary and secondary sector, e.g., banking, transport, insurance, etc.

Question 3.
Classify the following list of occupations under primary, secondary and tertiary sectors:

 Tailor Workers in match factory Basket weaver Moneylender Flower cultivator Gardener Milk vendor Potter Fishermen Bee – keeper Priest Astronaut Courier Call centre employee

 Primary Sector Secondary Sector Tertiary Sector Flower cultivator Workers in match factory Courier Fishermen Basket weaver Moneylender Gardener Potter Astronaut Bee-keeper Tailor Call centre employee Milk rendor

Question 4.
Students in a school are often classified into primary and secondary or junior and senior. What is the criterion that is used? Do you think this is a useful classification? Discuss.
The above mentioned classification is on the basis of the class of the student in which they study. Yes, this is a useful and easy classification to categorize/group students/children. The total number of students in each primary or secondary wing in comparison to the total number of children highlights the literacy level of a country, state or an area.

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Question 5.
What does the history of developed countries indicate about the shifts that have taken place between sectors?
The history of developed countries indicates that at initial stages of development, primary sector was the most important sector of economic activity. With changing time and with new methods of manufacturing many factories came up. Those working in farms began to work in factories in large numbers. Secondary sector eventually became the most important in total production and  employment. In the last 100 years there has been a further shift from the secondary sector to the tertiary sector. The service sector has become the most important sector in terms of total production of the economy.

Question 6.
Correct and arrange the important aspects for calculating GDP from this Jumble. “To count goods and services we add the numbers that are produced. We count all those that were produced in the last five years. Since we shouldn’t leave out anything we add up all these goods and services.”
We count the value of final goods and services produced in a country during a particular year. The sum of production in the three sectors is called the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a country.

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Question 7.
Answer the following questions by looking at the graph:
Graph 1: GDP by Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sectors

Question 8.
Which was the largest producing sector in 1973 – 74?
Primary Sector was the largest producing sector in 1973 – 74.

Question 9.
Vhich is the largest producing sector in 2013 – 14?
Tertiary Sector is the largest producing sector in 2013 – 14.

Question 10.
Can you say which sector has grown the most over forty years?
Tertiary sector has grown the most over the forty years.

Question 11.
What was the GDP of India in 2013 – 14?
The GDP of India in 20 13 – 14 was 5,250,000 Crore Rupees.

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Question 12.
Complete the following table using the data given in Graphs 2 and 3 and answer the question that follows.
Graph 2: share of sectors in GDP%

Graph 3: share of sectors in GDP%

Question 1.
Share of Primary Sector in GDP and Employment

 1972 – 73 1973 – 1974 2011 – 12 2013 – 14 Share in GDP Share in employment

What are the changes that you observe in the primary sector over a span of forty years?
In the span of 40 years the contribution of primary sector in GDP has majorly declined from 40% to 12%, where as its share in employment has declined by a margin from 74% to around 49%.

Question 2.
Choose the correct answer: Underemployment occurs when people
(a) do not want to work
(b) are working in a lazy manner
(c) are working less than what they are capable of doing
(d) are not paid for their work
(c) are Working less than what they are capable of doing.

Question 13.
Compare and contrast the changes in India with the pattern that was observed for developed countries. What kind of changes between sectors were desired but did not happen in India?
In India, like developed countries the primary sector has been major contributor in the country’s GDP in the beginning as can be seen from the table but now both the secondary and tertiary sectors are. increasing at the expense of the primary sector, though the increase in tertiary sector is more. For India to become a developed nation, the secondary sector needed to increase more along with the tertiary sector, but this is not happening due to variety of reasons.

Question 14.
Why should we be worried about underemployment?
Underemployment is a worrying situation because it is disguised unemployment, hidden  unemployment. Unemployment is visible but underemployment is when people work but not to their full potential and earn less leading to poor standard of living, which may lead to poverty.

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Question 15.
Why do you think MG NREGA 2005 is referred to as ‘Right to work’?
MG NREGA is referred to as ‘Right to Work’ because, all those people who are able to, and are in need of work have been guaranteed 100 days of employment in a year by the government. If the government fails to provide employment, it will give unemployment allowances to the people.

Question 16.
Imagine that you are the village head. In that capacity suggest some activities that you think should be taken up under this Act that would also increase the income of people? Discuss.
As a village head, I would suggest the following activities to increase the income of people:

1. Constructing irrigation canals: With better irrigation facility variety of crops can be cultivated throughout the year, which would increase production and income of the farmers.
2. Road construction: Construction of roads will give employment opportunity to construction labourers and will also improve rural connectivity, with easy access to the villages. With improved connectivity the farmers can easily sell their products to the urban market and earn handsomely.
3. Water harvesting: With proper water conservation and harvesting round the year cultivation will become easier for variety of crops.
4. Land can be developed for horticulture, floriculture apart from agriculture etc.

Question 17.
How would income and employment increase if farmers were provided with irrigation and marketing facilities?

1. Irrigation facilities such as new dams, pipelines, canals, etc. could lead to increase in crop production, which can result in better income for the farmers.
2. The construction and maintenance of dams, canals, etc. increases employment opportunity for construction workers.
3. Marketing is an important segment, which can increase income and employment opportunities. For better marketing the important facilities required is better roads and storage facilities.
4. Better roads will help the tempos, small trucks to reach everywhere in the rural area.
5. Proper storage facilities for the crop yields for a long period before selling at better rates.
6. These activities can provide employment to not just farmers but also others such as those in services.

Question 18.
In what ways can employment be increased in urban areas?
Employment in urban areas can be increased by:

1. Increasing skill based training centre. This will give better job opportunity to people.
2. Giving incentives to industries or business to increase their capacity and employ more people.
3. Establishing basic industries which can provide mass employment.

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Question 19.
Look at the following examples. Which of these are unorganized sector activities?
(a) A teacher taking classes in a school
(b) A headload worker carrying a bag of cement on his back in a market
(c) A farmer irrigating her field
(d) A doctor in a hospital treating a patient
(e) A daily wage labourer working under a contractor
(f) A factory worker going to work in a big factory
(g) A handloom weaver working in her house
(b) A headload worker carrying a bag of cement on his back in a market.
(c) A farmer irrigating her field.
(e) A daily wage laborer working under a contractor.
(g) A handloom weaver working in her house. These are all unorganized sector activities.

Question 20.
How would you distinguish between organized and unorganized sectors? Explain in your own words.
OR
Talk to someone who has a regular job in the organized sector and another who works in the unorganized sector. Compare and contrast their working conditions in all aspects.

 Organized Sector Unorganized Sector (i) In organized sector the terms of employment are regular. The enterprises in organized sector are registered by the government and in control of government. (i) The unorganized sector is characterized by small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government. (ii) They work for a fixed number of hours every day. For extra hour of work they get paid overtime. (ii) There are no fixed working hours. No payment is made for the extra hours put in by the workers. (iii) They get paid holidays and weekly off. (iii) They don’t get paid for holidays. No weekly off is given to workers. (iv) They have fixed work. (iv) They do not have fixed work. (v) They get an appointment letter at the time of employment. (i) They don’t get any appointment letter. (vi) The employees get provident fund, L medical benefits, gratuity, etc. (vi) There is no such benefit in unorganized sector.

Question 21.
The table below shows the estimated number of workers in India in the or – ganized and unorganized sectors. Read the table carefully. Fill in the missing data and answer the questions that follow. Workers in Different Sectors (In Millions)

 Sector Organised Unorganised Total Primary 1 232 Secondary 41 74 115 Tertiary 40 82 172 Total 2 Total in Percentage 100%

(a) What is the percentage of people in the unorganised sector in agriculture?
(b) Do you agree that agriculture is an unorganised sector activity? Why?
(c) If we look at the country as a whole, we find that ………… % of the workers in India are in the unorganised sector. Organised sector employment is available to only about ……….. % of the workers in India.

 Sector Organised Unorganised Total Primary 2 240 242 Secondary 9 54 63 Tertiary 17 76 93 Total 28 370 398 Total in Percentage 7% 93% 100%

(a) Assuming all people in the primary sector in the unorganized sector work in agriculture, it is estimated to be 99 %.

(b) Yes, agriculture is an unorganized sector activity because in agriculture sector people face the problem of unemployment as agricultural activities are not fixed for the whole year. Agricultural labourers do not get paid on regular basis because of the seasonal nature of work. Agricultural workers do not get any benefit of provident fund, medical benefits etc.

(c) 93%, 7%.

JAC Class 10th Economics Sectors of Indian Economy Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Fill in the blanks using the correct option given in the bracket:
(i) Employment in the service sector ………… increased to the same extent as production. (has / has not)
has not

(ii) Workers in the sector do not produce goods. (tertiary / agricultural)
tertiary

(iii) Most of the workers in the ……….. sector enjoy job security, (organised / unorganised)
organized

(iv) A ……….. proportion of labourers in Tndia are working in the unorganised sector. (large / small)
large

(v) Cotton is a …………. product and cloth is a ………….. product. (natural/manufactured)
natural, manufactured

(vi) The activities in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors are ………… (independent/interdependent)
(vi) interdependent

Question 2.
(i) The sectors are classified into public and private sector on the basis of:
(a) employment conditions
(b) the nature of economic activity
(c) ownership of enterprises
(d) number of workers employed in the enterprise
(c) ownership of enterprises

(ii) Production of a commodity, mostly through the natural process, is an activity in ………… sector.
(a) primary
(b) secondary
(c) tertiary
(d) information technology
(a) primary

(iii) GDP is the total value of …………. produced during a particular year.
(a) all goods and services
(b) all final goods and services
(c) all intermediate goods and services
(d) all intermediate and final goods and services
(b) all final goods and services

(iv) In terms of GDP the share of tertiary sector in 2013 – 14 is between …………. percent.
(a) 20 to 30
(b) 30 to 40
(c) 50 to 60
(d) 60 to 70
(c) 50 to 60

Question 3.
Match the following:

 Problems faced by farming sector Some possible measures 1. Unirrigated land a. Setting up agro – based mills 2. Low prices for crops b. Cooperative marketing societies 3. Debt burden c. Procurement of food grains by government 4. No job in the off season d. Construction of canals by the government 5. Compelled to sell their grains to the local traders soon after harvest. e. Banks to provide credit with low interest

 Problems faced by farming sector Some possible measures 1. Unirrigated land d. Construction of canals by the government 2. Low prices for crops c. Procurement of food grains by government 3. Debt burden e. Banks to provide credit with low interest 4. No job in the off season a. Setting up agro-based mills 5. Compelled to sell their grains to the local traders soon after harvest. b. Cooperative marketing societies

Question 4.
Find the odd one out and say why.
(a) Tourist guide, dhobi, tailor, potter
(b) Teacher, doctor, vegetable vendor, lawyer
(c) Postman, cobbler, soldier, police constable
(d) MTNL, Indian Railways, Air India, Jet Airways, All India Radio.
(a) Potter, is a secondary activity, rest are tertiary activities.
(b) Vegetable vendor is unskilled activity whereas rest are skilled activities.
(c) Cobbler is an unorganized Sector activity and rest are organized sector.
(d) Jet Airways Airlines is a private sector, rest are public sector job.

Question 5.
A research scholar looked at the working people in the city of Surat and found the following.

 Place of work Nature of employment Percentage of working In offices and factories registered with the government Organised 15 Own shops, office, clinics in market places with formal license 15 People working on the street, construction workers, domestic workers 20 Working in small workshops usually not registered with the government

Complete the table. What is the percentage of workers in the unorganised sector in this city?

 Place of work Nature of employment Percentage of working In offices and factories registered with the government Organised 15 Own shops, office, clinics in market places with formal license Organised 15 People working on the street, construction workers, domestic workers Unorganised 20 Working in small workshops usually not registered with the government Unorganised 50

70% workers are in unorganized sector in this city.

Question 6.
Do you think the classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary is useful? Explain how.

1. Yes, classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary is useful because with these divisions it is easy to collect information about total percentage of people working in each of the sector.
2. The information about percentage of people in each sector will reveal the status of the economy.
3. This information helps in understanding the contribution of each sector in GDP and their role in economic development.
4. This information helps in smooth functioning of economy.

Question 7.
For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter why should one focus on employment and GDP? Could there be other issues which should be examined? Discuss.

1. Employment and GDP shows the economic status of a country, the growth in GDP and higher level of employment are common goals of a country.
2. The information about GDP and employment in each sector also helps us to compare the contribution of each sector in GDP and country’s total employment and thus necessary steps can be taken to improve the country’s economy.
3. Yes, there are other issues which should be examined like improved working condition of the people, proper distribution of wealth, regular employment, public welfare, sustainable development, self-reliance of the country etc.

Question 8.
Make a long list of all kinds of work that you find adults around you doing for a living. In what way can you classify them? Explain your choice.

 Nature of work Sector Nature of activity Banker Organized Tertiary activity Teacher Organized Tertiary activity Maid servant Unorganized Tertiary activity Construction worker Unorganized Secondary activity Gardener Unorganized Primary activity DTC bus driver Organized Tertiary activity

The nature of work can be classified on the basis of sector and nature of activity such as primary, secondary and tertiary. This classification provides information about percentage of employment in each sector.

Question 9.
How is the tertiary sector different from other sectors? Illustrate with a few examples.

1. Tertiary sector is a service sector, the activities in this sector helps in development or smooth functioning of the other two sectors.
2. These activities, do not produce a good but they are an aid or a support for the production process.
3. For example, farmers produce wheat in their fields and need the wheat to be transported by tractor or trucks.
4. Secondary sector or industrial sector need services of transport, banking , insurance etc., which are all activities of tertiary sector.

Question 10.
What do you understand by disguised unemployment? Explain with an example each from the urban and rural areas.

1. Disguised unemployment is underemployment wherein people work but not to their full potential and also get paid very less. It is called disguised because people look employed but are not fully employed. This situation is thus also known as hidden unemployment.
2. For instance, in agricultural sector, in a rural areas, disguised unemployment is very common found, e.g.,
• In a family of five people who only have small agricultural field to work on and all work in the same plot.
• Even if three people stop working in the same plot, there would be no impact on the production output from the plot.
• In this case these three people are disguisedly unemployed.
3. In urban areas if a large family works in a small business then many members will be working as underemployed person.

Question 11.
Distinguish between open unemployment and disguised unemployment.

 Open l ncmplnymenl Disguised Unemployment (i) This kind of unemployment is visible to all. (i) This kind of unemployment is hidden. (ii) Open unemployment is a situation when workers with adequate skills and willingness to work are not getting opportunity to work. (ii) Everyone is working non remains idle, but actually their labour effort gets divided, hence do not get paid appropriately and to their capabilities. (iii) Open unemployment is mainly seen with educated people and in organized sector. (iii) Disguised unemployment is mainly found in unorganized sector.

Question 12.
“Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of Indian economy.” Do you agree? Give reasons in support of your answer.

1. Tertiary sector is playing an important role in the development of Indian economy.
2. The contribution of tertiary sector in the country’s GDP has increased from 1973 to 2003. This is mainly because of increased demands of services by the consumers due to their increasing income.
3. It has replaced the primary sector in its contribution to the country’s GDP. However the percentage of employed people in tertiary sector is lagging behind the primary sector.
4. Once more people get to work in secondary and tertiary sector, the country’s economy would develop along with the country’s development.

Question 13.
Service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. Who are these?
The service sector in India employs two kinds of people:

1. People who are skilled and educated, they may not directly help in the production of goods in the primary or secondary sector but indirectly supports in overall development. Such as doctors, teachers, engineers etc.
2. Others are those who are semi-skilled or not skilled and they directly support in the production of goods, e.g., truck drivers, repair person, tailor etc.

Question 14.
Workers are exploited in the unorganized sector. Do you agree with this view? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Yes, workers get exploited in the unorganized sector.

1. This is mainly because in unorganized sector most of the time no government rules or regulation related to employment is followed.
2. Workers do not get any appointment letter with no terms of employment mentioned.
3. There is no fixed term of employment in unorganized sector with no fixed salary.
4. Employer can remove the worker anytime without any notice. Thus, there is no job security in unorganized sector.
5. Mainly poor people with no other options take up work in unorganized sector.

Question 15.
How are the activities in the economy classified on the basis of employment conditions?
The activities in the economy are classified on the basis of employment as

1. Organized:
The organized sector include those enterprises or places of work where the terms of employment are regular and therefore, people have job security. They are registered by the government and have to follow its rules and regulations. People working in organized sector get all kind of benefits such as provident fund, gratuity, mediclaims, etc. People working in the organized sector get their paid holidays and weekly offs, e.g., teachers in colleges or schools, government employee, etc.

2. Unorganized:
The unorganized sector on the other hand includes enterprises those are not registered by the government. The unorganized sector is characterized by small and scattered units which do not follow rules for employment. No benefits are given to the workers. There is no job security or assurance of work. People working in unorganized sector do not get paid weekly offs or holidays. For example, there are casual construction workers, casual helpers in garages or shops etc.

Question 16.
Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organized and unorganized sectors.

 Organized Sector Unorganized Sector (i) In organized sector the terms of employment are regular. The enterprises in organized sector are registered by the government and in control of government. (i) The unorganized sector is characterized by small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government. (ii) They work for a fixed number of hours every day. For extra hour of work they ge’t paid overtime. (ii) There are no fixed working hours. No payment is made for the extra hours put in by the workers. (iii)They get paid holidays and weekly off. (iii) They don’t get paid for holidays. No weekly off is given to workers. (iv) They have fixed work. (iv) They do not have fixed work. (v) They get an appointment letter at the time of employment. (v) They don’t get any appointment letter. (vi) The employees get provident fund, medical benefits, gratuity, etc. (vi) There is no such benefit in unorganized sector.

Question 17.
Explain the objective of implementing the NREGA 2005.
It is called National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (MGNREGA 2005). Its main objectives are to provide livelihood to all. Those who are able to, and are in need of, work have been guaranteed 100 days of employment in a year by the government. If the government fails in its duty to provide employment, it will give unemployment allowances to the people.

Question 18.
Using,examples from your area compare and contrast that activities and functions of private and public sectors.
private and public sectors.

 private sectors. public sectors. (i) The main aim of this sector is public welfare. (i) The main aim of this sector is maximization of profits. (ii) Public sector enterprises are operated by government rules and regulations. (ii) Private sector is not managed by government terms and rules. (iii) Public sector mainly provide job security 4 even after retirement in the form of pension. (iii) Private sector jobs mainly provide mediclaims, job security, but no pension post retirement.

Question 19.
Discuss and fill the following table giving one example each from your area.

 Well managed organization Badly managed organization Public Sector Private Sector

 Well managed organization Badly managed organization Public Sector Such as MTNL, Railways Air India Private Sector Reliance Industries Kingfisher Airlines

Question 20.
Give a few examples of public sector activities and explain why the government has taken them up.

1. Educational Institute such as Delhi University: The government has taken this up to provide higher education opportunity in various fields to students at reasonable fees.
2. Metro Rhil services: Government has taken this because only the government can invest large sums of money on a project like this and also to provide cheap, comfortable and well-connected transportation within mega cities.
3. Medical facilities such as AIIMS: To provide quality treatment or health related services to patients at reasonable cost.

Question 21.
Explain how public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation.
Public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation in number of ways. It creates employment opportunity. It provides services and goods at moderate cost to all. It also provides opportunities for other small scale, medium scale or cottage, industries to develop. It also results in community development.

Question 22.
The workers in the unorganized sector need protection on the following issues: wages, safety and health. Explain with examples.
The workers in unorganized sector need protection on the issues of wages, safety and health because often the unorganized sector is characterized by small and scattered units where often there is no control of the government and workers are exploited.

1. Wages: Workers often get lower wages and that too not on regular basis. No travel allowances or extra payment is given for overtime or extra hours.
2. Safety: Often the workers in unorganized sector are forced to work under unhealthy and unsafe conditions. Such as construction workers are often at risk of getting injured, however often the casual labourers work in the construction site without any safety tools.
3. Health: The health of unorganized sector workers is often ignored. In unorganized sector there is no fixed working hours. People work for long hours and often at times
in unhygienic working  environment, which affect the health of the workers badly.

Question 23.
A study in Ahmedabad found that out of 15,00,000 workers in the city, 11,00,000 worked in the unorganized sector. The total income of the city in this year (1997 – 1998) was? 60,000 million. Out of this? 32,000 million was generated in the organized sector. Present this data as a table. What kind of ways should be thought of for generating more employment in the city?

 Sectors Workers Income in Organized Employed Million (1997 – 98) Unorganized 4,00,000 32,000 Total 11,00,000 28,000

More employment can be generated by some of the following ways such as:

1. By setting up more industries and developing infrastructure. Setting up industries will not only generate employment but will also support other ancillary industries and will further promote employment.
2. Promote cottage, agricultural product based and local industries to generate employment in rural areas.

Question 24.
The following table gives the GDP in Rupees (Crores) by the three sectors:

 Year Primary Secondary Tertiary 2000 52,000 48,500 1,33,500 2013 8,00,500 10,74,000 38,68,000

(i) Calculate the share of the three sectors in GDP 2000 and 2013.
(ii) Show the data as a bar diagram similar to Graph 2 in the chapter.
(iii) What conclusions can we draw from the bar graph?

(i) Share of three sectors in GDP in 2000:

• Primary Sector:
$$\frac{52,000}{2,34,000}$$ × 100=22.2 %
• Secondary Sector:
$$\frac{48,500}{2,34,000 }$$ × 100=20.7%
• Tertiry Sector:
$$\frac{1,33,500}{2,34,000}$$ × 100=57 \%

(ii) Share of three sectors in GDP in 2013:

• Primary Sector:
$$\frac{8,00,500}{5,742,500}$$ × 100
= 13.9%
• Secondary Sector:
$$\frac{10,74,000}{5,742,000}$$ × 100
= 18.7%
• Tertiary Sector:
$$\frac{38,68,000 }{5,742,500}$$ × 100
= 67.3%
 Year Primary Secondary Tertiary 2000 23 21 57 2013 14 19 68

(iii) We can draw following conclusion looking at the bar diagram such as the graph shows GDP of primary sector has decreased in 13 years from 2000 to 2013.

• Share of secondary sector in GDP has decreased from 2000 – 2013.
• Share of the tertiary sector in GDP has increased substantially in the last 13 years.

This indicates the economy moving away from developing towards developed economy with secondary and tertiary sector getting stronger.

## JAC Board Class 10th Social Science Important Questions Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of Indian Economy

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
NSSO is an organization under:
(a) Ministry of Human Resource Development
(b) Ministry of Foreign Affairs
(c) Ministry of Statistics, Planning and Programme Implementation
(d) Census of India
(c) Ministry of Statistics, Planning and Programme Implementation

Question 2.
Which organization in India conducts the employment and unemployment survey every five years?
(a) Census of India
(b) NSSO
(c) Economic Survey
(d) None of the above
(d) None of these
(b) NSSO

Question 3.
Which sector is also called the service sector?
(a) Primary
(b) Secondary
(c) Tertiary
(d) None of these
(d) None of these
(c) Tertiary

Question 4.
What does ‘GDP’ stand for?
(a) Gross Domestic Product
(b) Gross Debited Product
(c) Goods Direct Production
(d) Gross Direct Production
(d) None of these
(a) Gross Domestic Product

Question 5.
Mark the odd one out.
(a) Forestry
(b) Fishing
(c) Question uarrying
(d) Banking
(d) None of these
(d) None of these

Question 6.
Alabourer working in a construction site is in ………… sector of employment.
(a) Organized
(b) Unorganized
(c) Disguised unemployment
(d) None of the above
(d) None of these
(b) Unorganized

Question 7.
Through which shops Government of India sells wheat and rice at lower rate to consumers?
(a) Ration shops
(b) Departmental stores
(e) Kirana store
(d) Fair price shop
(d) None of these
(a) Ration shops

Question 8.
TISCO is a ……….. sector organization.
(a) Public
(b) Private
(c) NGO
(d) Semi Government
(d) None of these
(b) Private

Question 9.
Ten people working on a small field, is an example of ……….
(a) Full employment
(b) Disguised unemployment
(c) Unemployment
(d) Disguised employment
(d) None of these
(b) Disguised unemployment

Question 10.
Which sector contributed maximum in India’s GDP in 2003?
(a) Primary
(b) Secondary
(c) Tertiary
(d) None of these
(c) Tertiary

Question 1.
Define Economy.
Economy is related with the production, consumption and distribution pattern of goods and services in a region. It shows the status of the region.

Question 2.
What is primary sector activity?
Primary sector activity involves producing goods by directly using natural resources.

Question 3.
Give one example each of primary, secondary and tertiary activities.

• Primary: Forestry.
• Secondary: Furniture making.
• Tertiary: Banking.

Question 4.
Define secondary sector activity.
Secondary sector includes those activities in which natural products are transformed into other products by ways of manufacturing.

Question 5.
What Is tertiary sector?
Tertiary sector activities do not involve direct production of goods like the other two sectors, but these activities support the primary and secondary sector to develop.

Question 6.
Define GDP.
Gross Domestic Product is the final value of goods and services produced in all of the three sectors in a year.

Question 7.
Who calculates GDP in India?
The mammoth task of calculating GDP in India is done by Central government ministry.

Question 8.
Name few basic services that a developing country’s government need to provide to its citizens.
Some basic services that a developing country’s government needs to provide to its citizens are educational institutions, medical facilities, transport, banking etc.

Question 9.
What is the full form of NREGA?
The full form of NREGA is National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.

Question 10.
When was NREGA launched?
NREGA was launched in the year 2005 in India.

Question 1.
Define public sector and what Is its purpose?

1. Public sector includes government organization which are owned, controlled and managed by the government. For example, AIIMS, State Bank of india etc., are public sector organizations.
2. The purpose of public sector organization is to provide services to the people at reasonable costs and with more benefits.

Question 2.
Why the value of final goods and services Is counted in calculating GDP?

1. The value of fmal goods and services is counted to avoid repetition of calculating value of same item more than once.
2. For example, if biscuit is a final goods then its value of Rs. 50 would include the value of wheat, flour, sugar, oil, etc. So if value f all items is considered separately for GDP along with the value of biscuit, which is the final goods then there, will be repetition of values as the cost of biscuit
would already include all the values of the itens.

Question 3.
Why primary sector is called ‘Primary’?
Primary sector is called primary because it provides the base for all other products that are made in the secondary sector. For example, minerals such as iron are natural product produced from exploiting natural resources, which is an activity of the primary sector and when the same iron is processed to make iron rods, then it’s an activity of secondary sector.

Question 4.
Why MGNREGA 2005 is called ‘Right to work’?
MGNREGA 2005 is called right to work, because this Act guarantees 100 days of employment for those who are able to and are in need of work in a year by the government. Also, if the government fails to keep its guarantee, then the government would pay unemployment allowance to the people.

Question 5.
Why government raises money through taxes?
Government raises money through taxes to provide basic services and facilities to its people. With the raised tax money government construct roadways, build infrastructure, provide other services such as education, health, transport and communication etc.

Question 6.
Define private sector and its purpose.
Privatesectorincludesthoseorganizations, which are owned, controlled and managed by private companies or individuals or a family. Such as Reliance Industries, Bajaj Motors etc. The main purpose of these organizations is to earn profit.

Question 7.
What is Economic and Social development?
Economic development is when people are financially in better position with higher per capita income. When people of a country are able to lead a good quality standard of living with a decent income that is economic development.Social development happens when all sections of the society is equally treated and no one is discriminated on the basis of caste or religion. When every individual of a society is able to lead a decent life and are able to reach their full potential is social development.

Question 8.
What does the statement means that ‘workers in agricultural sector are under employed’?
Workers in agricultural sector are under employed means more people are engaged in agricultural work than required, hence the workers are neither able to work to their full potential and nor get paid fully.

Question 9.
What are the three types of sectoral classification of the economy?
The three types of sectoral classification are:

1. On the basis of economic activities: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary.
2. On the basis of ownership: Private and Public sector.
3. On the basis of employment: Organized and unorganized.

Question 10.
What are intermediate goods?
Intermediate goods are partly finished goods, which are further processed or used to produce the final goods.

Question 1.
Whieh sector in India employs maximum workers and why?

1. The secondary and tertiary sectors though contribute majority to India’s GDP; have not yet been able to generate employment like in primary sector.
2. The primary sector in India employs maximum workers because of lack of job opportunities in other sectors.
3. Primary sector activities mainly agriculture, do not require high skills hence attract more people to work. More than half of the working population in India still works in primary sector contributing only a quarter of GDP.
4. Secondary and tertiary sector requires highly skill based and educated workers than the primary sector.
5. Lower level of education or lack of required level of skills thus limits the employment opportunity for many workers.

Question 2.
Why is tertiary sector developing or becoming important in India?
Tertiary sector is becoming important in India because:

1. In a developing country like India the government needs to provide the provision for basic services to its citizens such as health facilities, education facilities, transportation, safe drinking water etc.
2. The development of primary and secondary sector automatically leads to the development of services such as transportation, banking, insurance etc.
3. With rising income demand for various services like shopping tourism, private hospital also increases.
4. Development in the information and technology, the demand for newer services are also increasing.

Question 3.
Explain the historical changes that have taken in different sectors of economy in the developed countries.
The historical pattern of development of different sectors in the developed countries shows that:

1. Even in developed countries primary sector was the most important sector of economic activity.
2. With passage of time and better mechanization and industrialization secondary sector became important.
3. But now in the last 100 years there has been a further shift from secondary to tertiary sector m developed countries. The service sector has become the most important in terms of total production. Most of the working people are also employed in the service sector.

Question 4.
Which are the people who need protection in unorganised sector?
Or
Suggest ways to protect the workers in the unorganized sector.

1. Landless farmers in the rural areas get exploited by their landlords, who make them work on low wages and don’t pay the workers during off season. Even marginal fanners and artisans need protection from low earning or no earning periods.
2. Marginal farmers and artisans can be given monetary support to help them buy good quality seeds or other raw materials. Good quality seeds can grow into good quality crops and farmers can have better productions from their fields.
3. Farmers need to be supported through adequate facility for timely delivery of seeds, agricultural inputs, credit, storage facilities and marketing outlets. Government needs to give job opportunities to the farmers/ workers during off season.
4. In urban areas, construction labourers, small scale industries workers, street vendors, rickshaw pullers etc. can be given monetary supports, so that if wanted they can start with something or some business of their own.
5. Government should frame laws to fix the working hours of workers in unorganized sector and pay extra for overtime.
6. Government needs to ensure decent working condition of the workers.

Question 5.
What are the positives of organized sector?
The positives of the organized sectors are:

1. The organized sector provides job security.
2. Workers have fixed timings and also get paid for over time.
3. Organized sector provides safe working conditions for women.
4. This sector provides facilities, such as banking, paid leaves, summer vacations etc.
5. They get several other benefits from the employers.
6. Organized sector workers are thus better off than unorganized sector workers.

Activity Based Questions

Question 1.
The following table gives the GDP in Rupees (Crores) by the three sectors:

 Year Primary Secondary Tertiary I960 70,000 20,000 10,000 2010 14,000 28,000 55,000

Calculate the share of the primary sector in GDP for 1960 and 2010.